the political and social effects of racial profiling within law enforcement.
Conduct research and find at least two scholarly resources on this topic. Then,
conduct a brief comparative analysis between criminal profiling and racial
profiling. Identify the concerns brought forward by the community and the
American Civil Liberties Union (A.C.L.U.) regarding racial profiling. Provide
your opinion on how law enforcement should allay these concerns.
The police must
not have had a high approval rating for the public to believe the media. “In
2013, the Ferguson Police Department made 5,384 stops and 611 searches. 86
percent of the stops and 92 percent of the searches were of black people. Only
67 percent of the town's population is black” (Madrigal, 2014). What is not acceptable is the racial disparity
by these numbers.
Sometimes, a local police
department has unhealthy
numbers as a result of police interaction in racist actions, and alternative times, the amount of stops and arrests the
police create. Whites are
stopped, but for different
offenses. “ If your stops of black folks
are less efficient than your stops of white folks," Goff said, "then
you want to look at that and make it stop” (Madrigal, 2014).
Race is a factor
that many individuals use to make initial judgments about people. When law enforcement practices are perceived as racially
biased, unfair or disrespectful, communities of color are less willing to trust
and confide in police officers (DeLord, & Sanders, 2006, p.121).
is a problem that occurs in our cities, and towns every day. Law Enforcement
loses their creditability and trust among those they are sworn to protect and
serve. Racial profiling is the use of an persons race or ethnicity as a key
factor in deciding whether law enforcement should stop a individual. When officers take race into account to develop a criminal
profile, they rely on stereotypes about criminal tendencies of minority groups,
rather than objective and rational criteria for suspicion (Rivera, 2008,
By the police using this kind of stereotyping this violates
many amendments to the United States Constitution. The legal system has failed
to prevent racial profiling from taking place. the legal system perpetuates a class
structure in which society may continue to socially oppress African Americans
by portraying them as possessing uncontrollable and innate urges toward
criminality (Rivera, 2008, p.5). There are many
African Americans that feel they are hunted by the police. The history of our
nation provides a lot of reasons why they should feel that way. “Police
officers do not exempt African Americans citizens from racial profiling based
on their education, wealth, or personal appearance” (Rivera, 2008,
there is favoritism when it comes to allocation of public resources and in
terms of job opportunities where a person who is more qualified would be left
out just because racists feel he is not qualified. But it’s just a case of
racism that lacks proper reasons for the unfair allocation. Police also harass
the victimized communities and place unjustified offences on them and other
cases are there where police have killed the victims for no good reason. An
example of racism in the USA is that of Boston police who engage in racially
biased police-civilian encounters where they target mostly black people and
harass them (Schaefer, 2008).
Criminal profiling is a case where
collected data from other similar crimes is used in building a profile that is
used in identifying an offender of a similar crime while racial profiling is
based on a particular authority identifying the race of the offender and
concluding that all individuals of that race are criminals. The ACLU's fight
against racial profiling includes initiatives in litigation, public education
where it emphasizes on proper and fair treatment towards all students despite
their background or race and also emphasizes the reduction of unfair treatment
by police to the victims. The ACLU has even gone ahead and provided advocates
in coat in the fight against this crime. It also emphasizes on anti-profiling
and litigation and acts on behalf of those who have been victimized.
A Center for
Policing Equity is creating “The Justice Database a national catalog of police
behavior—including stops and the use of force. They've received more than $1
million from the National Science Foundation, Department of Justice, and
several private foundations to create the aggregated national data” (Madrigal,
are laws in place such as the End Racial Profiling Act. But, that does not seem to be enough. We need
to remember Law Enforcement Officers carry weapons that kill citizens &
arrest people that do not want to be arrested, they are on the front lines and
their decisions are often instantaneous and may lead to injury or death”
(Delord & Sanders, 2006, p, 214).
death even their own.
DeLord, R., & Sanders, J. (2006,
labor-management relations (vol. I): Perspective and practical solution for
implementing change, making reforms, and handling crisis for managers and union
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
Retrieved from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/Publications/e07063417.pdf
Madrigal, A. C. (2014, August
15). How Much Racial Profiling Happens in Ferguson? — The Atlantic. Retrieved
Rivera, W. (2008, March). PDF] 2 ADDRESSING THE
REAL PROBLEM OF RACIAL PROFILING ... Retrieved from https://www.tourolaw.edu/.../Addressing%20the%20Real%20Problem%20of%20Racial%20P.
Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society. SAGE. p. 1113
please look over make any changes thanks