About the Reviewer
Eric Swanson has spent more than 20 years working in various
corporations, including Unilever, Marketing Drive Worldwide, and
CBS News. A graduate of Yale University and the Juilliard School,
he is the author of ten books of fiction and nonfiction, including
The New York Times bestseller, The Joy of Living. A former stage
and film actor, he is currently Associate Director of Great Circle
Productions, Inc., a 501 (c ) (3) nonprofit organization dedicated to
supporting and developing projects in the performing arts, literary
and visual arts, and film/video arts.
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SUBMITTING YOUR PROJECT
1. Conduct research to
a. Define the concept of emotional labor
b. Describe, explain, and discuss perspectives on
emotional labor in general as well as in different
2. Conduct limited field research aimed at assessing
varying understandings and experiences of emotional
labor in at least three work settings
3. Analyze and summarize findings from your field research
4. Prepare a term paper on the topic of emotional labor in
workplace settings, using both your field research and
your background research as you do so
Before you begin, read through this entire procedure. Then,
follow these steps to complete your project:
1. Create your own working definition of emotional labor.
Your definition should include likely effects of emotional
labor, such as fatigue, workplace stress, anxiety, and
alienation. Use your definition to guide your field
research and clarify your thinking prior to beginning
work on your term paper.
2. Use the following sources to conduct background
research. Note: You must use all of these sources for
a. Your textbook, Organizational Behavior,
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To complete this project, you must
b. Online sources
Context Magazine, “Feeling around the World,”
Arlie Hocschild, page 80
Wikipedia: Defining Emotional Labor
“What Is ‘Emotional Labor’?” (feminist view)
c. At least one source of your own from the Internet, a
library source, or elsewhere
3. Prepare a survey for interviewing people in various
work settings. On the survey, leave room for notes you
take during or immediately following your interview with
any subject. Although you may add questions of your
own, include the following questions on your survey:
a. On a scale of 1 to 10, how would you rate your
satisfaction with your job?
b. On a scale of 1 to 10, how would you rate your
satisfaction with your present workplace
c. Are you expected to present yourself in certain ways
to customers (patients, passengers, clients, and so on)?
d. If so, how are you expected to present yourself? To
help the interviewee answer this question, you may
ask one or more of the following questions:
Are you expected to follow a sales script?
Are you expected to “up-sell” special offers?
Are you instructed to always be polite?
Are you expected to encourage and
Are you supposed to smile when you would prefer
to scream or frown?
e. Do you feel stress when you feel one way and have to
pretend you feel another way? Can you give me
f. When you feel some kind of work stress, can you tell
me how you feel about it? (If interviewees need help
answering this question, you may ask, “Does stress
make you feel tired? Frustrated? Amused? Irritable?
4. Follow these guidelines for conducting your research:
a. Interview people in at least three different work
settings. Your subjects might include fast-food workers,
bus or taxi drivers, firefighters, law enforcement
officers, sanitation workers, bank tellers, airline flight
attendants, public school teachers, paramedics, and
social workers—to offer some examples.
b. Interview at least two people from each work setting.
c. To find individuals to interview, begin making contacts
through people you know.
d. During the interview, complete the surveys yourself.
Don’t ask the subjects to fill out the forms.
e. Before beginning an interview, tell each subject that
his or her responses will be anonymous. Indeed, it’s
advisable to create fictitious names for particular work
venues, for the subjects themselves, and for any
persons mentioned by the subjects. Also, inform each
subject that your written report is for a course, and
that it won’t be published anywhere.
f. Allow your respondents to speak freely. Don’t allow
your survey form to keep you from taking notes on
unexpected comments, observations, and information
provided by the subjects. In other words, keep an open
g. Don’t record an interview on any electronic device,
such as a tape recorder, cell phone, or camcorder,
without the express permission of the subject. If you
do record any interview, destroy or delete any such
information upon completion of your research
5. Prepare a five- to eight-page term paper based on your
research. Draft your paper on the basis of your background reading and your field research. Edit and revise
your draft prior to submitting it to your instructor.
1. Prepare your paper for electronic submission in a wordprocessing program.
2. Prepare a title page with the following information:
a. Title: Emotional Labor in the Workplace
b. Your name
c. Your student number
d. Course title: Organizational Behavior
e. Project number: 50048200
f. Current date
3. Double-space your paper, with left and right margins of
1 to 1.25 inches, flush left and ragged right.
4. Provide adequate source citations.
5. Include a header on each page except the title page. In
the header, include your name, student number, and
the page number.
6. Do not plagiarize. The direct usage of materials from any
source without proper and accurate credit is plagiarism.
Be sure to properly attribute direct quotes and
paraphrases. If you plagiarize in any way or to any
degree, your term paper will receive a failing grade.
7. Use the following outline as a suggested guide for the
structure of your paper:
a. Introduction. Summarize your paper. Briefly
describe what the paper is about and how you
went about writing it.
b. Emotional Labor: Psychological Stress in the
Workplace. Describe emotional labor, including
various perspectives on its nature and its
psychological costs. The material for this section
should come mainly from your background
c. Interviews. Explain what you learned from your
interviews. Include anecdotal material to engage
the reader and, to a limited extent, offer your
interpretations and impressions.
d. Summary and conclusion. Discuss your overall
impressions, your view on the causes of emotional
labor, and perhaps, how it might be managed or
8. Submit the final draft of your paper to your instructor.
Your project will be graded on the following criteria:
Presentation style (20 percent). The student uses a
consistent point of view throughout, employs accurate
and appropriate word and concept usage, and has few, if
any, digressions. The paper is easy to read.
Development of concepts and themes (40 percent).
The paper is developed accurately and coherently from
background sources. The Interviews section is
coherently related to the background sources.
Organization of writing (20 percent). The material
proceeds logically, topic sentences are well placed, and
paragraph breaks are appropriate.
Grammar and usage (20 percent). The student uses
complete and grammatically correct sentences with
no spelling errors. Descriptions, explanations, and
assertions are clearly worded.
SUBMITTING YOUR PROJECT
Use this procedure to submit your research project for grading:
1. On your computer, save a revised and corrected version
of your title page and paper.
2. Go to http://www.pennfoster.edu and log in.
3. Go to student portal.
4. Click on Take Exam next to the lesson you’re working on.
5. Enter your email address in the box provided.
(Note: This information is required for online
6. Attach your file as follows:
a. Click on the Browse box.
b. Locate the file you wish to attach.
c. Double-click on the file.
d. Click on Upload File.
7. Click on Submit Files.
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