Water Pollution Discussion

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please write a research paper for 10 pages. Use some research paper and paraphrase. I give two files that should you follow my professor and an example of this essay to refer but you shouldn't copy. This is my topic that I choose and you have to write an essay "Water Pollution."


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Le 1 of 14 Tuyet Le Professor James Maughn English 1A Oct 17, 2020 Water Pollution Almost 71 % of the earth’s surface is covered with water. However, water resources are not unlimited. In fact, 97% of water is in the ocean which is not drinkable and not suitable to grow crops. The amount of freshwater can be used for living is only 3% (USGS). According to the paper “Water Pollution” by Cunningham, Odle and Heimer, the freshwater resource is very essential to people across the world and it is so limit. In the Philippines, sixty to seventy percents of the drinking water sources come from Manila's Pasig River. Thousands of people use the river no longer solely for bathing and washing clothes, but additionally as their source of consuming and cooking water. In China, only 63% of groundwater assets can be used as drinking water due to excessive pollution level, rendering them unsuitable for human consumption. Even in the developed countries, such as the USA, the country also faces the water pollution problem. For example, in 2016 the city of Flint in Michigan had a water crisis that affected people's health due to lead-contaminated water because the supply pipes were corroded. Nowadays around the world fresh water sources are seriously polluted such as in Asia, Europe, and America’s countries. In the Middle East and some African countries, water resources become scarce (Lonergan). According to scientists, water pollution is a phenomenon where water resources such as rivers, lakes, seas, underground water, etc. are contaminated by human activities such as domestic wastewater, industrial wastes, and Le 2 of 14 agricultural runoff those in untreated “Water Pollution”. Water pollution is not only harmfully changing the quality of human life but also destroying the habitat of many species in the world. Therefore, water resources need to be protected and conserved by individuals, agencies, and governments. According to my research, there are many causes of water pollution. Domestic wastewater is the first causing problem in water pollution. Wastewater comes from demands for daily life such as daily meals, sanitation, etc. Domestic wastewater at households, schools, hospitals in rural areas to the city is not being handled properly. It is often dumped directly into drains, canals, ponds, and lakes. This wastewater is deprived of oxygen, so it makes difficult for animals and plants to survive. Industrial wastewater is the second causing problem in water pollution. Industrial wastewater comes from factories, export processing zones, and industrial production. Industrial wastewater has different components. It depends on the manufacturing industry. For example, if the industry is a food producer, the composition of the wastewater will contain many organic substances. If the industry is a fabric producer, the wastewater component will contain chemicals such as lead, chromium, and mercury. Modern industrial wastewater is extremely hazardous, but many industrial production facilities do not have proper treatment before letting it out. Because of that this contaminated wastewater dangerously affects the environment, ecosystems, and especially human health. For instance, in AnaMaria Clobotaru’s article “Influence of Human Activities on Water Quality of Rivers and Ground Waters from Braila County”, the author states that in Braila county (Romania), water pollution was due to the result of releasing untreated wastewater into the river, done by a series of public and private companies. The situation became worse over time Le 3 of 14 as citizens in Braila county did not realize the consequences of releasing untreated water into river (Clobotaru). As a result, many fish and aquatic animals die in the rivers. The pollution also heavily impacts terrestrial animals and trees that live nearby the rivers. In the journal, “Human Impacts on The Marine Environment of Queensland, Australia”, Kathy Townsend shows that marine animals in the Queensland seas are subjected to danger of extinction, resulted from the unsustainable urban development in the local wetland (Townsend). Such human impacts soon become “The New Nature” as the term refers to the landscape and condition of the ecological environment altered by human activities (Purdy). Agricultural wastewater (crop and livestock production) is finally causing problems in water pollution. Cultivation activities which use pesticides and chemical fertilizers can pollute surface and groundwater. When pesticides are sprayed on crops to protect them from diseases and harmful insects, they are usually washed below the surface by rains where reach underground water-bearing aquifers, thus contaminating underground water. Fertilizers are also washed below the surface, and when they meet underground water bodies, they spoil them (Pearson et al). A recent study in rural Brazil found high nitrates concentration around farms and underground water sources such as wells. Also, water pollution by agrochemicals is harmful to marine life. When agrochemicals such as pesticides and fungicides are used to improve agricultural output, they might be washed into water bodies by rains and floods. Agrochemicals are made up of toxic substances, which, when washed into water bodies, change the state of the water bodies. Wongsanit and his colleagues argue that agrochemicals change the physical, biological, and chemical states of water bodies, thereby making them toxic to marine life. A study carried out in the Philippines by the National Economic and Development Le 4 of 14 Authority (NEDA) found residues of organochlorides and organophosphates in water bodies around farmlands in the Philippines (Wongsanit et al). In addition, in the process of raising cattle such as feces, urine, or leftovers of animals are not treated, it also causes the water environment to become polluted. Water pollution is not only potentially harmful changing the quality of human life but also destroying the habitat of many species in the world. One negative effect of water pollution is that people who consume polluted water are easy to get digestive problems such as diarrhea and have a high risk of cancer. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), each year there are about 2 million people killed by gastrointestinal infections, and more than 1 billion people have diarrhea. Gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea are caused by people using polluted water. Most of them live in poor communities with polluted water environment especially in the developing countries. People who do not have clean water for drinking, cooking, and sanitation will easily get intestinal diseases and diarrhea caused by bacteria and viruses in dirty water “Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment”. One thing to worry about nowadays is the extremely high rate of people suffering from cancers. According to many scientific studies from the Environmental Working Group (EWG) in Washington, DC, sources contaminated with heavy metals are highly toxic such as mercury, lead, and arsenic have an extremely high incidence of cancer, skin cancer. For example, even a very small amount of arsenic 0.1 mg/l can affect the human circulatory system. Besides, disinfection byproducts and nitrate can also cause cancers. In many agricultural areas of the country, nitrate is abundant in drinking water. People who drink water or eat meat that have high amount of nitrate can increase risk of cancer to stomach, esophagus, bladder, brain, Le 5 of 14 colon, rectum, pancreas, and kidney (Paddock). Another negative effect of water pollution is impact on wildlife animals and plants. First, the discharge current of domestic and industrial wastewater into nearby streams, rivers, and lakes is the main reason that alters many species living there. The polluted water can be toxic or do not have enough oxygen level so that many habitats of species can survive. We observe a lot of dead fish, shrimp, and aquatic species around these polluted beaches and ponds. Water is the house of many habitats of aquatic species when the water is heavily polluted, they will not be able to grow or will even be poisoned and then die. Additionally, if fish poisoned by polluted water are consumed by humans, they will also seriously affect human health. Second, chemical drugs, fertilizers, and pesticides are used excessively during agricultural production. These agricultural chemicals will seep into the soil and gradually pollute the underground water. This is also the cause of a series of trees that cannot grow and die. Various species are at risk of extinction. For example, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill into oceans, more than 100,000 sea birds, 1,000 sea otters, and 144 bald eagles died. Many other animals and plants are not died immediately, but their healths are also affected by the oil spill such as reduced reproduction (Armstrong). In the current situation of water pollution, individuals, agencies, and governments need to work together to protect and reduce the pollution rate of water sources to ensure clean water for themselves and their loved ones. The first solution is that each individual needs to reduce wastewater. So, what can individuals do to conserve water? According to experts at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), individuals can do the following to help reduce water pollution. First, everyone needs to save clean water by avoiding wasting when Le 6 of 14 using domestic water. We should periodically check for family water leaks. We should not use toilets like ashtrays or trash because it uses about 3 to 6 liters of water every time we flush. We should turn off the faucet while brushing teeth or applying soap in the shower because it can save about 5 liters of water in a minute. We should only use the dishwasher or washing machine when having full load (Pollution Prevention Tips for Water Conservation). If each individual reduces clean water consumption, we will help more people have access to clean water. Second, each individual needs to keep the source of water from being polluted by daily activities. For instance, during cooking you should not dump oil, fat, or grease into the sink. Oil and fat need to be stored in a jar, and waste collection service collects the fat when it is full. Household chemicals, cleaning agents, liquid or powder medications, drugs, etc. should not be flushed down the sink or toilet. Herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers need to be restricted from the usage or replaced with organic chemicals. We need to limit the use of plastic bags; instead, we should use paper made or environment friendly bags (Pollution Prevention Tips for Water Conservation). If we do the above, we can contribute to the effort of limiting water pollution. This solution is very practical and easy approach that everyone can do in daily activities. However, we should raise awareness in our community about how severe the water pollution problem is and how terrible it is impacting our environment nowadays. For example, I often remind my sons to save water, do not litter, and ask them to help me sort out the garbage because I want my children to be aware of the environment from an early age. If everyone makes a small help daily, together we can change the world. Le 7 of 14 The second solution is that agencies need to reduce wastewater. Agricultural production organizations should address agrichemical water contamination by encouraging farmers adopt farming methods that do not require the use of excessive agrochemicals. One of the farming methods that can be used is permaculture, which is a production system that allows plants to grow in a natural ecosystem (Mariyono et al). An example of permaculture involves the growing of vegetables and grains without tillage, which leads to a reduction in the use of fertilizers and other harmful agrochemicals (Mariyono et al). Another environment-friendly farming method that can be adopted are aquaponics and hydroponics. Aquaponics and hydroponics are the soilless plant and vegetable growth, where crops are fed with nutrients carried by the water, which eliminates the need of using agrochemicals to supplement plant nutrients. Environmentfriendly farming products should be promoted to farmers to use for their crops. Instead of using pesticides, farmers can adopt other alternatives such as traps, barriers, and other physical controls that do not harm the environment. For example, farmers can use sticky barriers which can effectively prevent ants from causing harm to the crops. Products such as Safer Bio Neem and Azatin are effective in fighting Aphids, mites, and whiteflies, and they are made from environmentally friendly products like clarified hydrophobic neem oil (Mariyono et al). Additionally, the use of environment-friendly agrichemicals is one the most effective methods. Using environment-friendly fertilizers and chemicals is a preventive measure that ensures that there is no water pollution due to the use of agrichemicals in farms. These above methods are effective because apart from minimizing water pollution, they also protect farmers from the effects that result from handling toxic agrichemicals. Switching to environment-friendly farming methods such Le 8 of 14 as aquaponics and hydroponics results in higher yields and better use of resources such as water and soil (Majsztrik et al). Despite the advantages of using environment-friendly agrichemicals and farming practices as methods of controlling water pollution, there are various disadvantages that can be realized from their implementation. Environmentfriendly agrichemicals are more expensive to acquire thus making more farmers shy away from using them in their farms (Da Rosa et al). Farm practices such as permaculture are costly, and they require specialized skills if they are to be used as a substitute for normal farming practices. According to the USDA Nature Conservation Service, the application of permaculture can cost $2.4 billion (Shortle et al). Also, environment-friendly farming practices require the acquisition of specialized tools such as water pumps and reservoir tanks. The cost that comes with the use of environment-friendly prevents many farmers from applying to controlling water pollution by agrichemicals. To encourage the use of non-toxic agrichemicals and environment-friendly farming practices, governments and the relevant environmental bodies should invest in science and research so that affordable and safe agrichemicals can be used by farmers. Researchers should also come up with safe farming methods that do not require a lot of resources. The new farming methods should also require little technical expertise so that farmers can adopt them without any challenge. The third solution is at macro scale that requires governments to invest in programs to help people realize the importance of protecting water resources and make laws to control pollution violations. According to Woodford, a professor of science and technology, there are two ways that the government can help to tackle the water pollution issue. First, the government can through education help people realize how severe the Le 9 of 14 water pollution problem is and how terrible it is impacting our living environment nowadays. We should teach our children to love nature, wildlife and environment so that they are aware of protecting the environment since they are in school. When people are aware of the problem, it is easier to solve it. When more people are aware of the importance of protecting water resources, it will make a huge positive difference. Second, the government can make laws to prevent individuals and organizations that violate environmental pollution. Each country has its own laws to protect water resources. For example, the US government has enacted a number of laws regulating water resources such as the Clean Water Act of 1972 or most recently the Financial and Upgrading Infrastructure Act. Water supply was approved by the US Congress in 2014 (Woodford). This solution requires each country's governments to proactively act to protect the water resource. However, not every country is taking this seriously, especially the poor and developing countries. They are putting their economic development over environmental conservation. According to Melissa Denchak, about 95% of the wastewater is untreated, and it directs into the river in less developed countries because environmental protection organizations do not really have power (Denchak). Another issue is that laws made to control water pollution violation often have holes for individuals or organizations to take advantage. Governments need to build a strong enough environmental protection task force to proactively prevent and have capability to handle severe polluting disasters. In particular, the problem of water pollution is transnational because many rivers or seas cross many different countries, so it is difficult to uniformly handle the problem across the countries. Le 10 of 14 In conclusion, the water pollution problem is becoming more and more severe all over the world nowadays. Water pollution is not only harmfully impacting the quality of human life but also destroying the habitat of many species in the world. Each of the three solutions above has different scales and approaches to tackle the water pollution problem. Individuals, agencies, and governments need to work together on the same goal to save our living environment. Clean or dirty water environments, diseaseful or healthy life all depend on our attitude and how we contribute our part to the common effort of conserving water resources. Therefore, each person needs to raise awareness so that the whole society can join hands to protect the environment more effectively. I hope that by doing that in the near future water pollution will no longer be a problem. Le 11 of 14 Works Cited Armstrong, Catherine. “Pollution's Effects on Animals” Apr 24, 2017. https://sciencing.com/pollutions-effects-animals-5292091.html. Accessed: 03 October 2020. Clobotaru, Ana-Maria. "Influence of Human Activities on Water Quality of Rives and Groundworks from Braila County." Annals of the University of Oradea, Geography Series / Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Seria Geografie. Jun 2015, Vol. 25 Issue 1, p5-13, 9p. Accessed: 30 September 2020. Da Rosa, J. G., Santos, de Abreu, M. S., Giacomini, A. C., Varrone, Koakoski, G…Gil. “Fish Aversion and Attraction to Selected Agrichemicals”. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2016. 71(3), 415-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244- 016-0300-x. Accessed 03 October 2020. Denchak, Melissa. “Water Pollution: Everything You Need to Know” May 14, 2018. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/water-pollution-everything-you-need-know. Accessed 03 October 2020. “Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment” WHO, The World Health Report, 2000, https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseasesrisks/diseases/diarrhoea/en/. Accessed 03 October 2020. Lonergan, Steve. "Water Scarcity Is a Global Problem." Global Resources, edited by David M. Haugen, Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale In Context: Opposing Viewpoints, https://0-link-galecom.library.sjeccd.edu/apps/doc/EJ3010139265/OVIC?u=san61858&sid=OVIC& Le 12 of 14 xid=43a4f086. Originally published as "Water and War," Our Planet, 2005. Accessed 03 October 2020. Majsztrik, J. C., Fernandez, R. T., Fisher, P. R., Hitchcock, D. R., Lea-cox, J., Owen, James S., Jr, . . . White, S. A. “Water Use and Treatment in Container-Grown Specialty Crop Production: A Review.” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 228(4) .2017. 1-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-017-3272-1. Accessed 03 October 2020. Mariyono, J., Kuntariningsih, A., & Kompas, T. “Pesticide Use in Indonesian Vegetable Farming and Its Determinants.” Management of Environmental Quality, 29(2), 305-323. 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/MEQ-12-2016-0088. Accessed 03 October 2020. Paddock, Catharine. “Scientists Evaluate Cancer Risk of US Drinking Water” Sep 23, 2019. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/326423. Accessed 03 October 2020. Pearson, B. J., Chen, J., & Beeson, Richard C., Jr. “Evaluation of stormwater surface runoff and road debris as sources of water pollution”. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2018. 229(6), 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-018-3793-2. Accessed 03 October 2020. “Pollution Prevention Tips for Water Conservation” EPA, Mar 30, 2017. https://www.epa.gov/p2/pollution-prevention-tips-water-conservation. Accessed 03 October 2020. Le 13 of 14 Purdy, Jedediah. “Forum: The New Nature”. The Boston review: A Political and Literary Forum. January 11, 2016. http://bostonreview.net/forum/jedediah-purdy-newnature. Accessed: 30 September 2020. Shortle, James. “Policy Reforms Needed for Better Water Quality and Lower Pollution Control Costs.” Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm & Resource Issues, vol. 32, no. 4, Dec. 2017, pp. 1-7. EBSCOhost. (2017). http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=131247178&si te=ehost-live. Accessed 03 October 2020. Townsend, Kathy. "Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Queensland." Geodate. Aug 2017, Vol. 20 Issue 4, p3-8, 6p. Accessed: 30 September 2020. USGS, “How Much Water Is There on Earth?” Water Science School, 1993 https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/how-muchwater-there-earth?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. Accessed 03 October 2020. "Water Pollution." Environmental Science: In Context, edited by Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner, vol. 2, Gale, 2009, pp. 837-842. In Context Series. Gale In Context: Opposing Viewpoints, https://0-link-galecom.library.sjeccd.edu/apps/doc/CX3233900244/OVIC?u=san61858&sid=OVIC &xid=02be7f82. Accessed 03 October 2020. Wongsanit, J., Teartisup, P., Kerdsueb, P., Tharnpoophasiam, P., & Worakhunpiset, S. “Contamination of Nitrate in Groundwater and Its Potential Human Health: A Case Study of Lower Mae Klong River Basin, Thailand.” Environmental Science Le 14 of 14 and Pollution Research International, 22(15), 11504-11512. 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4347-4. Accessed 03 October 2020. Woodford, Chris. “How Can We Stop Water Pollution?” Water Pollution: an Introduction, 24 Mar, 2019. https://www.explainthatstuff.com/waterpollution.html#stop. Accessed 03 October 2020. 3/14/22, 12:29 PM Process of Research/Process of Writing: English Composition: 2022SP-ENGL-001A-120 Process of Research/Process of Writing The Process of Research Preliminary Research The early stages of research are investigatory. Even though you might have started the research process with a potential thesis, it is useful to keep an open mind as you begin the preliminary research. All too often, what we think we know about a topic is challenged once we investigate that topic in a systematic way. The style of research you are conducting here is wide rather than deep. Preliminary research allows us to establish the parameters of our project. Background/Context Once you feel you have gained some authority over your topic, the next stage is to begin to plumb the depths. This stage is your opportunity to gather the background and context necessary to have confidence in establishing a point of view regarding the topic you have chosen. Here is where you discern the history of your topic, where you get a sense of the how the issue took its present form, and who has a stake in this discussion. The Range of Viewpoints Please note this unit is not entitled “Opposing Points of View.” It is important as we develop our skills as researchers to resist the tendency to always think in binary oppositions. This is not always easy, but it is nearly always valuable. No issue, no matter how divisive, has only two sides. So this is your opportunity to study the topography of views about your topic, and see where you can enter that map. It is at this point you should determine your thesis. Focused Research Now that you have an appreciation for the history and context of your topic, and for the complexities of viewpoints surrounding it, you are ready to begin gathering the evidence necessary to support your own contribution to wider discussion regarding the topic. At this stage, you are actively drawing from your research what you need to make a compelling argument. https://sjeccd.instructure.com/courses/30182/pages/process-of-research-slash-process-of-writing?module_item_id=1741389 1/3 3/14/22, 12:29 PM Process of Research/Process of Writing: English Composition: 2022SP-ENGL-001A-120 Outline and Begin It is always helpful to map out your essay before you begin writing. This helps guide you, and also can keep the writing process from becoming too linear. If you have a outline, there’s no need to start your essay at the beginning. You can start writing anywhere you wish. There’s no getting around it now, though: Time to write. The Process of Writing Introduction (1 page) (page counts are suggestions, only) Here is where you lay out the stakes for your readers. This topic is important to you; now you must demonstrate how and why it should be important to them. Once you have established the stakes, then you can deliver your point of view on the topic, ie your thesis. It is important to note that the introduction need not be a single paragraph. Many of the essays we read in this class have introductions that can be anywhere from three to nine paragraphs long, or even more. Regardless of the length of your introduction, however, your thesis should occur there. Background/Context (2 pages) Once you have laid out what’s at stake, it is valuable to provide the background and context necessary for the reader to be able to make sense of your thesis. We’ve probably all had to be involved in a discussion with someone at one point or other where the person launches into a theory, without stopping to see that you know what on earth he or she is talking about. It’s painful. Don’t be that person. Remember, though, that what you are after here is the context necessary to understand your thesis. From here on out, every section of your essay must be guided by the demands of your thesis. The Range of Viewpoints (2 pages) This is where you help the readers gain an appreciation for the different viewpoints on your topic; their benefits and their shortcomings. Again, bear in mind you are doing this to help the reader gain an appreciation for how you arrived at your position. Your thesis is key here: You are explaining the different positions on the map of your topic so that the readers can best understand why YOU ( and by extension they) ARE HEREß Main Body of Evidence (4 pages) https://sjeccd.instructure.com/courses/30182/pages/process-of-research-slash-process-of-writing?module_item_id=1741389 2/3 3/14/22, 12:29 PM Process of Research/Process of Writing: English Composition: 2022SP-ENGL-001A-120 Now it is time to present the evidence necessary to make it clear to your readers why you hold the point of view on the topic that you do, and why it would behoove them to consider seriously the veracity of your position. You’ve in all likelihood done some of this already in the preceding sections, but this is where you get down to it. Remember, everything you do here must work together to advance your thesis. Conclusion (1 page) Summarize your findings, remind the readers what is at stake, and make sure your thesis stays with them long after they’ve walked away from your essay. This is not the only possible model for a research-based essay, but it is a potentially useful one. If you have a model that works bettwe better for you, please share it! https://sjeccd.instructure.com/courses/30182/pages/process-of-research-slash-process-of-writing?module_item_id=1741389 3/3
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Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Course Code
Submission Date
Water Pollution
Water as a natural resource covers three-quarters of the earth's surface. Freshwater is vital as it is
used for cooking, bathing, swimming, agricultural use, and drinking. A high percentage of water
is not safe for human consumption and other living organisms like plants since it has been
contaminated. Approximately 95% of fresh water from water streams is not safe f...


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