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Running Head MEMORY
Declarative or Implicit Memory
The term declarative or explicit memory is sometimes used to refer to the phenomena
discussed so far in this section. In explicit retrieval situations, the rememberer views the
situation as a memory situation and engages in some conscious, attention-demanding,
controlled processing to generate a memory decision or report. The report often refers to a
particular acquisition situation, as in the cases of recognizing a sentence that appeared in a
particular story or recalling what a person said on a particular occasion. Consider the contrast
with the procedural memory built up during skill acquisition. Here the typical retrieval
situation is the performance of the skill. The measure of procedural acquisition is whether the
performance of the skill improves. The performer simply performs the skill as well as
possible, without engaging in any of the cognitive processes needed to generate memory
reports and without trying to reflect upon any particular prior practice session. Indeed, we
have argued that the contents of automatized productions cannot be declaratively accessed at
all (Graf, & Masson 2013).
In contrast with explicit memory tests, one can refer skilled performance as an
implicit memory test. In the middle of implicit and explicit memory, the difference is rather
informal and is largely defined in terms of the characteristics of memory situations rather
than characteristics of the memories themselves. Declarative knowledge, for example, is
often accessed and processed implicitly during the speech, planning, or reasoning without
reference to any specific prior acquisition situation and without the operation of the cognitive
processes associated with explicit memory reports (Clark, 2013).
Although there is evidence for metacognition largely being implicit, there are, without
a doubt, explicit components in metacognitive activities. For example, deliberate
metacognitive reasoning, explicit selection of strategies in reading comprehension,...
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