CVS embryology. Pediatrics powerpoint

Sep 5th, 2017
Anonymous
Category:
Calculus
Price: $45 USD

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should cover a lecture of 90 minutes

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(Top Tutor) PlasmaB
School: Cornell University
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Embryology of the
heart and the
great vessels

Steps in the embryology of
the vascular system
• ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CARDIOGENIC FIELD
• FORMATION AND POSITION OF THE HEART TUBE
• FORMATION OF THE CARDIAC LOOP
• MOLECULAR REGULATION OF CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT

• DEVELOPMENT OF THE SINUS VENOSUS
• FORMATION OF THE CARDIAC SEPTAE
• FORMATION OF THE CONDUCTING SYSTEM OF THE HEART

• VASCULAR DEVELOPMENT

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CARDIOGENIC
FIELD

Dorsal view of a late presomite
embryo (approximately 18
days) after removal of the
amnion.
Prospective myoblasts and
hemangioblasts reside in the
splanchnic mesoderm in front
of the neural plate and on each
side of the embryo after
migrating up from the primitive
streak

• Transverse section through a
similar-staged embryo to show
the position of the blood islands
in the splanchnic mesoderm
layer.
• With time, the islands unite and
form a horseshoe-shaped
endothelial-lined tube
surrounded by myoblasts. This
region is known as the
cardiogenic field
• In addition to the cardiogenic
region, other blood islands
appear bilaterally, parallel and
close to the midline of the
embryonic shield. These islands
form a pair of longitudinal
vessels, the dorsal aortae.
223

Cephalocaudal section through a similar
staged embryo showing the position of the
pericardial cavity and cardiogenic field.

FORMATION AND POSITION OF THE
HEART TUBE

2 processes responsible for positioning of the heart
1. Folding of the embryo in a cephalocaudal direction

2. Simultanous folding laterally

Cephalocaudal folding
Figures showing effects of the rapid growth of the brain on positioning
of the heart. Initially the cardiogenic area and the pericardial cavity are in front
of the buccopharyngeal membrane. A. 18 days. B. 20 days. C. 21 days. D. 22 days

Lateral folding of the embryo

Formation of the cardiac loop

Bulbus cordis

Primitive ventricle

The primitive atrium and
sinus venosus

Abnormalities of cardiac
looping
Dextrocardia, in which the heart lies on the
right side of the thorax instead of the left, is
caused because the heart loops to the left
instead of the right.
Dextrocardia may coincide with situs
inversus

Molecular regulation of
cardiac development
Dependent on the
activation of two
transcription factors
• NKX2.5
• Specifies
cardiogenic
field
• Septation
• Conduction
system
• TBX5
• Septation

Development of the sinus
venosus
4th week
receives blood from
right and left sinus horns
5th week
Obliteration
R umbilical vein
left vitelline vein

Development of the sinus
venosus(2)

10th week left common cardinal vein obliterates

Development o...

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