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Dec 5th, 2013
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Question description

The interest formula shows how interest, rate, and time are related. It gives you a way of finding one of these values if the other three values are known. Even though you try to be careful in your calculations, there will always be that occasion when you make an error and end up with an incorrect answer. You can avoid such errors by first predicting what a reasonable answer might be by estimating. As an example, if you have an 11.2% interest, you could use 11% to estimate what the correct result would be.

Search the internet to find an application of simple interest that you find interesting, that you encounter on a daily basis or that you find in your profession.

  1. How could you avoid an error by using a pre-estimation? Present this application to the class and explain why you choose the example.

  2. In what ways do you use estimating in your everyday life?

Include the URL for the site you used. Do not copy the text in the site verbatim. You should summarize your findings.

  


This week’s Discussion topic comes from BYP11-2 page 547 of your textbook. PepsiCo, Inc. and Coca-Cola Co. Inc. financial statements are in Appendix A and B of your textbook. Use the financials to answer the following questions.

(a) At December 26, 2009, what was PepsiCo’s largest current liability account? What were its total current liabilities? At December 31, 2009, what was Coca-Cola’s largest current liability account? What were its total current liabilities?

(b) Based on information contained in those financial statements, compute the following 2009 values for each company.

      (1) Working capital.

      (2) Current ratio.

(c) What conclusions concerning the relative liquidity of these companies can be drawn from these data?

BYP11-2 page 547

Go to the book’s companion website, www.wiley.com/college/weygandt, to see the completion of this problem.

BROADENING YOUR PERSPECTIVE

Financial Reporting and Analysis

Financial Reporting Problem: PepsiCo, Inc.

BYP11-1

The financial statements of PepsiCo, Inc. and the notes to consolidated financial statements appear inAppendix A.

HERE ARE THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

APPENDIX A: Specimen Financial Statements: PepsiCo, Inc.

The Annual Report

Once each year a corporation communicates to its stockholders and other interested parties by issuing a complete set of audited financial statements. The annual report, as this communication is called, summarizes the financial results of the company’s operations for the year and its plans for the future. Many annual reports are attractive, multicolored, glossy public relations pieces, containing pictures of corporate officers and directors as well as photos and descriptions of new products and new buildings. Yet the basic function of every annual report is to report financial information, almost all of which is a product of the corporation’s accounting system.

The content and organization of corporate annual reports have become fairly standardized. Excluding the public relations part of the report (pictures, products, etc.), the following are the traditional financial portions of the annual report:

  • • Financial Highlights
  • • Letter to the Stockholders
  • • Management’s Discussion and Analysis
  • • Financial Statements
  • • Notes to the Financial Statements
  • • Management’s Responsibility for Financial Reporting
  • • Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
  • • Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
  • • Selected Financial Data

In this appendix we illustrate current financial reporting with a comprehensive set of corporate financial statements that are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and audited by an international independent certified public accounting firm. We are grateful for permission to use the actual financial statements and other accompanying financial information from the annual report of a large, publicly held company, PepsiCo, Inc.

Financial Highlights

Companies usually present the financial highlights section inside the front cover of the annual report or on its first two pages. This section generally reports the total or per share amounts for five to fifteen financial items for the current year and one or more previous years. Financial items from the income statement and the balance sheet that typically are presented are sales, income from continuing operations, net income, net income per share, net cash provided by operating activities, dividends per common share, and the amount of capital expenditures. The financial highlights section from PepsiCo’s Annual Report is shown on page A2.

The financial information herein is reprinted with permission from the PepsiCo, Inc. 2009 Annual Report.

PepsiCo, Inc. and subsidiaries

(in millions except per share data; all per share amounts assume dilution)

2009

2008

Chg(a)

Chg Constant Currency(a)(e)

Summary of Operations

Total net revenue

$43,232

$43,251

−%

5%

Core division operating profit (b)

$  8,647

$  8,499

2%

6%

Core total operating profit (c)

$  7,856

$ 7,848

−%

Core net income attributable to PepsiCo (c)

$  5,846

$ 5,887

(1)%

Core earnings per share (c)

$  3.71

$  3.68

1%

6%

Other Data

Management operating cash flow, excluding certain items (d)

$  5,583

$ 4,831

16%

Net cash provided by operating activities

$  6,796

$ 6,999

(3)%

Capital spending

$  2,128

$ 2,446

(13)%

Common share repurchases

$ −

$ 4,720

n/m 

Dividends paid

$  2,732

$ 2,541

8%

Long-term debt

$  7,400

$ 7,858

(6)%

(a)

Percentage changes are based on unrounded amounts.

(b)

Excludes corporate unallocated expenses, restructuring and impairment charges and PBG and PAS merger costs. See page 91 for a reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measure in accordance with GAAP.

(c)

Excludes restructuring and impairment charges, PBG and PAS merger costs and the net mark-to-market impact of our commodity hedges. See pages 91 and 92 for a reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measure in accordance with GAAP.

(d)

Includes the impact of net capital spending, and excludes the impact of a discretionary pension contribution, cash payments for PBG and PAS merger costs and restructuring-related cash payments. See also “Our Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis. See page 92 for a reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measure in accordance with GAAP.

(e)

Assumes constant currency exchange rates used for translation based on the rates in effect in 2008. See pages 91 and 92 for a reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measure in accordance with GAAP.

PageGo to the specified printed page number

Print Activate the

APPENDIX B: Specimen Financial Statements: The Coca-Cola Company

THE COCA-COLA COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME

Year Ended December 31,

2009

2008

2007

(In millions except per share data)

NET OPERATING REVENUES

Cost of goods sold

$ 30,990

11,088

$ 31,944

11,374

$ 28,857

10,406

GROSS PROFIT

Selling, general and administrative expenses

Other operating charges

19,902

11,358

313

20,570

11,774

350

18,451

10,945

254

OPERATING INCOME

Interest income

Interest expense

Equity income (loss) — net

Other income (loss) — net

8,231

249

355

781

40

8,446

333

438

(874)

39

7,252

236

456

668

219

INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES

Income taxes

8,946

2,040

7,506

1,632

7,919

1,892

CONSOLIDATED NET INCOME

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

6,906

82

5,874

67

6,027

46

NET INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO SHAREOWNERS OF THE COCA-COLA COMPANY

$ 6,824

$ 5,807

$ 5,981

BASIC NET INCOME PER SHARE1

$ 2.95

$ 2.51

$ 2.59

DILUTED NET INCOME PER SHARE1

$ 2.93

$ 2.49

$ 2.57

AVERAGE SHARES OUTSTANDING

Effect of dilutive securities

2,314

15

2,315

21

2,313

18

AVERAGE SHARES OUTSTANDING ASSUMING DILUTION

2,329

2,336

2,331

1

Basic net income per share and diluted net income per share are calculated based on net income attributable to shareowners of The Coca-Cola Company.

Refer to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

PageGo to the specified printed page number

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Instructions

Refer to PepsiCo’s financial statements and answer the following questions about current and contingent liabilities and payroll costs.

  • (a) What were PepsiCo’s total current liabilities at December 26, 2009? What was the increase/decrease in PepsiCo’s total current liabilities from the prior year?
  • (b) In PepsiCo’s Note 2 (“Our Significant Accounting Policies”), the company explains the nature of its contingencies. Under what conditions does PepsiCo recognize (record and report) liabilities for contingencies?
  • (c) What were the components of total current liabilities on December 26, 2009?

Comparative Analysis Problem: PepsiCo, Inc. vs. The Coca-Cola Company

BYP11-2

PepsiCo, Inc.’s financial statements are presented in Appendix A. Financial statements of TheCoca-Cola Company are presented in Appendix B.



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