the full question is "How did the need for natural resources in the age of industry ultimately
drive imperialism in various regions of the world from the mid-19th
century (1800s) through the early 20th century (1900s)?"
The age of industry in the mid-19th century was spurred by several nearly simultaneous technological developments that allowed for quicker transportation, more uniform and large scale manufacturing and production, and a resulting change in societal structures and urbanization. As increasing industrialization in developed nations cyclically fed itself, however, it needed fuel to keep growing. This fuel would be the natural resources that these imperialist nations sought. Thus, the second wave of imperialism was born.
This wave of imperialism saw European nations leading the charge and played out primarily in the African theater. There were two causes for the rapid colonization of Africa: the need for resources to drive growing industrialism, as mentioned above, and international competition between European nations. Thus, the colonization of Africa had two different motives: the seizure of areas rich with resources to create an easy source for raw materials and an easy market for manufactured goods, and the seizure of territory for the sake of territory. For example, the infamously cruel King Leopold II controlled the Congo river valley for its supply of rubber.