Lesson 3: The Body Paragraphs

Sep 5th, 2017
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Question description

In this assignment, you will write three to four body paragraphs according to the form that is explained in "Lesson 3: The Body Paragraphs." The following requirements must be included in the assignment:

 Body Paragraphs: You will construct three to four paragraphs comprised of five to seven sentences each. Each paragraph should be between 150-200 words. At a minimum, this portion of the paper should be around 450-600 words (for three to four paragraphs); a body section of this length will meet the minimum requirements of the assignment. The following components must be included in each body paragraph (in the following order).

o Sentence 1: Point/reason sentence: This topic sentence will contain one of your reasons.

o Sentence 2: Explanation: In this sentence, you provide information that further develops or explains Sentence 1.

o Sentence 3: Illustration: This sentence introduces evidence that supports the reason that is presented in Sentence 1.

Sentence 4: Explanation of the illustration: Because the evidence does not necessarily stand on its own, you need to provide explanation so that the reader will understand how you interpreted the evidence to come to your reason.

o Sentences 5-6: Second illustration and explanation (optional): You may choose to include a second piece of evidence that is then followed by an explanation.

o Last Sentence: Transition: In this sentence, you will signal to the reader that you will be moving on to another point in the next paragraph. You do this to ease the movement from one point to another.

 Be sure to include the introduction and literature review you have already created and revised.

 Use APA conventions to cite and reference all sources used to support your argument.


Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY Literature Review on Psychology Nicholas Duffield Southern Columbia University 1 LITERATURE REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY Literature Review on Psychology Introduction The general topic is social psychology and identifying psychology in the social perspective is done through being able to establish a certain identity aspect that identifies a particular group of people and what they individually stand for. The positive side of psychology is the ability to be able to fully explain why individuals tend to identify themselves with certain behaviors as well as groups. On the other hand, the con side is that although social psychology tries to explain attitude, it does not give a clear explanation of attitude since it is hypothetical and can vary based on the situation. Attitude, as well as behaviors, can be regarded as the two most important aspects that form the basis of psychology (Eagly & Chaiken,1993). Social psychology is the narrowed down scope of the study, and it is surrounded by controversies concerning the research and the manner in which it is conducted. Although social psychology is a scientific aspect, most researchers use fraudulent means to get the results and therefore the real act of studying human behavior to get the actual findings is rarely conducted. The main controversy on psychology is the replication of previous findings in the current research that results in false research work since fraudulent activities are involved. As such, most researchers collude with an expert in social psychology to replicate previous findings as opposed to going to the field to conduct the actual research. The pro side of the controversy is that the study of social psychology should be done in a social setting as opposed to using deception to conceal and disorganize certain aspects of the study. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY On the other hand, the con side of the controversy is the scope and purpose of conducting the research, which has varied opinions. It is not quite clear on how wide the scope should be and what attention, as well as deep analysis, should be done on a specific topic. For a proper social psychology research to be done, the scope and the methods used should be appropriate and agreed on. As such, the research, as well as the methods of social psychology, requires both natures, nurture and free will (Hogg, Terry & White, 1995). The best type of research to undertake largely depends on the researcher’s subject of exploration, the available resources, and the hypothesis or theory under investigation. Literature Review Social psychology is a topic that is of interest to many researchers and useful in being able to explain particular aspects of human beings in addition to determining why people identify with specific groups as well as the attitudes and behaviors. It is however expected that researchers use the actual social setting to give accurate findings that can be used in developing specific social theories. However, this is not the case as it has become a trend for the researchers to collude with the social psychologists in replicating the results from previous research by assuming that the findings will be the same. Additionally, the real social setting is tampered with to manipulate the findings that the researchers expect, therefore creating more controversies. On the other hand, the con side of social psychology controversy is that the scope and main purpose of the research are not fully identified, therefore creating confusion. Replication of findings is a common problem in social psychology, considering it follows the scientific trend of attempting to remain accurate and consistent with previous research. Replications always protect against any form of false positive and therefore remains constant by avoiding to becoming irrelevant (Earp & Trafimow, 2015). As such, researchers in social 3 LITERATURE REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY psychology always want to remain relevant by attempting to manipulate results so that they can follow already accepted findings from previous research that was accepted. When attempts are made by researchers in psychology to replicate results, they are perceived to be laying bricks as opposed to advancing the expected knowledge on the particular topic (Earp & Trafimow, 2015). Replication does not always provide the correct results, as there is a high possibility of having a failed attempt. In replication, it is argued that conducting the same experiment using the same methods should give the exact findings regardless of the individual conducting it (Earp & Trafimow, 2015). Therefore, if the previous researchers found the same results using the same findings, then it is reasonable to replicate them for purposes of consistency in research work. Additionally, it is argued out that replicating the findings is quite effective in improving on the shortcomings of the previous research (Simons et al., 2014). In conducting the research, one can identify that some of the results are not consistent with what they were expecting and therefore decide to replicate those from previous findings that used a similar method. For replication to be informative, it needs not to be conclusive (Earp & Trafimow, 2015), some research work in social psychology only tends up to build up on the previous work through replication, and there is, therefore, no need of forcing it to have clear conclusion on the said matter. The main motivation behind replication as a source of controversy is the tendency of journals that are consistent with previous findings being published while those that show original and untampered results that are inconsistent are discarded as they are considered as ‘failed’ (Earp & Trafimow, 2015). Therefore, researchers avoid being different in reporting findings that are different from the actual ones as they have the phobia of being discriminated in publishing. 4 LITERATURE REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY The con controversy is the lack of a scope and methodology in research. There are specific ethics in psychology that researcher tends not to adhere to and therefore end up using their methodologies and scope to conduct research (Youngpeter, 2008). As such, the use of differing controversies in psychological research creates controversies as individuals give differing findings. To eliminate the controversy created by different methodologies, countries like the US have come up with the American Psychological Association standards to ensure that all the researchers use the same methodology and stick to a specific scope (Youngpeter, 2008). The use of a specific methodology in psychology is likely to give useful results that are credible and reliable. All the aspects of the controversy have led to a new focus of attention where replication is supported by a researcher and expert in social psychology (Hogg, Terry & White, 1995). The basic reason why social psychology researchers try to replicate their results is because every research has got limitations. Experts and researchers in social psychology therefore replicate their findings through the use of different populations, settings and measures and use meta-analysis in summarizing the results. In conclusion, the use of the methodology in social psychology is critical in eliminating the controversies that come about due to differences in the method as well as scope, resulting in controversies being created. In an attempt to overcome controversies, the United States has made a stride in ensuring that all research work in psychology follows the set APA guideline for consistency. Therefore, the con side of the controversy in psychology that is scope and methodology results in inconsistent findings. On the other hand, the pro in controversy is replication, and the main justification used by it, that research work with a similar method and scope should always give exact findings. However, this is not the case as there is a likelihood of 5 LITERATURE REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY different results being obtained. Therefore, the research, as well as the methods of social psychology, requires both nature, nurture, and free will. 6 LITERATURE REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY References Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. Earp, B. D., & Trafimow, D. (2015). Replication, falsification, as well as the crisis of confidence in social psychology. Frontiers in psychology 6. Hogg, M. A., Terry, D. J., & White, K. M. (1995). A tale of two theories: A critical comparison of identity theory with social identity theory. Social psychology quarterly, 255-269. Simons, D. J., Holcombe, A. O., & Spellman, B. A. (2014). An introduction to the registered replication reports at perspectives on psychological science. Perspectives on the Psychological Science, 9(5), 552-555. Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. CUP Archive. Youngpeter, K. (2008). Controversial psychological research in the methods and their specific i influence on the particular development of the formal ethical guidelines. Student Journal of the Psychological Science, 1(1), 4-12. 7

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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY

Literature Review on Psychology
Nicholas Duffield
Southern Columbia University

1

LITERATURE REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGY
Literature Review on Psychology
Introduction
The general topic is social psychology and identifying psychology in the social
perspective is done through being able to establish a certain identity aspect that identifies a
particular group of people and what they individually stand for. The positive side of psychology
is the ability to be able to fully explain why individuals tend to identify themselves with certain
behaviors as well as groups. On the other hand, the con side is that although social psychology
tries to explain attitude, it does not give a clear explanation of attitude since it is hypothetical and
can vary based on the situation.
Attitude, as well as behaviors, can be regarded as the two most important aspects that
form the basis of psychology (Eagly & Chaiken,1993). Social psychology is the narrowed down
scope of the study, and it is surrounded by controversies concerning the research and the manner
in which it is conducted. Although social psychology is a scientific aspect, most researchers use
fraudulent means to get the results and therefore the real act of studying human behavior to get
the actual findings is rarely conducted.
The main controversy on psychology is the replication of previous findings in the current
research that results in false research work since fraudulent activities are involved. As such, most
researchers collude with an expert in social psychology to replicate previous findings as opposed
to going to the field to conduct the actual research. The pro side of the controversy is that ...

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