SFSU Proliferation of Nuclear Capabilities Presentation

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San Francisco State University


Hello, this is an International relations major that requires a presentation of 10 slides.

1- formally discusses the research question (What factors lead to the proliferation of nuclear capabilities in Iran, NK and Israel?),

2- literature you will review,

3- the cases and reasons for the selection of those cases (IRAN< NK< ISRAEL).

** Preparing to present your work in this order (bullet points not long paragraphs):

1. Title Slide

2. Problem/Puzzle

3. Research Question and Argument

4. Literature Review Overview Slide

5. Literature Review detail slide

6. Literature Review detail slide

7. Literature Review detail slide (only if needed)

8. Cases Selected and Justification

9. Next Steps/Way Forward--Wrap up slide

10. References Slide-- Relevant references plus ones used in presentation

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Brinda Earnest IR 550 / Spring 2016 The Problem • • • • • Food is life; you can’t eat money $ 4 Companies = 90% of the global grain trade Global North / 10% of income on food Global South / 80 % of income on food 222 MILLION TONS / 10 Billion people / 1 Billion hungry • Women = 60% global food production BUT 2% of land ownership • “Developlement” or “Maldevelopment”? Question / Argument How have food sovereignty movements in developing countries responded to the global capitalist system and patriarchal development policies? Despite capitalism’s proliferation of deeply imbedded Western hierarchical development, food sovereignty has exemplified the “feminine principle” in reclaiming public land, resource biodiversity and sustainability, equality in access and use to subsistence, and reparation of complex social, ecological, and economic relationships. Mythology & Dualism Kathleen Dean Moore Man / Nature Western Patriarchy Economic Man Development & Hunger Vandana Shiva ECOFEMINISM ➢Capitalism & “Development” ➢Expert / Non-Expert Divide • Patriarchal development – New colonialism • “Feminization” of labor / The Two Spheres – Nature & the feminine as commodity – Monocultures & ecosystem destruction (Merchant, Shiva, Plumwood & Ruether) • Exporting for GDP? (Peter Rossett) • Susceptibility of food markets SUSTAINABILITY Feminine Principles of biodiversity, agency, nurturing stewardship, renewability EAT FOOD. NOT OIL. Methodology • Case of sub-Saharan Africa illustrates the depth of the problem created by capitalist development • Second case of Chipko women illustrates the successful implementation of sovereignty solutions and the feminine principle exemplified in Ecofeminism CASE STUDY #1: Sub-Saharan Africa • AGRA & The “Green Market Revolution” – Capitalist Philanthropy CASE STUDY #2: Chipko & Greenbelt • Former colonies – Combatting deforestry – Female coalitions Future Research • Agroecology • Analysis of the role of green market “solutions” & technology – Productivity based • Commodifying seeds through IPRs? – GMOs and obsession with “growth” – “biotechnology companies are rapidly taking out patents on peasant farmers' drought-resistant varieties that can potentially produce genetically engineered, 'climate-resistant' commercial seeds ” References Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2013). The state of food insecurity in the world 2013: The multiple dimensions of food security. http:// www.fao.org/publications/sofi/en/ Holt-giménez, E. (2008). Out of AGRA: The green revolution returns to africa. Development, 51(4), 464471. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/dev.2008.49 Moore, K. (2008). How Shall I Live My Life? Oakland, California: PM Press Rosset, P. (2003). Food Sovereignty: Global Rallying Cry of Farmer Movements. Institute for Food and Development Policy, 9 (4). Shattuck, A, et al. (2012) We already grow enough food for 10 billion people and still can’t end hunger. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 36 (6). Shiva, V. (1997). Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development. Brooklyn, New York: South End Press. Shobita, J. (1984). Standing up for trees: women’s role in the Chipko movement. Unasylva, 36(4) United Nations Environment Program. (2010). Food Security: Food versus Fuel Debate. Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/climatechange/mitigation/Bioenergy/Issues/FoodSecurity/tabid/29470/ Default.aspx Defector Stories and Its Impacts on International Relations Yevin Cho 3/18/2015 Problem International Migration ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ Sert: There are two types of migration: Voluntary and Involuntary migrations Lee: States that there are various push and pull factors to migration Öberg: Took Lee’s ideas and added hard and soft factors Schmeidl: Just because there are different factors doesn’t mean you can predict movement Research Question Argument How do defector stories affect U.S.North Korean relations? These stories give birth to NGOs and spark new projects for existing NGOs. They work for the North Korean people, which in turn can pave ways for policies that benefit defectors. Literature Review Overview International Migration • Why do people leave their countries? NGOs and its Impact Foreign Policy • Are NGOs relevant when it comes to foreign policy? Strategic Narratives • How do various actors use strategic narratives? NGOs and Impact on Foreign Policy Legitimacy ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ Collingwood asks “who are the legitimate members of contemporary international society and according to which particular rules or norms should they act in order to be perceived as legitimate? Beetham: Legitimate behavior = Rightful behavior Edwards: Legitimacy is the right to be and do something in society Wendt: “Legitimacy” is what states make of it Collingwood and Bull say that even powerful states justify their actions according to an agreed set of rules and norms NGOs and its impact ❖ Simmons: NGOs on the ground make the impossible possible by doing what governments cannot or will not Strategic Narratives ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ Kenneth Burke: A narrative requires an actor, an action, a goal or intention, a scene, and an instrument. Miskimmon, O’Loughlin, and Roselle: Strategic narrative is a representation of a sequence of events and possible solutions Antoniades, Miskimmon, and O’Loughlin: Narratives are at the mercy of those that write and present them. Bal: Narratives are structures of attention and inattention Methodology ❖ ❖ ❖ Defector stories and its impact on the ground and on NGOs NGOs and how it uses these stories to educate and push for policies regarding North Korean defectors Finally, focus on how these stories affect relations Future Research ❖ ❖ ❖ Read defector stories and show how they aided NGOs with their cause Look into how NGOs utilize defector stories Research for a possible comparison study to North Korean defectors References Antoniades, A., Miskimmon, A., & O’Loughlin, B. (2010). Great Power Politics and Strategic Narratives. The Centre for Global Political Economy. Retrieved from https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=cgpe-wp07-antoniadesmiskimmon-oloughlin.pdf&site=359 Bal, M. (1988). Death and Dissymmetry. Chicago: Chicago University Press Beetham, D. (1991). The Legitimation of Power. London: Macmillan. Bull, H. (1977) The Anarchical Society, Basingstoke, U.K.: Palgrave. Collingwood, V. (2006). Non-governmental organisations, power and legitimacy in international society. Review of International Studies 32. 439-454. doi: 10.1017/S0260210506007108 Edwards, M. (2000). NGO Rights and Responsibilities: A New Deal for Global Governance. London: Foreign Policy Centre. Lee, S.E. (1966) A Theory of Migration. Demography (3) (1), 47–57. Retrieved from http://www.cedir.fr/cedir2/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/LEE-A-theory-of-migration.pdf References Miskimmon, A., O’Loughlin, B., & Roselle, L. (2013). Strategic Narratives: Communication Power and the New World Order. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=hK3mAgAAQBAJ&pg=PR6&lpg=PR6&dq=Strategic+Narr atives:+Communication+and+the+New+World+Order,+Alister+Miskimmon,+Ben+O%E2%80 %99Loughlin+and+Laura+Roselle&source=bl&ots=ljYyUiIsNC&sig=OSku4-LU__DrhLhne0diON57e4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jBrVJLZA5HyoATK5oD4AQ&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false Öberg, S., (1996) Spatial and Economic Factors in Future South-North Migration. In W. Lutz (ed.) The Future Population of the World: What Can We Assume Today? 336–57. Schmeidl, S. (1997). Exploring the Causes of Forced Migration: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis, 19711990. Social Science Quarterly 78(2). 284.308. Sert, D. (2010). Explaining Why People Move: Intra and Interdisciplinary Debates about the Causes of International Migration. The International Studies Encyclopedia. doi: 10.1111/b.9781444336597.2010.x Simmons, P. J. (1998). Learning to Live with NGOs. Foreign Policy 112, 82-96. Retrieved from http://ocean.otr.usm.edu/~w416373/PS%20331/Learning%20to%20Live%20with%20NGOs.pdf Searching = Strategic Exploration: A Guided Literature Review Handout 1. What is your topic? 2. What do you know about your topic already? 3. What do you know you need to know about your topic? 4. Where have you looked so far? Be specific. If you used Google or OneSearch where did it take you? 5. What is your current/working research question? 6. Now look above at your question and topic, and identify two concepts that will make up the essence of your search. Select the important words and put them below to build your search Search Term: Search Term: In OneSearch use these words and begin exploring the scope of your topic. Skim the list of results and identify particular terms that come up frequently. What sub-topics come up? Look at the refinements and notice what it shows about all of your results. Now write the various words that come up and identify how they might be useful. Sub-topic Concept term Cases, examples, stories mira@sfsu.edu 2019 Now go to the library database called Academic Search Complete. Do the same to explore terms and contents. Identify SUBJECT terms for articles that are more useful to use in a search. Given what you know so far about the content you’ve explored; did you find what you were looking for? If not, then why? Now, turn to a partner. Zoomers can write their thoughts. Each student has two minutes to describe what they’ve found to the other person. Verbally summarize what you noticed about your results. What was surprising? Expected? Wait to hear instructions after you’ve each done your two minutes…. Now it’s time to make some more sense of the literature on your topic. Subject-specific databases will direct you faster and more clearly to the most important theorists and journals. Now using International Studies Encyclopedia or a similar source, find a literature review on your broad topic. This may take some time to get the right one. Ask the librarian for help if you’re stuck. Who are some influential theorists who considered this topic? (List author names, usually but not always dead white guys). How do you know this? Write the names here. Recurring names Theory Terms Possible Cases Now find an Ebook from the Library using OneSearch or the library database Ebook Central (Proquest) What is the ebook you’ve chosen? Write it here. Make note of the way the Table of Contents is organized. Could this structure help you organize your thoughts or your final paper? mira@sfsu.edu 2019 mira@sfsu.edu 2019
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Factors Which Led to Nuclear
Proliferation in Israel, North
Korea, and Iran


• According to Süvari & Nas (2022)
nuclear proliferation refers to the
spread of:
Nuclear weapons,
Related technology, or even
Fissile materials to nations which do
not possess them already.

• It is a matter of global concern.
There is the increased risk of having
these dangerous weapons falling in the
hands of extremists (Rodman, 2020).

Research Question
What factors led to the proliferation of nuclear
capabilities in Iran, North Korea, and Israel?
Every nation across the world takes measures to
protect itself from enemies, whether foreign or
domestic (Samore, 2018).
Most countries are contented with arming
themselves with conventional weaponry.

Some (like Israel, North Korea, and Iran) argue
that the threats they face are elevated.
Nuclear weapons are perceived as the ultimate
deterrence against the potential enemies
(Samore, 2018).

Overview of the Reasons Why Nations Acquire
Nuclear Weapons
The deterrence theory is based on the
view that foreign enemies will be
dissuaded from using their own nuclear
weapons while engaging in a conflict with
another nuclear armed power (Kim, 2020;
Rodman, 2018).
Indeed, this is the main reason cited by
countries where proliferation has occurred.
However, there are worries that countries
such as Israel and North Korea may use
these weapons even if their adversaries do
not do the same.
In essence, nuclear weapons are also
stockpiled for offensive use.

Nuclear Weapons as the Ultimate Deterrence
McArthur (2021) argues that nuclear
weapons are a deterrence.
▪ Israel is considered to be one of Iran’s main
rivals (Rodman, 2020).
➢ It is believed to possess at least 80 nuclear
warheads (Rodman, 2018).

➢ The leaders of Iran believe that Israel can
use these weapons against their country.

▪ As a deterrence, therefore, Iran has been
seeking to arm itself with the same kind of
devices (Süvari & Nas, 2022).

Nuclear Weapons as the Optimal Defense
Unlike in the 1950s, North Korea may not
defend itself from South Korea in a
conventional warfare (McArthur, 2021).
▪ The economic success of South Korea has
enabled it to improve its defenses
remarkably (Kim, 2020).
▪ North Korea acquired the nuclear capability
to ward off the possibility of an invasion.

▪ According to Samore (2018), it is widely
believed that North Korea would use nuclear
warheads if attacked.

Effectiveness of Nuclear Armament and the Risks
Although it is not known when Israel first armed itself
with a nuclear warhead, it is widely believed that the
milestone was realized by 1967 (Süvari & Nas, 2022).
▪ The Arab neighbors were never deterred,
because there has been several incidences
where all-out wars have been fought (Kim, 2020).
In regards to the kind of deterrence being sought by
Iran, it is worth noting that Iran is yet to be attacked
with a nuclear warhead (Rodman, 2018).
▪ Süvari & Nas (2022) argues that Iran’s quest to
arm itself as such is not justified.

Cases Where Deterrence Has Failed
 The Yom Kippur War broke out in October 1973,
in spite of the fact that Israel already had nuclear
weapons (Rodman, 2020).
 The conventional war was, therefore, not avoided.
 Between the end of the Korean war in 1953 and
the testing of the first nuclear warhead in 2006,
North Korea was never invaded (Rodman, 2020).
 Iran has...

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