DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms.
DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNAmolecule. This biological process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance.
Helicase is an enzyme that unwinds and separates the two strands of the DNA double helix.
DNA polymerase (DNAP) is a type of enzyme that is responsible for forming new copies of DNA, in the form of nucleic acid molecules. Nucleic acids are polymers, which are large molecules made up of smaller, repeating units that are chemically connected to one another.
Ribonucleic acid, or RNA is one of the three major biological macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life (along with DNA and proteins). A central tenant of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information in a cell is from DNA through RNA to proteins: “DNA makes RNAmakes protein”.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNAmolecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
In molecular biology, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
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