Humanities
SOC120 Ashford University Women Equality Paper

SOC120

ashford university

Question Description

In this course, you have looked at classical ethical theories of utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics. You have also examined different perspectives on ethical issues introduced by relativism, ethical egoism, and emotivism. For this paper, you will apply these theories and perspectives to a current issue.

Chosen Topic: Women's equality

In your paper, you will apply ethical theories and perspectives to the issue that you select. You do not have to use all six, but you should apply at least two ethical theories and at least one ethical perspective in your paper. Make sure that you write primarily on ethical topics and concepts, aiming to be both balanced and intellectually driven in your work. You may share your personal views, but do not rely on opinions (yours or those offered by others) to make your case. Think about the evidence that helps to make your case and use it.

Address the following questions:

  • What are the ethical issues?
  • Where are there breaches of ethical behavior?
  • How could each ethical theory you cite help people think about what constitutes virtuous or ethical behavior?

The paper must be 1500-1800 words in length (excluding title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style. Excluding the textbook, you must use at least five scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library to support your claims. You can also use the Sociology Research Guide located in the Ashford University Library. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..

The Final Paper

  • Must be 1500-1800 words in length (not including title and references pages), double-spaced, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Be sure to double-space your text and use one-inch margins.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
    • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
    • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
    • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use at least five scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: WOMEN’S EQUALITY 1 Women’s Equality Sher-Kona Malcom Soc:120 Introduction to Ethics and Social Responsibility Instructor: Owen Alexander Miller August 6, 2017 WOMEN’S EQUALITY 2 Introduction Ethical issues come up when people react to different situations which are presented on the basis of moral grounds. One issue which is generally seen around the world is women’s equality - where women find it difficult to express themselves because the society deems them inferior to men in all aspects. The unequal rights of women in the society show that the full potential, economically or socially, is not met because the majority of the population is denied opportunities to fulfill them. Equality will ensure that women are presented with similar job opportunities and equally competitive salaries as the men. It will also empower them to receive an education that will make them competitive and improve their status in the society. Women’s equality is an ethical issue which affects the whole society socially and economically (Winston & Edelbach, 2014). Women’s equality is a dilemma since different people and societies deal differently because of assumptions, and culture which is explained through deontology and utilitarianism ethical theories as well as relativism perspective. Breaches of Ethical Behavior in Women’s Equality Instances, where women’s equality should be addressed, are such as the inaccessibility to basic education, unequal economic and political opportunities, affect the whole society. Women suffer when societies prohibit them from performing certain duties and if they do, the men are rewarded more than them. It is unfair to refuse to hand roles to women because the society does not allow. For instance, the field of politics and top positions in companies are deemed for men whereas there are capable women who can deliver quality services in the same positions, if not better. Denying women, the right to certain privileges when they are pregnant, also affects the WOMEN’S EQUALITY 3 economic potential of the society. Other cultures undervalue women and provide ground for sexselective abortion. There have been major improvements on the issue but the status of women’s equality has not yet been achieved. It is the duty of the whole society to focus on achieving equality for women now so that the same issue should not be passed over to the future generations. Ethical Theories and Perspectives on Women’s Equality The two theories which could help in the understanding of ethical behavior when dealing with equality are utilitarianism and deontology. According to utilitarianism, happiness or the goodness of a variable should be maximized for all. While focusing on the choice made for the good of all, there are instances where the less unfortunate benefit and the ones with more have some of their benefits taken away. In the case of utilitarianism and women’s equality, the society suffers because the full potential is not met when the women do not have the capability and the rights to perform certain roles in a society. For the benefit of the whole society, both women and men should be awarded the same opportunities (Klein et al., 2014). The happiness will be maximized because the women will no longer depend on men for prosperity and the society will grow economically and socially. Maximization of happiness in the society will have a positive economic impact on the men and then everyone will benefit. It is therefore ethical to have equality for women as shown by utilitarianism. Deontology theory states that rightness or wrongness is determined by the nature of the action such that if the result is good then the action is deemed good. The whole point focuses on the duty which is supposed to be carried and is given priority over a choice. When the society refuses to offer equal opportunities to the women and the men, it fails to perform its duty and the action is therefore unethical. When the woman who works the same as the man is given less pay WOMEN’S EQUALITY 4 that is unfair treatment. It is wrong to treat women as inferior beings. When women cannot access certain offices because of their gender the action remains to be unethical because the society has the duty to offer equal opportunities. The theory shows that equality is to be practiced by all and respect should be given to everyone equally. Ethical relativism states that an action is deemed morally right or wrong depending on the norms and the culture from where it is practiced (White, 2017). Relativism assures that morality cannot cut across borders because of difference in cultures. Therefore, a society which looks down on women cannot be said to be morally wrong because it is a norm and they practice it. This perspective shows why equality cannot be accepted globally. It shows that cultures may suppress women’s equality rights because they would take that the western culture is forced on them. While it is their right to uphold their culture, and deem women inferior to men, they should consider the effects it has on their society. The societies which suppress their women and refuse to take a step to equality are playing a huge role in the slow advancement socially, economically, and politically. Organizations in these societies should play the role of educating the people and showing them the benefits of equality for women. Conclusion Various issues within the society can be assessed using ethical theories and perspectives which help us understand why certain issues are treated differently. Women’s equality is an ethical issue through which deontology and utilitarianism theories, as well as relativism perspective, have shown why it is morally right to achieve equality although it is far from being attained globally. The equality of women is a concern for everyone and should be awarded the highest priority. Understanding the ethical theories and perspectives would help societies deal WOMEN’S EQUALITY with the issue positively. It would change the world as we know it and create a better place for the future generations. 5 WOMEN’S EQUALITY 6 References Klein, S. S., Richardson, B., Grayson, D. A., Fox, L. H., Kramarae, C., Pollard, D. S., & Dwyer, C. A. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook for achieving gender equity through education. Routledge. White, T. I. (2017). Right and wrong: A practical introduction to ethics. Chichester, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Winston, M. E., & Edelbach, R. (2014). Society, ethics, and technology. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Grading Rubric for Final Paper Total Possible Score: 25.00 Includes an Introduction and Thesis Statement Total: 3.00 Distinguished - Includes a comprehensive introduction and a clear thesis statement that effectively reflects the argument of the paper and links the chosen ethical theories and perspective to the chosen social issue. Proficient - Includes an introduction and a thesis statement that reflects the argument of the paper and links the chosen ethical theories and perspective to the chosen social issue. The introduction or thesis statement is slightly underdeveloped. Basic - Includes a partial introduction and a limited thesis statement that reflects the argument of the paper and links the chosen ethical theories and perspective to the chosen social issue. The introduction and/or thesis statement are underdeveloped. Below Expectations - Attempts to include an introduction and a thesis statement; however, the thesis does not reflect the argument of the paper and does not link the chosen ethical theories and perspective to the chosen social issue. The introduction and thesis statement are significantly underdeveloped. Non-Performance - The introduction and thesis statement are either nonexistent or lack the components described in the assignment instructions. Explains How the Ethical Theories and Perspective Would Address the Chosen Social Issue Total: 8.00 Distinguished - Thoroughly explains how the ethical theories and perspective would address the chosen social issue and fully considers all questions. Effectively applies course concepts and vocabulary to support the explanation. Proficient - Explains how the ethical theories and perspective would address the chosen social issue and addresses all questions. Applies course concepts and vocabulary to support the explanation, but minor details are missing. Basic - Partially explains how the ethical theories and perspective would address the chosen social issue and somewhat addresses all questions. Applies course concepts and vocabulary to support the explanation, and relevant details are missing. Below Expectations - Attempts to explain how the ethical theories and perspective would address the chosen social issue; however, does not address all questions and course concepts and vocabulary are not applied to support the explanation. Significant details are missing. Non-Performance - The explanation of how the ethical theories and perspective would address the social issue is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions. Organization Total: 5.00 Distinguished - All arguments are strongly supported with specific and relevant details and/or examples and overall the paper is logically organized. Proficient - Arguments are supported with specific details and/or examples and the paper is logically organized. Minor details are slightly irrelevant or missing. Basic - Some arguments are supported with details and/or examples, and the paper is limited in organization. Some details are irrelevant and/or missing. Below Expectations - Arguments are not supported with details and/or examples, and the paper severely lacks organization. Many details are irrelevant and missing. Non-Performance - The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions. Incorporates Draft Feedback in the Development of the Final Paper Total: 4.00 Distinguished - Effectively uses the draft feedback in the development of the Final Paper. Proficient - Adequately uses the draft feedback in the development of the Final Paper. Basic - Uses some draft feedback in the development of the Final Paper. Below Expectations - Uses minimal draft feedback in the development of the Final Paper. Non-Performance - The incorporation of draft feedback in the development of the Final Paper is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions. Applied Ethics: Application of Ethical Perspectives/Concepts Total: 1.00 Distinguished - Independently applies ethical viewpoints to an ethical question correctly and considers the full ramifications of the application. Proficient - Independently applies ethical viewpoints to an ethical question correctly, but does not consider the specific ramifications of the application. Basic - Applies ethical viewpoints to an ethical question with support, but is unable to apply ethical perspectives/concepts independently. Below Expectations - Inaccurately constructs ethical viewpoints to an ethical question. Non-Performance - The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions. Applied Ethics: Understanding Different Ethical Perspectives/Concepts Total: 1.00 Distinguished - States and describes the theory and accurately explains the details of the theory used. Proficient - States and describes the theory and explain the details of the theory, but with some inaccuracies. Basic - States and describes the major theory used. Below Expectations - Only states the major theory used. Non-Performance - The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions. Critical Thinking: Evidence Total: 1.50 Distinguished - Employs persuasive and applicable information from credible sources to develop an ample analysis or synthesis of the topic. Viewpoints of experts are scrutinized thoroughly. Proficient - Employs applicable information from credible sources to develop an analysis of the topic. Basic - Identifies applicable information from credible sources, but may neglect the application of such information toward the analysis of the topic. Below Expectations - Presents information from external sources, but such information may lack credibility and/or relevance. Neglects to apply such information toward the analysis of the topic. Non-Performance - The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions. Written Communication: APA Formatting Total: 0.50 Distinguished - Accurately uses APA formatting consistently throughout the paper, title page, and reference page. Proficient - Exhibits APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout contains a few minor errors. Basic - Exhibits limited knowledge of APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout does not meet all APA requirements. Below Expectations - Fails to exhibit basic knowledge of APA formatting. There are frequent errors, making the layout difficult to distinguish as APA. Non-Performance - The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions. Written Communication: Page Requirement Total: 0.50 Distinguished - The length of the paper is equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages. Proficient - The length of the paper is nearly equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages. Basic - The length of the paper is equivalent to at least three quarters of the required number of correctly formatted pages. Below Expectations - The length of the paper is equivalent to at least one half of the required number of correctly formatted pages. Non-Performance - The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions. Written Communication: Resource Requirement Total: 0.50 Distinguished - Uses more than the required number of scholarly sources, providing compelling evidence to support ideas. All sources on the reference page are used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment. Proficient - Uses the required number of scholarly sources to support ideas. All sources on the reference page are used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment. Basic - Uses less than the required number of sources to support ideas. Some sources may not be scholarly. Most sources on the reference page are used within the body of the assignment. Citations may not be formatted correctly. Below Expectations - Uses an inadequate number of sources that provide little or no support for ideas. Sources used may not be scholarly. Most sources on the reference page are not used within the body of the assignment. Citations are not formatted correctly. Non-Performance - The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions. Running head: ETHICAL CONTRIBUTIONS (Including a Running head and page numbers help to keep your assignment organized.) Are Contributions to Political Campaigns Ethical? Joanna Student SOC120: Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility (Course Section) Week 5 Final Paper Dr. Ashford Instructor July, 1, 20XX 1 ETHICAL CONTRIBUTIONS 2 Ethical Contributions to Political Campaigns A question that comes up frequently in political discussions is whether organizations like corporations have too much influence over the political landscape today. Corporations have many resources through which to effect political change, including lobbyists, quid pro quo back door arrangements and campaign contributions. Because these funds can have a large influence on who wins elections and the legislation that politicians support, it is important for an educated citizenry to be aware of these contributions, and to consider their ethical implications. I will argue that from the utilitarian perspective, indirect contributions to political campaigns by organizations like corporations and unions can be ethical and should be allowed so long as there are sufficient regulations in place to prevent undue harm that might result from giving large organizations too much influence over the political process. I will contrast this view with that of ethical egoism, which would argue that such contributions are ethical inasmuch as they allow corporations to pursue their own long term interests. According to the Federal Elections Commission (2004), "The Federal Election Campaign Act (the Act) places monetary limits on contributions to support candidates for federal office and prohibits contributions from certain sources." However, corporations are allowed to create separate bank accounts and then make donations from these accounts to political campaigns as long as they are not connected directly to the operation of the business. Regarding this type of donation, the FEC (2004) stated that, "Contributions may…be made from separate segregated funds (also called political action committees or PACs) established by corporations, labor organizations, national banks, and incorporated membership organizations.” In other words, corporations can set up PACs that in turn give large amounts of money to support candidates. Because these funds can have a large influence on who wins elections and the legislation that ETHICAL CONTRIBUTIONS 3 they support, it is important for an educated citizenry to be aware of the potential ethical impacts of these contributions. The sections that follow address how two of the most important moral theories would address this issue. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is the moral theory that actions are right or wrong in proportion to the degree to which they promote the happiness of all concerned (Mill, 2015). Accordingly, whether or not corporate campaign contributions are ethical will depend on the overall consequences of such contributions. If a corporation’s making a contribution results in better overall consequences than not making it, or than making a different contribution, then the contribution would be considered ethical. On the other hand, if the contribution results in more harm than good, then the contribution would be unethical. For instance, a contribution to a candidate could be unethical if it results in benefits to the corporation itself, but does so at the expense of many others in the society. The primary question of this paper is not whether particular cases of such contributions are wrong, but whether corporate contributions to political campaigns are wrong in general; that is, does permitting them have greater overall consequences than banning them would have? I will argue that with careful oversight, the benefits of such contributions can outweigh their potential harms, so allowing them is ethical from a utilitarian point of view. There are various reasons that representatives of a corporation may want to make donations to a political campaign. Corporations may be trying to advance their particular organizational objectives or they may stand to garner an economic benefit. While a corporation will always be concerned with its own future profits, this does not necessarily conflict with the interests of society as a whole. In many cases, attempting to have a political influence that benefits the corporation can also benefit society as a whole. For example, a contribution that ETHICAL CONTRIBUTIONS 4 helps a corporation to succeed in the market place can result in the continued employment of thousands of people, as well as the provision of important goods and services at lower prices. Another example of the positive use of political contributions comes not from corporations but from unions. According to the Center for Responsive Politics (2016), the largest all-time contributors to campaigns has been labor unions such as the Service Employees International Union (SEIU) which ranked number one with $228,096,452 in donations since 1989. They were far ahead of the next two contribut ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Women Equality – Outline
Thesis Statement: The contravening element of equality regarding women challenges the
ethical and natural order in the exchange with the human experience that guides performance and
adherence.
I.
II.

Introduction
Utilitarianism

III.

Deontology

IV.

Relativism

V.

Conclusion


Running head: WOMEN EQUALITY

1

Women Equality
Name
Institution

WOMEN EQUALITY

2
Women Equality
Introduction

The discussion about women equality has been one that has refused to go away despite
the extensive efforts being undertaken to ensure the one-third gender parity is achieved. It is a
social issue that has continued to engage every part of the society as women become more
empowered and men feel threatened by the sudden growth of women power. The conception of
the issue does not lie in emerging thoughts but in the necessary changes that have slowly been
introduced into the society. These changes have seen the social change from a predominantly
male-dominated to a power-sharing society, from a traditional and culture-based society to a
technological society, and from a reserved society to an informed and articulating community.
These changes have helped in the restructuring of the society as well from the mental bondage
that regard women as “lesser beings” in the society. In fact, modernity has demanded that all
genders be equal and that roles be divided into two. The gender differences have not hindered
women from competing for head-to-head with men in nearly every aspect of the modern world.
Nevertheless, this has not meant that even modernity has not found it difficult to carve out a
niche for women, even when all structural, legal and societal guidelines demand so. The idea of
women equality is a natural phenomenon that requires a natural incentive to ensure correct
changes to the natural order of things. Equality is a natural concept that functions on the natural
understanding that defines the social order of things and the allocation of different roles without
favoring one side over the other. The contravening element of equality regarding women
challenges the ethical and natural order in the exchange with the human experience that guides
performance and adherence.

WOMEN EQUALITY

3
Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is a doctrine that ascribes actions t...

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