TWU Health Disparities Discussion

User Generated


Health Medical

Texas womens university


BOOKS USED IN CLASS (can be used for references)

  • Joel, L. (2018). Advanced practice nursing: Essentials for role development (4th ed.). F. A. Davis Company. ISBN-13: 978-0-8036-6044-1
  • Tracy, M.F., & O'Grady, E.T. (2019). Advanced practice nursing: An integrative approach (6th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN: 978-0-323-44775-1

Discussion board tips for grading

Discussion is a scholarly activity and discussion boards should be treated as such! Postings should be written in a scholarly manner, just as you would a paper. Attention to the mechanics of writing is expected. The use of APA format is also expected in terms of form and citation. You will have difficulty in formatting the post according to APA. Your faculty is aware of that. However, all other aspects of APA should be adhered to.

A scholarly dialogue is expected. You should write your post illustrating your thinking. Communicate your ideas, thoughts, and suggestions to your peers and faculty. Consider both convergent and divergent thinking. These are opposite ways of thinking or perhaps solving a problem. Convergent means you move forward with one solution. Divergent means there are more than one, and perhaps many solutions to a problem. The intent here is to challenge your current thoughts with what you are learning. Challenge the assertions of your peers if they are different from yours.

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Lauren Peer #1 What role should APRNs play in addressing health disparities? Healthcare providers, specifically APRNs, should play an active role in addressing racial health disparities. One way is by focusing on equity of care, rather than equality. Equality is based on giving everyone the same treatment. While equality is admirable and often necessary, equity focuses on making sure that people (specifically people of color) have the specific support they need to gain optimal health. It means making sure that they can afford their medication, getting a good idea of their home life, and assessing for barriers to optimal health that exist in their lives. APRNs should also focus on managing implicit bias in their practice and amongst their employees by participating in training for diversity, equity, inclusion and antiracism. Listening to patients and other healthcare professionals of color is also very important to understanding their experiences with racial discrimination and gathering ideas on how to reduce it in the healthcare environment (Hostetter & Klein, 2021). What impact does implicit bias have in addressing health disparities? Healthcare is also affected by the systemic racial discrimination in the United States. According to Hall et al. (2015), “Most health care providers appear to have implicit bias in terms of positive attitudes toward Whites and negative attitudes toward people of color.” This can be a difficult pill to swallow and is often swept under the rug. However, without acknowledging the existence of implicit bias, the systems that keep the bias in firmly in place cannot be corrected, and healthcare disparities will persist (Hall et al., 2015). References Hostetter, M., Klein, S. (2021). Confronting racism in health care: Moving from proclamations to new practices. The Commonwealth Fund. (Links to an external site.) Hall, W. J., Chapman, M. V., Lee, K. M., Merino, Y. M., Thomas, T. W., Payne, B. K., Eng, E., Day, S. H., & Coyne-Beasley, T. (2015). Implicit racial/ethnic bias among health care professionals and its influence on health care outcomes: A systematic review. American journal of public health, 105(12), e60–e76. Peer 2-Megan 1. The role of healthcare providers, specifically Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs), in addressing health disparities is a very important topic to reflect on. Because many APRNs care for underserved populations, they face issues of access to and distribution of resources which present challenges in their clinical practice. A growing number of patients are uninsured and lack access to routine healthcare, which leads to worse health outcomes from acute and chronic diseases (Tracy & O'Grady, 2019). The structure of nursing practice that restricts the development of ethical judgement includes stereotyping patients and the failure to recognize distinctions in physical and mental circumstances. This type of structure impedes the progression of nursing practice beyond the novice level (Joel, 2018). According to "The Commonwealth Fund" website, there are many strategies that healthcare providers can use in order to combat racism in healthcare and address health disparities. A few of these strategies include reviewing clinical algorithms that erroneously rely on race, investing in scholarships for students of color interested in health professions, and training leadership and staff in diversity, equity, inclusion, and antiracism principles. Amid a pandemic that has taken a toll on communities of color, leaders from several U.S. health systems have named racism as a public health threat and pledged to identify and reverse racist policies and practices in their institutions (The Commonwealth Fund, 2021). 2. Implicit bias can lead to the negative evaluation of a person based off of irrelevant characteristics such as race or gender and tends to happen outside of conscious awareness. Sadly, APRNs exhibit the same levels of implicit bias as the wider population and this has a significant impact on clinician-patient interactions. According to an article by FitzGerald and Hurst, evidence from Implicit Association Tests (IATs) and other studies indicate that biases are likely to influence diagnosis and treatment decisions. All of their included studies and investigative correlations also found a significant relationship between the level of implicit bias and lower quality of care. APRNs need to address the role of implicit biases in disparities in healthcare in order to provide the highest quality of care to their patients (FitzGerald & Hurst, 2017). References: FitzGerald, C., & Hurst, S. (2017). Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. BMC medical ethics, 18(1), 19. (Links to an external site.) Joel, L. (2018). Advanced practice nursing: Essentials for role development (4th ed.). F. A. Davis Company. The Commonwealth Fund. (2021, October 18). Confronting racism in health care: Moving from proclamations to new practices. (Links to an external site.) Tracy, M.F., & O'Grady, E.T. (2019). Advanced practice nursing: An integrative approach (6th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. Peer #3 Latonya What role should APRNs play in addressing health disparities? As an APRN, we are responsible for assuming the role and required action needed to promote health and wellness for each patient, which provides a holistic approach that focuses on the patient as a whole. It is essential to assess the patient physically, emotionally, spiritually, and inquiring about their daily life and environment at home. Additionally, diagnosing, managing patient concerns, and addressing disease processes are also involved. Health disparities are a true burden in healthcare systems that negatively impact population health and well-being. To address these health disparities, full awareness must be obtained. This involves education regarding knowledge sharing and letting people know how severe these systematic issues are, as well as implementing training and high levels of interventions on the different health disparities such as race and ethnicity. As an APRN, it is essential to provide high-quality care and deliver evidence-based care into practice in all culturally diverse populations, which also involve communities that are economically at a disadvantage (Joel, 2018). The Culture Care Theory by Leininger incorporates three major approaches to the delivery of culturally congruent nursing assessment, decision making, and interventions. This framework focuses on delivering care for culturally diverse populations to improve the health of patients, families, and all cultural groups (Joel, 2018). Raising this awareness to the public and all providers will not only improve the health of different populations and cultural groups, but will also further the knowledge professionals have on the severity of the situation. All members of a healthcare team play an essential role in addressing healthcare disparities, we must be able to build trust and rapport within each specific diversely cultured community in order to comprehend different perceptions and gain knowledge in order to provide the best care possible. What impact does implicit bias have in addressing health disparities? Implicit biases involve associations outside conscious awareness that lead to a negative evaluation of a person on the basis of irrelevant characteristics such as race or gender (FitzGerald & Hurst, 2017). It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of their implicit bias, so they don’t allow it to affect the patients they treat and contribute to health disparities. A test that is used to evaluate bias is the Implicit Association Test (IAT) this assessment intended to detect subconscious associations between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory but not likely to predict your future behavior. One of the most powerful things nurses can do to reduce health disparities is to advocate for their patients. This may include advocating for patient rights, appropriate resources, interpreters, distress screening or even cultural-competence training in your workplace (2020). Everyone should be able to receive the optimal level of care regardless of their race, age, gender or socioeconomical status. This inequality of treatment not only leads to decreased trust but can also severely impact someone’s health outcomes. References FitzGerald, C., & Hurst, S. (2017). Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. BMC medical ethics, 18(1), 19. Joel, L. A. (2018). Advanced practice nursing: Essentials for role development (4th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. The Nurse's role in transitioning from health disparity to health equity. Online Programs. (2020, June 11). Retrieved March 8, 2022, from Peer 4 Miranda When an advanced practice registered nurse assumes an advanced practice role, they have an ethical responsibility to resolve issues instead of being bystanders who observe the conflict (Tracy & O'Grady, 2019). A significant problem present in health care is health disparities. APRNs have an ethical responsibility to recognize the health disparities prevalent in their practice area and participate in reducing the inequalities that their patients may face. The nursing code of ethics requires that nurses work to reduce these disparities. APRNs can take on this role by getting involved in policy and legislative changes that reduce health issues among patient populations. Nurses are among the most trusted professionals in America. Using that platform, they could close the gap on disparities and centuries-old injustices (Russell, 2020). APRNs can also address health disparities by spending time with their patients. Face-to-face interaction could guide the APRN in understanding the health problems and medical issues each patient faces. The APRN could then utilize this information to determine what interventions could decrease these disparities, such as education, case management, help with obtaining insurance or medical supplies, or home health referrals. Implicit bias involves forming negative opinions about patients based on irrelevant characteristics such as race, ethnicity, or gender. Health care workers exhibit bias to the same degree as the general population. Implicit bias alters communication among clinicians and patients and can influence diagnoses and treatment plans (FitzGerald & Hurst, 2017). As a result, this can affect how the APRN addresses the health disparities that these patients face. The bias can lead to them not investing as much time with these patients to understand the problems they encounter. It can make the patient sense the prejudice and make them not want to return for follow-up visits, causing an increase in their health problems. Having bias could also alter the types of policy and legislative changes that the APRN strives to obtain and the populations the changes would benefit. References FitzGerald, C., & Hurst, S. (2017). Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: A systematic review. BMC Medical Ethics, 18(1). (Links to an external site.) Russell, N. (2020). America needs nurse practitioners to advocate for social justice. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 16(9), 710–711. (Links to an external site.) Tracy, M. F., & O'Grady, E. T. (2019). Hamric and Hanson's advanced practice nursing: An integrative approach (6th ed.). Saunders.
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Replying to Peer #1
Health disparities also include differences beyond racial health disparities. Although
racial health disparities contribute to a high amount of issues f...

I was having a hard time with this subject, and this was a great help.


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