Answer the following two questions, devoting no more than three pages, typed double-
space, to each question. Answer the second question beginning on a new page.
1. Discuss how a Logical Positivist would respond to these remarks, and why, and how you
yourself would respond to the same remarks, and why:
(a) Metaphysical truths such as “There is a reality beyond the physical world” are
deeper than ordinary truths such as “The cat is on the mat.”
(b) Ostensive propositions, those which directly record an immediate experience such
as “This looks red to me here now,” are validated as true by our sense experience and
cannot be refuted by any subsequent experience.
(c) The hypothesis that this is a 3-volt battery can be conclusively verified as false by
connecting the battery to a voltmeter and observing the voltmeter's needle pointing to
"2" and not “3”.
(d) Some propositions are known a priori, such as “If the object is red all over, then it’s
not blue all over.”
Divide your answer to this question into four lettered parts, starting each part with a
2. Divide your answer to the following question into three lettered parts, starting each part
with a new paragraph.
(a) In his article "Philosophical Perplexity" (1936), John Wisdom says philosophical
progress has two aspects, provocation and pacification. Explain what he means. Would
Ryle and Wittgenstein be likely to agree with him in 1936? Do you?
(b) Discuss how Wisdom would be likely to react to the two comments below, and
discuss whether you agree with him. In your answer, make some reference to section 2c
called “Direct versus Indirect Intentionality” in the article "Intentionality" in the Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Seeing a rabbit, and hallucinating a rabbit, and having a dream of a rabbit, are all
similar. What makes them similar is that they are all cases of directly perceiving