human diseases in nonhuman animals

Question Description

What ethical and logistical considerations need to be taken into account when studying human diseases in nonhuman animals?

Final Answer

Increasingly use of animals in the scientific procedures has drawn more attention to the primary ethics of these valuable creatures. There are international guidelines for use and care of animals in scientific procedures, which references have been made to some of them in this paper. One of these guidelines is represented by the National Advisory Committee for Laboratory Animal Research (NAC LAR, Singapore), which seems to launch concise yet comprehensive considerations about the use and care of animals for scientific and research purposes. The NACLAR guidelines set out the responsibilities of all the sections involved in using and care of animals for research goals, according to accepted scientific, ethical and legal guidelines. It has been agreed that proposal to use animals for research goals must be assessed by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IAC UC) in approval of the Guidelines (1).

These international guidelines are classified into three parts that should be considered together as a comprehensive document:

The first part, “Guiding principles for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes”, explains all principles which promote the humane and responsible care and use of animals for research and scientific goals. The concept of the principles describes the 3Rs-Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. The limitation of the principles consist all aspects of the care and use of animals for research and scientific goals including their use in teaching, field trials, environmental studies, research, diagnosis, product testing, and the production of biological products (23). This part describes the responsibilities of institutions, scientists and persons who are involved in the care and use of animals for research and scientific goals. All scientific facilities which house and use animals for research goals will have to utilize according to the Guidelines to qualify for licensing from the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA).

The second part, “Guidelines for institutional animal care and use committee”, includes the guiding principles for using and care of animals for research goals and explains in detail the operational aspects pertaining to the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). The IACUC is responsible for the assessment and evaluation of animal care and use programs of an institution, and is responsible for confirming that the care and use of animals for research goals and all animal experimental methods are in compliance with the guidelines. Under the guidelines, all institutions with scientific facilities have to establish their own IACUC to assume this function.

The third part, “Training guidelines”, describes the training activities and requirements for users of animals and animal facilities personnel. This includes the scope of the core curriculum and the relevant core competencies, such as specific workshops for animal procedures. The Guidelines consider all animal users have to undergo appropriate training before initiation of any procedure using animals (24).

However, Islam is predominant culture (more than 95%) and religion in our country and this holy religion is not silent in any case of ethical and educational concepts and it has also profound teachings on how to deal with animals. The main animal welfare regulations in Islam include considering to their natural needs, such as water, food and a suitable place to live, their living and mental condition, good health and avoidance of causing them pain, distress, or harm and unnecessary termination of their lives. These should be considered carefully by the people who work with these creatures

hinanoureen (1578)
Purdue University

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