Seton Hall University How Does Voltaire Develop This Story for Comic Effect Questions

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Seton Hall University

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  1. In his account does Sugita Gempaku have his eye primarily on Japan? Or Europe? Or both?
  2. Were the roles of butchers in anatomical studies the same in Europe and Japan?
  3. Compare the reactions of these Japanese physicians to their established anatomical authorities to those of the European anatomists discussed in this chapter.
  4. What might lie behind this conjecture? How does it relate to some Europeans’ thought about non-Europeans?
  5. How does Voltaire turn the technical theological terms he uses here against the doctrine of the Trinity?
  6. Why would Voltaire choose to mock the Jesuits in this little dialogue? (Hint: See Chapter 14.)
  7. Why would Voltaire introduce the Chinese Emperor in this dialogue? (Hint: See Chapter 14.)
  8. How does Voltaire develop this story for comic effect?
  9. In this dialogue does Voltaire have his eye primarily on Europe? Or China? Or both?

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5:58 X e Enlightenment, 1550-1790: Attempt . The next day, when we arrived at the location ... Ryotaku reached under his kimono to produce a Dutch book and showed it to us. “This is a Dutch book of anatomy called a Tabulae Anatomicae. I bought this a few years ago when I went to Nagasaki, and kept it.” As I examined it, it was the same book I had and was of the same edition. We held each other's hands and exclaimed: "What a coincidence!” Ryotaku continued by saying, “When I went to Nagasaki, I learned and heard,” and opened this book. “These are called long in Dutch, they are the lungs,” he taught us. “This is hart, or the heart.” ... However, they did not look like the heart given in the Chinese medical books, and none of us were sure until we could actually see the dissection. Thereafter we went together to the place that was especially set aside [for] us to observe the dissection. . .. That day, the butcher pointed to this and that organ. After the heart, liver, gall bladder and stomach were identified, he pointed to other parts for which there were no names. “I don't know their names. But I have dissected quite a few bodies from my youthful days. . .. Every time I had a dissection, I pointed out to those physicians many of these parts, but not a single one of them questioned 'What was this,' or 'What was that?”” We compared the body as dissected against the charts both Ryotaku and I had, and could not find a single variance from the charts. The Chinese Book of Medicine says that the lungs are like the eight petals of the lotus flower, with three petals hanging in front, three in back, and two petals forming like two ears. . .. There were no such divisions, and the position and shapes of intestines and gastric organs were all different from those taught by the old theories. The official physicians ... had witnessed dissection seven or eight times. Whenever they witnessed the dissection, they found that the old theories contradicted reality. Each time they were perplexed and could not resolve their doubts. Every time they wrote down what lthev thouoht was strange They wrote in their hooks “The Save for Later Submit 5:58 x signment 7 -The Scientific Revolution a . names. But I have dissected quite a few bodies from my youthful days. ... Every time I had a dissection, I pointed out to those physicians many of these parts, but not a single one of them questioned “What was this,' or 'What was that?”” We compared the body as dissected against the charts both Ryotaku and I had, and could not find a single variance from the charts. The Chinese Book of Medicine says that the lungs are like the eight petals of the lotus flower, with three petals hanging in front, three in back, and two petals forming like two ears. . .. There were no such divisions, and the position and shapes of intestines and gastric organs were all different from those taught by the old theories. The official physicians ... had witnessed dissection seven or eight times. Whenever they witnessed the dissection, they found that the old theories contradicted reality. Each time they were perplexed and could not resolve their doubts. Every time they wrote down what they thought was strange. They wrote in their books, “The more we think of it, there must be fundamental differences in the bodies of Chinese and of the eastern barbarians [i.e. Japanese].” I could see why they wrote this way.... We decided that we should also examine the shape of the skeletons left exposed on the execution ground. We collected the bones, and examined a number of them. Again, we were struck by the fact that they all differed from the old theories while conforming to the Dutch charts.... Voltaire Attacks Christianity Voltaire wanted to present the ideas of the Enlightenment to a large reading public. He therefore polished a literary style that sparkled with wit and was laced with biting satire and moral outrage. The two pieces presented below illustrate Voltaire's attack on traditional Christianity, “the infamous winn" The لهم ماه:1ا۔ thnthan Save for Later Submit 5:58 x fic Revolution and the Enlightenment, 1 1 Chapter 17 – The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, 1550-1790 ACTIVITIES FOR ANALYZE AND COMPARE: Enlightenment Attitudes About Tradition A Dutch Lesson in Anatomy, Sugita Gempaku a Sugita Gempaku (su-ghee-ta Ghem-pah-koo) (1733–1817) was a Japanese scholar and a pioneer in Dutch studies, a field that allowed Japanese scholars to gain information about the West. Trained as a physician and surgeon, Sugita Gempaku was present at a dissection of a cadaver in 1771. Here is his account of the events that led up to the dissection and his reactions to it: a Somehow, miraculously I obtained a [Dutch] book on anatomy. [Then] I received a letter from ... the Town Commissioner: “A post-mortem examination of the body of a condemned criminal by a resident physician will be held tomorrow. . .. You are welcome to witness it if you so desire.” a The next day, when we arrived at the location ... Ryotaku reached under his kimono to produce a Dutch book and showed it to us. “This is a Dutch book of anatomy called Tabulae Anatomicae. I bought this a few years ago when I went to Nagasaki, and kept it.” As I examined it, it was the same book I had and was of the same edition. We held each other's hands and exclaimed: “What a coincidence!” Ryotaku continued by saying, “When I went to Nagasaki, I learned and heard,” and opened this book. “These are called long in Dutch, they are the lungs,” he taught us. “This is hart, or the heart.”... However, they did not look like the heart given in ” Ithe Chinese medical books and none of us were sure until we Save for Later Submit
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Explanation & Answer

View attached explanation and answer. Let me know if you have any questions.Done! I have successfully completed your work. I am very happy to tell you that I covered all 9 questions correctly, to give you the best possible work :)I would be very grateful if you could review it and let me know if you have any questions, I will be here to support you at all times. Likewise, if you think everything is in order, we can finish the assignment without any problem, I look forward to hearing from you!😎

1. In his account does Sugita Gempaku have his eye primarily on Japan? Or
Europe? Or both?
In his account, Sugita Gempaku has his eye on both Japan and Europe, because he
mainly devoted himself to Dutch study, but with the aim of enabling Japanese scholars
to obtain information about the West.
2. Were the roles of butchers in anatomical studies the same in Europe and
Japan?
No, because the Chinese medical book contained completely different points regarding
the characterist...


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