I need it within 2 days. The due of this paper is on Saturday. So I need it on Friday. If you can do it as soon as possible, I will pay more for it. 10 pages is required.
this project, you will prepare a proposal, present and write a paper that
involves designing, conducting, and analyzing results from your own experiment
to test the sensory discrimination of one of your friends. Choose a friend who
claims to be able to tell the difference between two very similar objects. You
are free to choose the two objects, however here are some ideas to get you
thinking along the right lines: Coke vs. Pepsi, Regular vs. Decaf coffee, Sweet
'n' Low vs. Equal sweetener, butter vs. margarine, or Ghirardelli chocolate vs.
Hershey’s chocolate. Which you choose depends on whoever your “expert” testing
subject is. You will need to find an expert on your own, and will need to
supply your own materials. The cost of your experiment will obviously depend
primarily on the objects to be tested; testing to see if the subject can
discern between bottled water and tap water will only cost a couple dollars,
testing to see if the subject can discern between different brands of caviar
will get pricey fast!
Grading: The project is worth 30% of the course grade
– or a full letter grade.
Advice: Projects thrown together at the last minute
are obvious and will be graded accordingly.
If you pick an interesting test and make progress gradually throughout
the remainder of the term, you will learn a lot of maybe have fun along the
Description: Provide an overview of
your project and include the following
· What is the idea
you want to test?
· Who is your
· What are you
While something simple
like butter vs. margarine or bottled water vs. tap water is a reasonable topic,
students who have been more creative in their subject selection have found this
paper to be rather enjoyable. Some examples of creative subjects:
Testing to see is one call tell the difference between freshly grated parmesan
cheese and the Kraft brand parmesan cheese (in the green tube).
One individual's wife
maintained that the white candies from a box of Good 'N' Plenty candy did not
taste as good as the pink candies. The test was to see if his wife could tell
One individual had a
friend who ran a wine tasting social group. She tested whether or not her
friend could discern between red and white wine by bouquet alone.
Note that this does not say that one of the more "creative" ideas
will necessarily make for a better experiment, paper, or grade. You are more
likely, however, to enjoy the process of conducting the experiment and
analyzing the data should you put serious thought into your test subject.
Objectives: Provide a list of
key objectives of your project.
· Constraints: What will constrain your project in terms of
resources, time or scope? Please
specifically address the following as well.
· How will you handle ethical guidelines? Look at the ethical guidelines below. Are any
of them applicable to your project? If not, explain why. If so, how will you
(1). Do not test somebody against
their will! Let the subject know in advance the details of what you will be
(2). If your product/products are
restricted in your locale (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, etc) ensure that all people
involved with the direct experimentation are LEGALLY allowed to handle these
products in your state/locality. For example, if you are testing that the
subject can tell the difference between regular and non-alcoholic beer, the
experimenter, subject, and any assistants the experimenter may have on hand
must be over the age of 21.
(3). Ensure that you are using any
products you are testing responsibly. For example, make sure that your subject
isn't allergic to the ingredients to either of your products. If alcohol is
involved, take steps to avoid inebriation (both for safety reasons AND
experimental reasons--the trials are no longer independent if the subject is in
a different "state" at the beginning of each trial--ideally, your
subject's "state" will be identical at the start of each trial). If
you are testing if the subject can tell the difference between bottled water and
local tap water, design your experiment in such a way that the subject isn't in
any danger of hyper-hydration (water intoxication).
· Assumptions. Please mention any assumptions (explicit or
implicit) in your project. Include at a
minimum how you will keep your tests independent (see below):
· How will you
handle special issues? You also want
to keep in mind that you may have some special issues that may arise due to the
nature of the product/products you are testing, such as how to ensure the
trials are independent or special testing procedures (blindfolds, earplugs,
Consider both what you are testing and how you are testing it. Does the test
directly address your question? Or are there other possible interpretations of
a positive result? As an example, say your subject claims to be able to tell
the difference between Coca Cola and generic cola. So you go to Wal-Mart and
pick up a 2 liter bottle of Coke and a 2 liter bottle of Sam's Choice cola,
administer your trials, and find that your subject can indeed tell the
difference. Now, have you demonstrated that your subject can differentiate
between Coke and generic cola or just between Coke and Sam's Choice cola?
(hint--you may want to design your project to avoid this very issue!)
Information on Running Your Experiment
you should brainstorm to find a friend who is either a self-proclaimed expert
or has some food/beverage related idiosyncrasy.
a protocol for administering the test:
What should be
done about random variations in the items to be tested? For example, how do you
prevent temperature change in the product, or to make sure each cup of coffee
is equally sweet or has the same amount of cream? Before conducting your
experiment, carefully lay out the procedure for administering the test, such as
how the coffee will be made, how the wine will be decanted, and so forth. This
is related to the important issue of ensuring that each trial is independent
(i.e. the previous trials aren’t tainting your taster’s sense of taste). If you
have ever been to a wine tasting, you’ll notice that you can tell the
difference between the first few sips of wine, but once you get to the 11th and
12th glass, it’s all sort of a blur (and not due to inebriation!). Carefully
consider how you will attempt to overcome this problem.
How many trials
should be used in the test? In what order should the items be presented? Should
the experiment be run in one sitting or spaced out over a number of days? Done
properly, the experiment should be designed such that if the expert has no
expert skills, the result will be wholly governed by chance. The number and
ordering of the trials should allow an expert to prove his or her abilities
while simultaneously preventing a fraud from succeeding. You will want to keep
the binomial distribution in mind when making these decisions.
What conclusion could be drawn from a perfect score or from
a test with one or more errors? For the design you are considering, list all
possible results of the experiment. For each possible result, decide in advance
what conclusion you will make if it occurs. In determining this mapping of
outcomes to conclusions, consider the probability that someone with no powers
of discrimination could wind up with each outcome. You may want to make
adjustments in your design to increase the sensitivity of your experiment. For
example, if someone can’t distinguish decaf coffee from regular, then just by
guessing, he/she should still be right half of the time and there will be a
small chance, which you should calculate, of being right 100% of the time. On
the other hand, if the taster possesses some, but not perfect, skill in
differentiation, he or she will make some mistakes.
3. Write out an instruction
sheet for your experimental process. Conduct a “dress rehearsal” on somebody
other than your subject to work out kinks in the process. After the practice
run, determine whether or not you want to make changes in your instruction
sheet to address any problems that arose. This practice run is an extremely
important step; many people make big mistakes in their first attempt and
historically, students who have taken this step seriously have scored much more
highly on this project than those who do not.
4. You should now be ready
to run your experiment. Record your results CAREFULLY, and note any unusual
occurrences in the experimental process. It may be a good idea to keep track of
the order in which the samples are served to your subject.
5. Numerically, summarize
the results and analyze the data. Do they support or contradict the claim that
the subject possesses no sensory discrimination? Use your list of all possible
events and subsequent actions to come to a conclusion. Discuss the reasons
behind the decision that you have made.
6. What changes would you
make to your experimental process if you had the opportunity to do it again?
Why didn't you pick these issues up when you did your practice run?
Written Report Guidelines
Date: See Syllabus
Length: +/-10 pages (to include title and appendices
a. Purpose of the study. The purpose of the study formally
explains why the study was important to conduct and write the null and
alternative hypotheses of the study .
Method. The Method section explains how the study was
conducted to collect data. The section should include the following:
of the study. Who are they? Where did you get the participants for the study?
Which sampling design was used to select the participants?
design. Which experimental/sampling design was used in the study?
Collection. Explain the method used to collect data.
Analysis. For hypothesis testing, explain how you planned to calculate the
procedure. Explain the explicit steps from beginning to end for conducting the
study. If another researcher wants to replicate the study, the directions must
contain precise information for conducting the study.
Analysis. Show the results
of your data analysis, including tables and charts as necessary. You should
also discuss, in plain English, the results of the data calculation, both in
terms of magnitude and significance.
Discussion. Discuss what you learned from the data
collected. Did the results support or not support the null hypothesis?
points. Please include 3-5 key learning points that
you have gained either from the experiment or your project process. These can include learning something you
didn’t know and/or what you would do differently if you conducted this type of
run a spell/grammar check of your final report.
· Place the charts, tables, and other relevant
documents in an appendix at the end of your paper. Your paper should contain
text, plus any additional charts/tables/graphs found in the appendix.