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MHA601 Ashford University Organizational Behavior Management Paper

MHA601

ashford university

Question Description

Case Study: Organizational Behavior Management

Read the case study, Improving Responses to Medical Errors with Organizational Behavior Management, in Chapter 4 of your course text. In a three-to five-page double-spaced paper (excluding title and reference pages) address the following:

  • Explain why the increase in the manager’s use of group behavior-based feedback is important.
  • Propose intervention strategies the group leader can use to enhance the group effectiveness. Justify your proposed strategies with scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources.
  • Explain the motivational theory applicable to sustain the four results listed in the case study.

Including an introduction and conclusion paragraph, your paper must be three to five double-spaced pages (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Including the textbook, utilize a minimum of three (one of which is the case study article used for review) scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last five years. Document all references in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center APA Checklist (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..


Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

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Staff and Executive-Level Teams Are Fundamentally Different A motivational poster frequently found in managers’ offices displays a team of rowers to illustrate the concept of people working t ogether; a popular offering from the Art of Rowingcompany is titled Teamwork: Together We Achieve More. When most people on a team are doing similar jobs, the rowing metaphor is very apt. However, executive-level teams aredifferent: Executive teams are more like baseball teams. Sure, they are all wearing one uniform and following one game plan, but sometimes they work alone (as in the case of a batter),sometimes they work in pairs (pitcher throws to catcher, or shortstop and first basem an collaborate in a double play) and only seldom do they all get in on the action.. . . Don’texpect a team at that level to feel the sam e way your department level team does. You’re not all in the same boat. So figure out the game plan, play your position, and keepy our head up to spot your chances to support your teammates. (Davey, 2012, p. 1) Randy Faris/CORBIS An executive team is similar to a company softball team. When one thinks of the ideal executive-level team, a better metaphor might be a company softball team— which can include both men and women of varying ages and ethnicities. However, company softball teamsare seldom good at play ing softball; many are formed to encourage camaraderie among the players andsupporters, thereby strengthening working relati onships and organizational commitment. Organizationsneed and value talented individuals who can work collaboratively with ot hers; being a “team player” is animportant attribute for success in almost every type of job. Since much of the clinical and administ rativework in health organizations is done in groups or teams, it is important for health care professionals tounderstand the work ings of, participate in, and lead teams. Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions 1. What have you learned from participating in a department or management team? 2. How important is team camaraderie among executives in health care organizations? 4.1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior—Macro Chapter 3 focused on the individual behavior in organizations. This chapter focuses on group behavior and discusses how orga nizations achieve their goals by coalescing the skillsand efforts of individuals into groups and networks. Organizational behavi or researchers and practitioners study behaviors within and between groups, both formal and informal.Formal groups are off icially designated to fulfill certain functions and accomplish specific tasks. Within the category of formal groups are command groups and task groups. Command groups are the building blocks of the organization’s structure. They are specified in the or ganization chart and include the executives, managers, supervisors, and thepeople who report to them. Task forces, also calle d task groups, are temporary groups charged with solving a problem or responding to an opportunity. Stakeholders are grou psand organizations that have a vested interest in the organization. Informal groups are naturally formed groups of people w ho work together or who are drawn together on thebasis of friendship or shared interests. Although they are not officially sanc tioned or recognized by the organization, they strongly influence its workings (Ivancevich & Matteson,2002). Successful health care management requires skill in managing individuals, groups, and stakeholders. 4.2 Group Dynamics Cartwright and Zander (1968) define group dynamics as “a field of inquiry dedicated to achieving knowledge about the nature of groups, the laws of their development, and theirinterrelations with individuals, other groups, and larger institutions” (p. 12 0). They note that this subunit of organizational behavior became an identifiable field in the UnitedStates in the late 1930s and has four distinguishing characteristics: 1. An emphasis on theoretically significant empirical research, based on effective experimental design, careful observation, reliab le measurement techniques, and statisticalanalysis of data performed according to accepted social science research methods. 2. Interest in the dynamics of group life and observed relationships, in order to discover general principles concerning what cond itions produce what effects and howcertain properties and processes depend on others. 3. Interdisciplinary relevance, incorporating and contributing ideas from and to sociology, psychology, anthropology, political sci ence, and other social sciences. 4. Potential applicability of findings to professional and business practice, in order to provide a sounder scientific basis for practi tioners in a variety of group settings andorganizations. While groups and teams are terms often used interchangeably in the literature, there are some important distinctions between them. Groups consist of two or more individualswho interact with each other and share a common purpose or affiliation. A tea m is a type of group; all teams are groups, but not all groups are teams. In business a team is a groupwhose members work tog ether on a specific project or are responsible for a specific organizational function. While there may be a designated team leade r, teams collectivelyassume responsibility, set goals, develop plans, and divide the work. “In order to be a team: (1) individuals’ actions must be interdependent and coordinated, (2) each membermust have a specified role, and (3) members must share co mmon task goals or objectives” (Ivanitskaya, Glazer, & Erofeev, 2009, p. 109). Group dynamics, as the name implies, deals with changes that occur when people interact. The following section highlights thr ee important theoretical contributions to the studyof group dynamics in the workplace. The first, roles, places the individual in context among peers, superiors, and subordinates and also defines his or her function in theorganization. The sections on gro up process and intergroup behavior deal with group development and group behavior toward other organizational groups. Roles A key construct of psychology is the role an individual plays in a given situation, which serves a specific purpose and involves a set of shared expectations. For example, nursesare the primary caregivers of patients in a hospital. In business others in the o rganization and the profession establish expectations for a given role. For a nursing supervisor,these others would include dire ct reports, the boss, fellow supervisors, patients and their families, and the nursing educational, professional, and licensing org anizations. Benne and Sheats (1948) developed functional role theory based on behavioral patterns they observed among individuals in many different smallgroup interactions. Someindividuals performed task roles, which involved completing a job and accomplishing an objective. O thers performed maintenance roles, which were social in nature, focusingon process and relationships. Still others performe d individual roles to help the group accomplish its goals. Whetten and Cameron (2011) noted that two types of roles, taskfacil itating and relationship building, were both important contributors to group performance. Most people, whether group memb ers or leaders, tend to emphasize one role overthe other. While at certain times one role may predominate, effective groups ne ed to strike a balance between task-facilitating and relationshipbuilding roles. Tushman (1977)described individuals whose roles primarily involve interactions and communications with ext ernal stakeholders as holding boundary-spanning roles, such as compliance orgovernmentrelations officers in a health organization. Another type of role common in large-scale or hightech health organizations is that of horizon scanning, which involvesidentifying new and evolving interventions or technologic al advances, as well as analyzing their potential impact on the health care industry generally and the organizationspecifically ( Sun & Schoelles, 2013). Whetten and Cameron (2011) categorized a number of unproductive behaviors that inhibit group wor k as blocking roles, and emphasizedthe importance of managerial proficiency in developing, participating in, and leading grou ps. Theory in Action: Management Behavior and Group Roles Here are common behaviors of each role type, with examples of statements to illustrate group leader behaviors or, in the case of blockers, to deal with them effectively(Whetten & Cameron, 2011). Task-Facilitating Roles • • • • • • • • • Giving directions: “Let’s start by brainstorming ideas.” Seeking information: “What do the licensing regulations specify?” Giving information: “Here are the regulatory specifications.” Elaborating: “To add to Joe’s comments. . .” Urging: “We need to win this bid to make our revenue target next year.” Monitoring: “Who will be lead staff with accountability for each task we’ve identified?” Analyzing process: “Some members seem to have checked out on this project.” Reality checking: “Can we really meet this deadline?” Enforcing: “We’re getting off track; let’s focus on what we have to decide today.” • Summarizing: “Here is what I understand are our next steps, and who is lead staff for each.” Relationship-Building Roles • • • • • • • • Supporting: “Your root-cause analysis was spot-on!” Harmonizing: “Let’s just agree to disagree about this; we don’t need to agree on every point to move ahead.” Relieving tension: “I haven’t had this much fun since my last root canal!” Confronting: “Maria, this is your department’s domain, so you need to assign staff to complete this part of the job.” Energizing: “I can’t believe how much we’ve accomplished so far!” Developing: “Jerry, I know this is a new area for your department but Ruben will help you; he’s done a lot of similar projects.” Building consensus: “Let’s list the things we have agreed to so far.” Empathizing: “I know it’s stressful to have such a lot to do in such a short time.” Blocker Roles • • • • • • • • • • • • Dominating: “Remember, this is a group project; we need everyone’s ideas.” Overanalyzing: (a) General: “We need to avoid analysis paralysis”; (b) Specific: “Hilary, will you please summarize your concer ns in no more than 1 page for thenext meeting?” Stalling: “Folks, we need to make a decision on this today.” Disengaging: “Charlie and Lisa, you haven’t said anything and I know you have opinions about this.” Overgeneralizing: “Is the issue that Oscar raised as much of a problem for other people?” Faultfinding: “Let’s keep an open mind as everyone presents their ideas.” Premature decision making: “Are we jumping to a solution here?” Presenting opinions as facts: “Do you have any data or facts to support that statement?” Rejecting: Include instructions prior to the meeting: “Please type out on separate sheets of paper your idea(s) for resolving iss ues 2 through 5 and bring them tothe meeting.” Pulling rank: “We need to hear more from the people who will be doing the work.” Resisting: “Let’s concentrate on how we can move forward on this project.” Deflecting: “We’re getting off track here, let’s focus on the main points.” Group Process and Phases Educational and research psychologist Bruce Tuckman became well known following the publication of a short article in 1965 in which he proposed a fourstage linear process ofgroup development: Forming, storming, norming, and performing. Hare, Borgatta, and Bales (1965) arg ued that since group members will seek a balance between accomplishingthe task and building relationships with fellow group members, it becomes a repetitive cyclical process as the group moves from storming, norming, and performing, as illustratedi n Figure 4.1 (Smith, 2005). Understanding dynamics of the group developmental process is particularly important for health p rofessionals participating in or leading themultidisciplinary teams so common in health organizations. Figure 4.1: Group development phases Early group dynamics researchers developed a fourphase developmental model that included the phases offorming, storming, norming, and performing. Source: Smith, M. K. (2005). Bruce W. Tuckman— forming, storming, norming and performing in groups. The Encyclopaedia of InformalEducation. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from infed website: http://infed.or g/mobi/bruce-w-tuckman-forming-storming-norming-and-performing-in-groups 1. In the forming stage, groups organize themselves and test each other to establish boundaries for both task and relationship be haviors. It is also during this stage thatleadership and dependency roles are established. 2. The storming stage involves some conflict or polarization as members compete for leadership or to control the group’s directi on, which disrupts task requirements. 3. In the norming stage, members develop feelings of identification and cohesiveness with the group as they put aside their pers onal agendas, adopt new roles, and committo new behaviors as group members. 4. In the performing stage, the interpersonal structure becomes the vehicle for accomplishing the task activities as members rec ognize the importance of group goals,develop pride in identity, and direct their energies as a group to accomplishing the task. Figure 4.2: Tuckman, Jensen, and Coppola’s groupdevelopment phases Groups develop over time in a series of stages that include preparing towork together and bringing their work to a close. In 1977 Tuckman and Jensen added a fifth stage, adjourning, since not all groups are ongoing. Thisstage can be a stressful pro cess because it involves loss and the termination of roles (Smith, 2005).Coppola (2008) argues that an additional preparation s tage is important, especially in hospitals andother large, complex organizations. The informing stage begins with an initial (wr itten or verbal)notification of or invitation to membership when a new team is officially designated or when new teammember s join an existing structural (command) team where members rotate in and out. During thisstage the member(s) form opinions about both the mission of the team and its other members. Figure4.2 displays the team development phases as a sixstage process that includes informing and adjourning. Often, one of a new manager’s first assignments is to lead a newly formed or existing group.Understanding the developmental group processes will assist managers in maximizing output; it willalso prepare them to lead more complex interdisciplinary gr oups as their careers progress, such as ahospital committee required by the Joint Commission or staffing a board of directors c ommittee. Ledlowand Coppola (2014) suggest strategies for health managers to employ at each of the six stages of groupdevel opment, as summarized in Table 4.1. Table 4.1: Group developmental stages and management strategies Stage Strategy Additional considerations Infor • ming Officially notify each member of appointment to the• group Formally present group goals, measurable objectiv• es in abounded time frame • Communicate in person with group members • Allow a reasonable time period (15 to 30 days) between noti fication and firstrequired meeting Known desire of members to be or not be in the group Skill set, track record in prior groups Personality dynamics between group members Formi• ng 1. 2. 3. Hold a “kick-off meeting to: • Outline group roles Clarify goals and objectives Establish time line with milestones and deliverable s Challenge of allowing time for group development process w ithin timeconstraints for task completion Storm• ing • Encourage constructive professional discourse Resist temptation to intervene prematurely Push to develop a new collective idea that reflects input from all groupmembers • • • Stage Strategy Additional considerations Normi• ng Recognize that group has developed a unique persp• ective of thetask to be accomplished Work with nonnorming members to encourage the m to supportgroup norms Better to remove or replace obstinately noncooperative me mbers Perfor• ming • Thank group members Recognize individual contributions • Know contributions of each member and use this knowledge for staffdevelopment to build on strengths Adjou• rning • 1. 2. Document the process and save the output • Recap lessons learned Best practices • Opportunities for improvement Disseminate knowledge gained to other segments o f theorganization Acknowledge that people will miss some aspects of the grou p’s work andtime with each other Use learnings to build knowledgemanagement and organizational-learningsystems • • Source: Ledlow, G. R., & Coppola, M. N. (2014). Leadership for health care professionals: Theory, skills, and applications (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett. Intergroup Behavior Industrial psychologists Blake, Shepard, and Mouton (1964) found in their studies of group dynamics that members of a group who strongly identify with the group will feelobligated to conform to its norms and positions and to uphold their group’s positi ons against other groups. Acting in ways contrary to their own group position would beregarded as disloyal to the group, wher eas holding fast to it would be considered highly effective behavior as a member or leader. Each group within an organization has its owngoals, yet these groups are interdependent with each other. When organizations encourage groups to compete with each other and reward them on a relative basis with groupincentive plans, the groups perceive defeat of the other groups as n ecessary to achieve their objectives, and a power struggle ensues. The researchers proposed three sets ofassumptions about in tergroup disagreement and identified mechanisms of intergroup conflict resolution for each. 1. If intergroup disagreement is considered inevitable and permanent, the operating assumption is that it must be resolved in fav or of one or the other group, either by apower struggle or by a third party arbiter—or left to resolve itself. 2. If intergroup disagreement is not considered inevitable but agreement is not possible, conflict can be resolved by reducing the interdependence between groups andallowing or encouraging the groups to act more independently from each other. 3. If achieving agreement and maintaining interdependence are both considered possible and necessary to organizational functio ning, conflict may be resolved by groupactions to (a) maintain surface harmony, (b) bargain or compromise, or (c) make a gen uine effort to address fundamental points of difference between groups (Blake etal., 1964). Alderfer (1987) notes the importance of intergroup relationships to explain group behaviors in larger organizations. He distin guished between identity groups and organizationalgroups, which are comparable to informal and formal groups. Identity gr oup members share some common characteristic (e.g., age, ethnicity, gender) and have sharedexperiences (e.g., alumni, profes sional degree), and as a result they have similar perspectives on life and work. Members are assigned to organizational group s based on theorganization’s division of labor and authority structure. Identity group and organizational group membership is frequently related. For example, a majority of executives in healthorganizations are older white males who often share prior w ork or educational experiences and similar hobbies such as golf; clinicians who trained in the same institution oftenwork toget her in other organizations during their careers. Intergroup theory proposes that both organization and identity groups affect members’ intergroup rela ...
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