American History Louisianna Purchase Discussion

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This assignment is annoying af, and I am hoping someone to help me out. The discussion requires materials from one documentary (you don't have to watch the whole thing, just randomly select a few quotes are okay), lecture slides (as I said, just quote a few sentences are fine), and also textbook (A People and a Nation by Kamensky). The minimum word requirement are 100 words per question/paragraph. Here are the questions:

1. What international conditions of the time persuaded Jefferson to purchase the Louisiana Territory? What were his ambitions with this purchase?

2. According to Tecumseh, what effects did the founding of this nation and its expansion west have on the various Native American tribes? How do you explain their treatment at the hands of the whites?

3. Had the colonies of North America (namely the future 13 original colonies of the United States of America) sought for and accomplished a more tolerant relationship with the Native American tribes, do you believe future history for the American Indians could have been different? Why or Why Not? How could it have been different?

**The citation for the documentary needs to be specific to minutes of the info, but it's okay to be a bit inaccurate with the timing.

Other details of the requirements are uploaded, and links to documentary:

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Jeffersonian Era, 1801 – 1823 • Review Pres. Washington and Adams • Enlarging Federal Powers • Expansion • Economy • Foreign Affairs • Internal Dissention • Defining Jeffersonian Era • Political Parties Formed • Hamiltonianism versus Jeffersonianism • Pres. Jefferson, Madison and Monroe • Louisiana Purchase • Lewis & Clark Expedition • War of 1812 ~> Western Expansion • Monroe Doctrine President Washington • was a believer in a strong Presidency. • As the first President, he set many rules. • Worked closely with his staff, and relied heavily on advice of his cabinet. • Congress did not challenge cabinet appts = est. principle that Presidents automatically have cabinet appts approved. • Once came to Congress to "consult" on foreign treaties = felt treated beneath the dignity of the office of Presidency. • Last time consulted Congress on foreign policy = set precedent for future presidents to rarely confer with Congress before foreign policy decisions. • Retired from Presidency During the Washington Presidency, two major political battles took place. March 3, 1797. 8 yr. in office • The first = between those who believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution and those opposed. • Strict Constitutionalists = led by Madison, only has power given it in Constitution • Federalists = led by Hamilton, government had implied powers, esp. over States • Hamilton proposed a National Bank of the United States to help fuel economic growth. •Opposition= government lacked such power under the constitution. •Washington sided with Hamilton and the Bank was established. • The second = between those favoring England and those supporting France • Thomas Jefferson, Sec’y of State, sided w/ France in war with England. • Hamilton sided with England. Washington kept US neutral = Jefferson's resignation. • Wash. crushed Whiskey Rebellion = 1st challenge to federal authority • wanted to retire after 1st term ~ persuaded to stay in light partisan politics = could undo his Pres. Election of 1796: • This election showed off one of the flaws of the constitution = The framers did not foresee the formation of political parties. • People did not vote for a president/vice-president ticket, rather they voted for one person as president, and another for vice-president. When the votes were tallied, the winner became president and the runner-up the vice-president. • This system however, allowed for someone balloting for the vice-presidential position to win the presidency or for president of one party have a vice-president from the opposite party. • The Federalists nominated John Adams for Presidency and Thomas Pinckney for vice-president. The Anti-Federalists nominated Thomas Jefferson for president, and Aaron Burr for vice-president. • Hamilton (Fed. Party ldr) did not like Adams = tried to get Pinckney elected president. • told the Anti-Feds to vote for Pinckney. In the end, Hamilton's plan almost worked. • John Adams received 71 Electoral Votes, Thomas Jefferson - 68 and Pinckney came in a close third with 59. • Adams was the president, and Jefferson (the leader of the opposing party) the vice-president. John Adams • Key issue = relations bet. U.S., Great Britain & France • XYZ Affair = sent three representatives to France to work out differences. They were met by three French representatives demanding a bribe. • Adams decided that this was tantamount to war. • Pro-British Federalists pushed for war. The Republican opposition wanted contents of the correspondence revealed – doubted him • Adams refused, citing executive privilege. Eventually Adams released the documents, but withheld the names of the Frenchmen involved (hence known as “XYZ”). • Cry for war against the French became feverish. U.S. armed its merchantmen to combat the French in repeated naval encounters. Adams never asked for a Declaration of War. • John Adams sacrificed his political career for the good of the nation and refused to enter into a war. • French realized nothing to be gained by war - talks reopened and a peace treaty was signed by September of 1800. Adams' pursuit of peace condemned by the Federalists led by Hamilton. • Adams lost his bid for re-election in 1800 to Jefferson, due largely to the disarray of the Federalist party. • He was viewed too conservative by his party, who wanted to attack France, and too liberal by the Anti-Federalists because he did not aid the French rebels in their revolution. Adams kept the nation neutral and postponed the first American War until more than a decade later in 1812. The Jeffersonian era was rife with conflict, partisan passion, and larger-than-life personalities. On the domestic front, a new party, the Republicans, came to office for the first time and a former vice president was charged with treason. Pirates, operating from bases on the coast of North Africa, harassed enslaved American sailors, and Britain and France interfered with American shipping. Finally, the United States fought a second war for independence against Britain. Jeffersonianism vs Hamiltonianism Rival ideals of American government that have persisted long after the deaths of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, after whom they were named. Jeffersonians have preferred a weak federal government and strong state and local governments, on the grounds that lower-level governments will be more responsive than the national government to the popular will. Jeffersonians have also held that the American economy should rely more on agriculture than on industry and have seen big business as a threat to democracy. In contrast, Hamiltonians have insisted that a strong national government is needed to guide the economic development of the nation, especially its industrial development, and to restrain the excesses of the people. Alexander Hamilton • Fr. New York to Continental Congress in 1782, • leading proponent of a stronger national government = bitter conflict with Thomas Jefferson • Favored a national government that would have virtually abolished the states and even called for a presidentfor-life • First Sec’y of Treasury ~ favored by Washington • placed the new nation on a firm financial footing, • his political philosophy was ultimately to prevail in governmental development. • Political career ended prematurely when he was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr in 1804. Hamilton proposed that a national bank be established to help the federal government manage the nation's trade and finance. This was accepted by Congress, and the Bank of the United States was chartered in 1791. Jefferson, and others who believed that such a strong government, informally allied as it was with the worldwide trading dominance of Great Britain, would subordinate agriculture and subvert the republican ideals of the American Revolution Created by Congress in 1791, the Bank of the United States opened in 1795. After Congress let the Bank's charter lapse in 1811, Philadelphia merchant Stephen Girard purchased the building for his own private bank. Today the First Bank still stands as part of Independence Hall National Historical Park. By the time he retired from the Treasury Department in 1795, he had established the administrative and policy foundations of the new government, articulated a philosophy of "loose construction" of the Constitution, and founded, informally, the conservative Federalist Party as the instrument of his intentions. • Elements of the Industrial Revolution – Machines coordinated to make goods – Energy from non-animal sources – Industry grew 4 times faster – Output increased 50 fold Changed all aspects of society Most profound effect since agriculture Government changes: Political and military Balance Europe as dominant power Transformed social Classes Higher standard of living for most England vs. Continental Europe In 1790 a surge of road building helped to stimulate the economy. Before 1790, one bumpy road connected Main to Georgia, but with the establishment of the US Post Office in 1792, road mileage increased 6 times over to facilitate the transport of mail. Companies also built toll roads, the first of which was the Lancaster Turnpike of 1794, connecting Philadelphia with Lancaster, Pennsylvania. By 1800, a dense network of dirt, gravel, and plank roadways connected towns in southern New England and the Middle Atlantic states, spurring commercial stage companies to regularize and speed up passenger traffic. A trip from New York to Boston took 4 days; from New York to Philadelphia less than 2. In 1790, Boston had only 3 stagecoach companies but by 1800 there were 24. The US Population expanded along with economic development, propelled by large families and better than adequate food and land resources. As measured by the first two federal censuses in 1790 and 1800, population grew from 3.9 million to 5.3 million in 10 years, an increase of 35%. The French Wars: 1792-1806 The French Wars are broken down into different parts. The first part, 1792-1799, can be called the Revolutionary Wars and the period 1799-1815 is sometimes known as the age of the Napoleonic Wars; the whole period 1792-1815 is that of the French Wars. In an attempt to prevent France from over-running the whole of Europe, the British were eager to see the establishment of coalitions. European armies could then fight France on land and allow the British Royal Navy to deal with the French fleets. The aim of the various coalitions was to combine European monarchies against the French Revolutionaries who (like the Americans before them) were influenced by ideals - in the case of the French, liberty, equality, fraternity and democracy. Between 1793 and 1797 the First Coalition was established. It comprised Spain, Holland, Austria, Prussia, England and Sardinia. The Second Coalition lasted between 1799-1801 and comprised Turkey, England, Austria, and Russia. In 1799, European armies were successful: Austria drove the French back across the Rhine, a Russo-Austrian army drove the French out of Italy and Britain, under the Duke of York, drove the French out of Holland. A three-pronged attack was planned on France, by Britain, Austria and Russia. France’s ill-fated democracy embodied in the French Revolutionary government know as the Directory crumbled under the pressures of war and the coalitions formed to crush the ideals of revolution. The Directory had provoked war throughout Europe with its attempts to grab Switzerland and Italy and re-create a New Roman Empire of Enlightenment. Napoleon, one of 3 “Consuls” of France, dismissed the Directory as incompetent and made himself First Consul, no-one realized that a dictatorship was on its way. Napoleon was ambitious for a French empire in Europe, and as a military dictator he needed continuing success for continued power. 1802 was the end of the revolutionary period and marks the start of a period when European nationalism began to fight the French military machine: this was total role reversal. FRENCH REVOLUTION Outcomes after French Revolution for America -Birth of Republican Party from the anti-Federalists -Emergence of the two diametrically opposed “political parties”: -“people undependable, uneducated, easily swayed to the “dark” side vs -“government is accountable to the people – stressed civic activism from all people” -Development of US Navy due to Franco-American naval conflict in Caribbean 1798 -Constitutional Crisis 1798 – 1800 ~ “Revolution of 1800” Three Coercive Laws passed by the Federalist Congress 1. Naturalization Act = citizenship from 5 years residency to 14 years 2. Alien Act = deportation of foreigners 3. Sedition Act = prohibited publication of insults or malicious attacks on government personnel -Louisiana Purchase ~ Lewis & Clark Expedition -War of 1812 ~ Jeffersonianism vs Hamiltonianism Rival ideals of American government that have persisted long after the deaths of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, after whom they were named. Jeffersonians have preferred a weak federal government and strong state and local governments, on the grounds that lower-level governments will be more responsive than the national government to the popular will. Jeffersonians have also held that the American economy should rely more on agriculture than on industry and have seen big business as a threat to democracy. In contrast, Hamiltonians have insisted that a strong national government is needed to guide the economic development of the nation, especially its industrial development, and to restrain the excesses of the people. The election of 1800 • one of the most controversial in American history = intrigue, betrayals, and a tie in the electoral college. • 4th Pres. election = change from the rule of the first two, Washington and Adams, who were Federalists. • first time candidates campaigned, • became a bitter struggle between two men forever linked, Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. • Aaron Burr, a prominent New York political figure, opposed to Federalists and disliked Adams as Pres. • A constant rival to Hamilton, Burr had built a political machine opposed to Hamilton's Federalist organization. • For the 1800 election, Burr threw his allegiance to Thomas Jefferson and ran with Jefferson as the vicepresidential candidate. • The election ended in a tie between Jefferson and Burr. Political parties did not specify who was the party’s preferred candidate for president. • The House of Reps deadlocked for 35 times voting. • Hamilton urged Federalists to vote for Jefferson. On the 36th vote, Jefferson was chosen president. • These problems with the voting system led to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment (1804), which changed the voting process of the electoral college. Thomas Jefferson was distrustful of Aaron Burr, who had pressed for Congressional votes to become president over Jefferson. Jefferson gave him nothing to do as vice president. Burr and Hamilton continued their epic feud, which finally culminated in their famous duel in Weehawken, New Jersey on July 11, 1804. Burr shot Hamilton, who died the next day. Burr was not prosecuted for killing Hamilton, though he later was accused of treason, tried, and acquitted. He lived in exile in Europe for several years before returning to New York. He died in 1836. The Jeffersonian era was rife with conflict, partisan passion, and larger-than-life personalities. On the domestic front, a new party, the Republicans, came to office for the first time and a former vice president was charged with treason. Pirates, operating from bases on the coast of North Africa, harassed enslaved American sailors, and Britain and France interfered with American shipping. Finally, the United States fought a second war for independence against Britain. Thomas Jefferson and his Anti-Slavery Activism • Born April 13, 1743 to a Virginia slave-owning planter-class family o he was born TO BE a slave owner through no choice of his own into a slave society entirely supported economically by the institution of slavery since 1620 • 1757 ~ father dies. In 1764 ~ age 21, inherits 5,000 of deceased father’s estate w/ 52 slaves, livestock, library, etc. • 1768 ~ starts construction on Monticello, to be his life-time home • 1762 ~ graduates Wm & Mary College and then studies law and become a lawyer in 1767. Noted cases in which he defended blacks in legal suits: o 1770 ~ defended a black male slave suing for freedom ~ his mother was white and free ~ lost the case o 1772 ~ defended a black male indentured servant suing for freedom, son of a free black woman ~ won and he came to work for Jefferson for wages • 1772 ~ marries Martha Wayles Skelton, 23-yr old widow, daughter of a Virginia planter, slave owner. 1773 the father John Wayles dies, and Jefferson inherits his land, his debts, and his slaves. ***SEE SECTION BELOW ON HEMINGS TIMELINE** • 1774 ~ ends his law practice ` wrote “A Summary View of the Rights of British Americans” and submits it to the 1st Continental Congress o denounced King George III for imposing slavery on the colonies: “The abolition of domestic slavery is the greatest object of desire in those colonies, where it was unhappily introduced in their infant state. But previous to the enfranchisement of the slaves we have, it is necessary to exclude all further importations, and by imposing duties which amount to a prohibition, have been hitherto defeated by his majesty’s negative”….”rights of human nature [are] deeply wounded by this infamous practice.” ▪ Jefferson alluded to attempts to end slavery but that those efforts were thwarted by the King → lays blame fully on the King. This brings recognition to Jefferson from Continental Congress Members. • 1775 ~ Jefferson joins the Continental Congress as delegate from Virginia • 1776 ~ Congress appointed a "Committee of Five", consisting of John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Robert R. Livingston of New York, and Roger Sherman of Connecticut, to draft a declaration of independence. • • • • • o Jefferson wrote entire first draft & then went through cmte revisions before being presented to the main body. ▪ Jefferson condemned King George for forcing the slave trade on the American colonies and inciting slave insurrections. • Southern colonies opposition in the Con. Congress forced Jefferson to remove all verbiage alluding to slavery from the final version of the Declaration of Independence. • Jefferson’s last word on the matter then: “All men are created equal” was to stand unabridged. 1776 ~ Jefferson submits a draft for a New Virginia State Constitution in which he claims: “no person hereafter coming into this country shall be held within the same in slavery under any pretext whatever.” His proposal in rejected…HOWEVER… 1778 ~ …influenced by Jefferson, the Virginia General Assembly banned importing people to be used as slave into Virginia. **FIRST jurisdiction IN THE WORLD AT THIS TIME to ban slave trade. o this will be incorporated into the new US Constitution in 1787 and go into effect for the nation in 1807 1779-1781 ~ Jefferson elected Governor of Virginia for 2 terms during War of Independence. War ends 1781. 1782 ~ After the war, Virginia General Assembly repealed the 1723 slave law, which made it easier for slave owners to free their slaves, influenced by Jefferson, numerous slave holders will free their slaves. 1784 ~ Presents to Congress of the Confederation “Report of a Plan of Government for the Western Territories.” ▪ called for the prohibition of slavery in **ALL** new states formed from the western territories in direct defiance of the Southern slave societies. SHOULDA, WOULDA, COULDA – IF ONLY adopted!! • slavery would have been eradicated as a legal institution in the 18th century = no Civil War. o rejected by Congress by just ONE VOTE, when a delegate from New Jersey failed to show up and vote. ▪ HOWEVER → 1784 Congress accepted parts of proposal that outlined the methods for territories to become states without slavery as an issue and in 1787 slavery was banned in the North-West Territories !! o This ordinance was high-point of Jefferson’s anti-slavery activism → underwent constant opposition from the South → convinces him that a solution will have to be worked out in later generations. Jefferson wrote in 1786: “The voice of a single individual of the state which was divided or of one of those which were of the negative, would have prevented this abominable crime from spreading itself over the new country. Thus we see, the fate of millions unborn hanging on the tongue of one man, and heaven was silent in that awful moment.” Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings Timeline • 1772 ~ Jefferson married Martha Wayles Shelton, a 23-year-old widow. They will have 6 children, only 2 living into adulthood. Martha died after birth of last child, Lucy, in 1782. o John Wayles, Jefferson’s father-in-law took a slave mistress 12 years after the death of his third wife ~ Elizabeth (Betty) Hemings, who was ½ white and ½ black. They had 6 children together, last a daughter, Sarah “Sally” Hemings, born 1773. • 1774 ~ John Wayles dies, and Jefferson inherits his estate, including 135 slaves, of whom the Hemings were part. Martha’s half brothers and sister are taken into Monticello as favored house-servants. • Sally is an infant and becomes companion to Jefferson’s daughters. Jefferson allowed them to work out on their own, work for wages and keep their earnings. o Children of John Wayles & Betty Hemings at Monticello: ▪ Robert → Jefferson’s personal valet ~ with him at writing of the Declaration of Independence ▪ Martin → household butler at Monticello ▪ John → skilled cabinet worker, artisan of Monticello and long-time companion to Jefferson at Monticello. Trained Jefferson’s & Sally’s sons. ▪ James → trained in French cuisine in Paris with Jefferson – paid a wage ▪ Sarah (Sally) → chamber maid, nursemaid-companion, lady’s maid, seamstress • 1784 ~ Jefferson now a widower for 2 years, appointed as ambassador to France, sails for Europe with oldest daughter, Martha and James Hemings, to be trained in French cuisine as a chef. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings Timeline, cont… • 1787 ~ Jefferson’s youngest daughter, Lucy age 2, had died in 1784, and Jefferson sent for 9-year-old daughter Mary to come to Paris and live with him & dau. Martha – she is accompanied by traveling companion, Sally Hemings, age 14. • 1789 ~ Jefferson appointed Sec’y of State in New US Government of New Constitution ~Jefferson returns from France and accepts the post in 1790. o Sally and James were FREE in France and could have stayed in France as free people ~ Sally chose to return to Monticello with Jefferson ~ she was pregnant by Jefferson ~ he promised her a good life and that her children would be free. • Sally’s Children with Thomas Jefferson (he was 35 years her Senior ~ but that age difference is not that unusual in colonial society for widowers, in actual marriages or common-law relationships). They had 7 children, the first one dieing after their return from France. Had 3 more sons and 3 daughters: ▪ Harriett ~ daughter dies at 2 years old in 1797 ▪ Wm. Beverly ~ b. 1798, d. after 1873. ▪ Thenia ~ daughter died in infancy 1799 ▪ Harriett ~ another daughter , b. 1801 d. after 1863 ▪ (James) Madison ~ a son b. 1805, d. 1877 ▪ (Thomas) Easton ~ a son, b. 1808, d. 1856. o Jefferson recorded their births in his “Farm Book,” but unlike all other births of his slaves on Monticello, he did not name their father. o Sally never “married” or had a common-law marriage to another slave. And it was illegal for a white person and a black person to marry. o All her children stayed with her at Monticello ~ they were protected, trained in skills, even taught violin, and allowed to employ themselves out for wages. Sally’s sons were literate and could read and write. • 1822 ~ Wm Beverly “ran away” to the north – not pursued - and Harriett allowed to leave Monticello and went North to join him ~ even given $$ to help on her journey. • 1826 ~ Jefferson dies bankrupt and his dau. Martha needs to sell off his entire estate plus slaves to pay off his debts. BUT all of Sally’s living children; Beverly, Madison, Harriett, and Easton were freed as they came of age. 3 of the 4 entered white society after gaining their freedom, they were 7/8 European white. Their descendants also identified as white. Martha “freed” Sally after her father’s death, Martha actually being Sally’s “niece.” Sally lived as a free woman in Charlottesville, Virginia with Easton for the next 9 years until her death in 1835. Jefferson believed Slavery was evil, but he rationalized slave-owning through a sense of “paternalism” believing that freeing them would be like “abandoning children” – a racist attitude of the times that perceived blacks as inferior intellectually and needing to be “taken care of.” --------------------------------Jefferson describing slavery: “But as it is, we have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other.” --------------------------------“We have the wolf by the ears and feel the danger of either holding on or letting him loose.” Thomas Jefferson From the moment that Jefferson was inaugurated, he began what he described as the Revolution of 1800. This was his attempt to repeal major actions that he felt the Federalists had taken to needlessly strengthen the hand of the Federal government. This included allowing the Alien and Sedition Act to lapse and the repeal of the federal whiskey tax. For all Jefferson's changes, his Presidency was more one of stability than of change. Jefferson was a leading advocate of strict interpretation of the Constitution. Despite this fact, he took two major actions in his first term that, under a strict interpretation of the Constitution, he lacked the power to do. The first was to send forces against the Barbary Pirates. His orders to the force commander instructed him to take military action to end forced payment of ransom. The policy was successful, but Jefferson did not consult Congress before instructing this use of force. Second, in secret negotiations, Jefferson agreed to purchase the Louisiana Territory from France. This purchase, for $15 million, doubled the size of the United States. There was, however, no provision in the constitution that provided for the purchase of land. During his second term, Jefferson insisted on maintaining American neutrality in the expanding European War. He felt compelled to pass an extremely unpopular embargo act banning all trade with the European belligerents. The high point of this second term was the return of Lewis and Clark from the American West. Their visit was the first organized exploration of much of what was to become part of the United States. Pirate ships and crews from the North African states of Tripoli, Tunis, Morocco, and Algiers (the Barbary Coast) were the scourge of the Mediterranean. Capturing merchant ships and holding their crews for ransom provided the rulers of these nations with wealth and naval power. Before the United States gained its independence in the American Revolution, 1775-83, American merchant ships and sailors had been protected from the ravages of the North African pirates by the naval and diplomatic power of Great Britain. British naval power and the tribute or subsidies Britain paid to the piratical states protected American vessels and crews. During the Revolution, the ships of the United States were protected by the 1778 alliance with France, which required the French nation to protect "American vessels and effects against all violence, insults, attacks, or depredations, on the part of the said Princes and States of Barbary or their subjects.“ When Jefferson became president in 1801 he refused to accede to Tripoli's demands for an immediate payment of $225,000 and an annual payment of $25,000. The pasha of Tripoli then declared war on the United States. Although as secretary of state and vice president he had opposed developing an American navy capable of anything more than coastal defense, President Jefferson dispatched a squadron of naval vessels to the Mediterranean. As he declared in his first annual message to Congress: "To this state of general peace with which we have been blessed, one only exception exists. Tripoli, the least considerable of the Barbary States, had come forward with demands unfounded either in right or in compact, and had permitted itself to denounce war, on our failure to comply before a given day. The style of the demand admitted but one answer. I sent a small squadron of frigates into the Mediterranean. . . ." At the end of the Seven Years' War, France ceded to Spain territory west of the Mississippi River, with the port of New Orleans near its mouth. Shortly after Jefferson became president, Napoleon forced a weak Spanish government to cede the great tract called Louisiana back to France. Napoleon's plans for a huge colonial empire just west of the United States threatened the trading rights and the safety of all American interior settlements. Jefferson asserted that if France took possession of Louisiana, "from that moment we must marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation." Napoleon, knowing that another war with Great Britain was impending, resolved to fill his treasury and put Louisiana beyond the reach of the British by selling it to the United States. This put Jefferson in a constitutional quandary: the Constitution gave no office the power to purchase territory. At first Jefferson wanted to amend the Constitution, but his advisers told him that delay might lead Napoleon to change his mind -- and that the power to purchase territory was inherent in the power to make treaties. Jefferson relented, saying that "the good sense of our country will correct the evil of loose construction when it shall produce ill effects." For $15 million, the United States obtained the "Louisiana Purchase" in 1803. It contained more than 2,600,000 square kilometers as well as the port of New Orleans. The nation had gained a sweep of rich plains, mountains, forests and river systems that within 80 years would become the nation's heartland -- and one of the world's great granaries. Lewis and Clark's Journey President Thomas Jefferson commissioned Meriwether Lewis to head an expedition to explore the newly bought Louisiana Territory in order to further trade. Lewis chose William Clark as the co-leader of the expedition. Lewis was 28 years old and Clark was 32. Jefferson also wanted information on the plant and animal life of the American West. Lewis and Clark's expedition was the first official expedition across the continent to the Pacific Ocean. Jefferson’s Contributions -He promised a “wise and frugal government” and promised Americans he would “leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement” -Taught his staff to consider themselves merely as “trustees of the people” -He encouraged agriculture and westward expansion (Lewis and Clark Expedition) -He urged liberal naturalization laws as he believed America to be a haven for the oppressed -He had reduced the national debt to less than $560 million -At his urging, states abolished property qualification for the ballot and passed more humane laws for debtors and criminals -Louisiana Purchase that gave America a rich land for future agricultural needs to feed the nation -Promoted American neutrality regarding the expanding wars in Europe -Broke the extortion yoke of the Barbary Coast Pirates on merchant shipping Tecumseh (Shooting Star) b.1768. • one of the greatest leaders of the Shawnee. • Shawnees moved West to avoid encroaching settlers • Indiana, then Illinois, and finally to Missouri. Tecumseh remained in the Ohio raised by his eldest brother. • Tribes in Ohio signed Treaty of Greeneville 1795. • They gave up all land except the NW corner of Ohio. • Tecumseh rejected the treaty provisions • early 1800s, Tecumseh form a confederacy of Indian tribes west of the Appalachian Mtns to stop settlers • believed that, if the Indians united together, they would have a better chance militarily against the Americans. • Visited the tribes between Canada and the Gulf of Mexico, to convince them to unite together. • Tecumseh’s younger brother, Tenskwatawa, the Prophet, helped unite the tribes. • Claimed a vision where the Master of Life, Shawnee’s god, told him to have the Indians give up all white customs and products = religious beliefs, agricultural practices, guns, iron cookware, and alcohol. The Indians, • By turning their backs on their traditions, had offended the Master of Life. If they returned to native customs, the Master of Life would reward them by driving the whites from the land. Many natives embraced the Prophet’s message and joined the two brothers at Prophetstown, a village the two had established in 1808 in the Indiana Territory. James Madison succeeded Jefferson as president in 1809. Relations with Great Britain grew worse, and the two countries moved rapidly toward war. The president laid before Congress a detailed report, showing several thousand instances in which the British had impressed American citizens. In addition, northwestern settlers had suffered from attacks by Indians whom they believed had been incited by British agents in Canada. This led many Americans to favor conquest of Canada. Success in such an endeavor would eliminate British influence among the Indians and open up new lands for colonization. The desire to conquer Canada, coupled with deep resentment over impressments of sailors, generated war fervor, and in 1812 the United States declared war on Britain. • 1811, Tecumseh recruiting in South • left orders not to attack the Americans. • Prophet claimed another vision = told him to attack the Americans. • The Master of Life “said” bullets would not harm the Indians. • known as the Battle of Tippecanoe. • Americans led by Wm Harrison defeated the Prophet & warriors & Prophetstown. • Although Harrison lost more men in this battle than the Indians, he held the ground at the end of the day. It was a victory that would eventually elect "Old Tippecanoe" to be President of the United States. • During the War of 1812, Tecumseh and remaining followers joined with the British. • Believed British would return the Indians’ homeland to them. • In 1813, English-Indian force met an American army led by Harrison – British ran & left Tecumseh and his followers to continue on their own. • The Americans drove the natives from the field, and an American’s bullet killed Tecumseh. Tecumseh’s death signified the end of united Indian resistance against the Americans. War of 1812 Anger with the British for many reasons: * The British didn't withdraw from American territory in the Great Lakes region as they agreed to in the 1783 Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolution. * Britain kept aiding Native Americans. * Britain would not conduct fair trade with the U.S. * Impressments: Britain claimed the right to take any British sailors serving on American merchant ships. In practice, the British took many American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships. This was nothing short of kidnapping. * In 1807, The British ship Leopard fired on the American frigate Chesapeake. Other merchant ships came under harassment from the British navy. * War Hawks in Congress pushed for the conflict. The war lasted for over two years, ending in stalemate. It did however, once and for all confirm American Independence. On the other hand, the British army was successfully stopped when it attempted to capture Baltimore and New Orleans. There were a number of American naval victories in which American vessels proved themselves superior to similarly sized British vessels. War of 1812 Timeline June 18, 1812 The United States declared war on Great Britain. October 13, 1812 British forces won the Battle of Queenston Heights in Canada. January 22, 1813 An American army advancing toward Detroit was defeated and captured at Frenchtown on the Raisin River. April 27, 1813 American forces captured York (Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada, burning public buildings. September 10, 1813 American naval forces under Master-Commandant Oliver Perry won the Battle of Lake Erie. October 5, 1813 American forces won the Battle of the Thames River December 1814 British forces captured Fort Niagara, and burned Buffalo July 25, 1814 American forces defeated the British at Battle of Chippewa. August 24, 1814 British troops invaded Wash. D.C., and burned the Capitol and the White House. September 11, 1814 **American naval forces destroyed the British fleet in Lake Champlain. December 1814 ** Federalists in New England advocate secession from the US – seen by Republicans as traitors December 24, 1814 The Americans and the British signed a peace treaty in Ghent, Belgium. January 8, 1815 American forces under General Andrew Jackson won the Battle of New Orleans. James Madison 1809-1817 4TH President James Madison ~ • The British impressments of American seamen and the seizure of cargoes impelled Madison to give in to the pressure. • June 1, 1812, asked Congress to declare war, • US not prepared to fight; severely trounced. • The British entered Washington and set fire to the White House and the Capitol. • Gen. Andrew Jackson's triumph at New Orleans, • An upsurge of nationalism resulted. • The New England Federalists opposed the war--and even talked secession = Federalism disappeared as a national party. • Retired to Montpelier, Virginia, Madison spoke out against the disruptive states' rights influences = threatened to shatter the Federal Union. • In a note opened after his death in 1836, he stated, "The advice nearest to my heart and deepest in my convictions is that the Union of the States be cherished and perpetuated." Effects of the War of 1812 1) Increased American patriotism. 2) Weakened Native Americans resistance. 3) U.S. manufacturing grew. 4) U.S. proved that it could defend itself against the mightiest military power of the era. 5) New National Hero created in Andrew Jackson 6) Americans began to believe that the young nation would survive and prosper. 7) United States “is” and no longer “we” 8) Westward Expansion across the continent The War of 1812 significantly increased our national pride and laid the foundation for the concept of Manifest Destiny. The War produced a new level of patriotism in Americans, who once again stood up to British and defeated them. This changed the way Americans thought about our military and our nation. The second significant effect was the boost in American manufacturing. American manufacturing benefitted in the post-war era because of a lack of goods caused by the interruption in trade. After the war, production of goods exploded. Soon, American dependence on imports dropped slightly as Americans became more self-sufficient and the powers of Europe began to depend on American goods. Era of Good Feelings (1815 – 25) Period of U.S. national unity and complacency. A Boston newspaper coined the term in 1817 to describe a nation free from the influence of European political and military events. The good feelings were stimulated by two events of 1816, during James Madison's presidency: enactment of the first U.S. protective tariff, and establishment of the second national bank. The presidency of James Monroe (1817 – 25) was marked by the dominance of the Republican Party and the decline of the Federalist Party. After the War of 1812 all sections were anxious to return to a normal life and to forget political issues. The phrase was coined at the time of President Monroe's good-will tour through the North, including New England, where a President had not been seen since the Virginia "dynasty" came into power. Under the surface, however, vast sectional issues were shaping themselves, and personal rivalries also were gathering strength to break loose in the campaign of 1824. James Monroe 1817-1825 5th President James Monroe ~ • Anti-Federalists from Virginia • advocate of Jeffersonian policies, • elected United States Senator. • As Minister to France in 1794-1796, = sympathies for the French cause; • helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase. • Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine = • threat that the monarchies in Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Amer.colonies. • WARNED = Europe to leave Latin Amer. alone AND Russia must not encroach on the S. Pacific coast. • "the American continents . . . are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power." The Missouri Compromise "A Balance of Power" March 3, 1820 The institution of slavery had been a divisive issue in the United States for decades before the territory of Missouri petitioned Congress for admission to the Union as a state in 1818. Since the Revolution, the country had grown from 13 states to 22 and had maintained a balance of power between slave and free states. There were 11 free states and 11 slave states, a situation that gave each faction equal representation in the Senate and the power to prevent the passage of legislation not to its liking. The free states, with their much larger populations, controlled the House of Representatives, 105 votes to 81. In February 1819, New York Representative James Tallmadge proposed an amendment to ban slavery in Missouri even though there were more than 2,000 slaves living there. The country was again confronted with the volatile issue of the spread of slavery into new territories and states. The cry against the South's "peculiar institution" had grown louder through the years. The South's economy was dependent upon black slavery, and 200 years of living with the institution had made it an integral part of Southern life and culture. The South demanded that the North recognize its right to have slaves as secured in the Constitution. Through the efforts of Henry Clay, "the great pacificator," a compromise was finally reached on March 3, 1820, after Maine petitioned Congress for statehood. Both states were admitted, a free Maine and a slave Missouri, and the balance of power in Congress was maintained as before, postponing the inevitable showdown for another generation. In an attempt to address the issue of the further spread of slavery, however, the Missouri Compromise stipulated that all the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri, except Missouri, would be free, and the territory below that line would be slave. The Missouri Compromise was repealed by the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act and declared unconstitutional in the 1857 Dred Scott decision. The Monroe Doctrine was a proclamation in 1823 by President James Monroe. Basically, it warned European nations not to get involved in political matters in Central and South America. The Doctrine was intended to show that the United States was the only country that could influence such political matters. Further, several countries in South American had recently undergone revolutions against their European colonial owners and ended up with republican governments. The United States agreed with their political philosophy and did not want to see those newly free nations become European colonies again. Although little noted by the Great Powers of Europe, it eventually became a longstanding tenet of U.S. foreign policy. The doctrine was issued after renewed interest in the Americas by European powers, especially Britain and Russia, following the SpanishAmerican revolutions for independence. It announced (1) the existence of a separate political system in the Western hemisphere, (2) US hostility to further European colonization or attempts to extend European influence, and (3) non-interference with existing European colonies and dependencies or in European affairs. John Quincy Adams 1825-1829 • First President son of a President, • paralleled the career & temperament & viewpoints of his illustrious father, John Adams, • Under President Monroe, Adams was one of America's great Secretaries of State • Arranged with England joint occupation of the Oregon country, • Obtained Florida from Spain • Formulated the Monroe Doctrine. • Only One Party, Republican = sectionalism arises with own candidates for Pres. • Adams, the candidate of the North, fell behind Andrew Jackson in popular & electoral votes, more than William H. Crawford & Henry Clay, but no one had the required majority • decided by House of Reps. Clay threw his support in the House to Adams. • Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State • Jackson charged "corrupt bargain" • immediately campaigned against him and won in next election Nationalism, Industrialization, Internal Improvements, Western Expansion, and the decline of the Federalist Party all resulted from the War of 1812. Growth, expansion and social change rapidly followed the end of the War of 1812. The defeat of a confederation of Pro-British Indian Tribes led by Tecumseh and his brother in the Trans-Appalachian West in 1813 now made these lands open for settlement. Many an enterprising American pushed westward. In the new western states, there was a greater level of equality among the masses than in the former English colonies. Land was readily available. Frontier life required hard work. There was little tolerance for aristocrats afraid to get their hands dirty. • U.S. expansion sustained by its vast abundance of physical resources ~ type of domestic imperialism, with many of the same motives as the imperialist movement in Europe. • In 1783 U.S. area = approx. 800,000 sq. miles of rich arable land. • The Louisiana Purchase (827,000 sq. miles) more than doubled U.S. lands • W. Florida was taken during James Madison's administration and E. Florida (60,000 sq. miles) by purchase during the presidency of James Monroe. • acquisitions between 1843-53 completed the contiguous area of the continental United States. Negotiations for the Oregon Territory (285,000 sq. miles) = compromise in 1846. • The Texas republic (390,000 sq. miles) was annexed in 1845, and the Mexican cession (529,000 sq. miles) was a spoil of war in 1849. • Finally, there was the Gadsden Purchase in 1853 to control a railroad route - trivial in size – a mere 30,000 square miles, approx. the area of Scotland. Sample Student Primary Post - Response to Prompt Questions in Essay Form Reconstruction was a 2nd Civil War because people were still in a constant state of fear and confusion over the status of basic rights. The documentary film "Reconstruction" depicted how there were many discrepancies over the definitions of citizenship and freedom. Historian Eric Foner remarks in the film that "there were a lot of people in 1865 who were trying to tell blacks what freedom is, and tell them what they ought to be doing" (Film: "Reconstruction" 24:22). Even though the war had ended, which was initially a fight over slavery, there was still a lot of tension between the North and the South which added to ambiguities in understanding new laws. Also, the Emancipation Proclamation followed by the 13th Amendment, which according to our textbook, A People and a Nation by Kamensky, first freed just the slaves in the Confederacy, "all persons held as slaves in areas in rebellion" (Kamensky, 392) and then eventually "involuntary servitude everywhere in the United States" (Kamensky, 414), but not everyone was sure on how to proceed with the laws regarding freedmen - could state laws supersede federal laws? People were concerned with the confiscation of their land while some still were eager to regain control over black labor. All of these factors contributed to the ongoing battle which can be represented as a 2nd Civil War. (222 words) Radical Republicans, led by Thaddeus Stevens, focused on the rights of African Americans. Historian David Blight states in the film that "to Thaddeus Stevens, Reconstruction meant not only safeguarding and preserving the essential results of the Civil War but in his vision, it meant remaking the South. It meant the increase of democracy in terms of representation. It meant the spread of the right of suffrage" (Film: "Reconstruction" 26:30). On the other hand, Johnson's aim was to unite the white North and the white South without room for the black community. The film effectively depicted how he thought that African Americans should accept their inferior position in society and return to their previous work. This contempt for the freedmen infuriated many people. Johnson wanted little changes to the Constitution, but the Radical Republicans desired many changes. These differences in ideology and the proposal of Johnson's reconstruction plan angered the Radical Republicans. One specific action that Andrew Johnson did was pardon 15,000 to 20,000 planters. Johnson did this so the planters could get their land back and kick off whoever had currently lived on the land. One assistant commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau in Georgia was Disc Board Essays General Instructions & Rubric at Instructions & Rubric for Discussion Boards Weekly Discussion Board Rubric - 6 points each Disc Board Assignment Points Instructions Write a 300 words minimum response to the given prompt, answering each of the 3 study questions posed with a minimum 100-word response each in essay form, briefly NAMING, QUOTING & CITING EACH OF THE THREE ASSIGNED SOURCES once in the entire essay. **This primary post is DUE SATURDAYS and is worth 4 pts.** At the end of your responses, create one study question of your own based on the content of any of the three assigned sources: (1) the textbook, (2) Lecture or PowerPoint, and (3) the Documentary Film that you would like students reading your post to respond to. Also, you must write a minimum а of 2 replies to other students' study_questions, answering each question posed with a 100- word minimum response. **These secondary posts are DUE SUNDAYS and are worth 1 Ipt each** 16 Discussion Boards will close after their due date and time and there will be no late posts accepted.*** 5.5 Ex: One substantial primary post and 2 responses, but responses do not sufficiently answer questions posed. 15 Ex: One primary post and only one secondary post 4.5 Ex: One primary post and one secondary post BUT primary post is weak and incomplete 4 Ex: Only the primary post 3 Ex: Weak Primary post - no secondary posts 12 EX: Primary post is LATE - only secondary posts get points
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