Physical Inactivity Capstone

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The culminating argument paper is a restructuring of the first two papers with the addition of an abstract, introduction, and conclusion.

  • This paper should include a newly composed introductory section and a new final conclusion section that presents your discussion of (and argument for) the solution. Your argument, or rationale, for the solution that you propose is the focus of this paper.

Your paper must:

  • Be 15–20 pages in length
    • Title page (1 page)
    • Introduction (1–2 pages)
    • Reworked informative papers (10–15 pages)
    • Conclusion (1–2 pages)
    • References (1–2 pages)
  • Reference 12–15 scholarly, peer-reviewed resources (compiled by combining all of the references from your Perspective of Inquiry papers and any additional resources you use in this final paper.)
  • Follow all APA Style guidelines.

Refer to the rubric for evaluation details and to assist in preparing the paper.

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1 Introduction Physical inactivity occurs when a person does not undertake sporting activities over a long period. People experiencing physical inactivity will either be seated for long periods or avoid strenuous activities. When Covid-19 shut down the standard way of life worldwide, people adopted a culture of staying indoors to avoid being infected. Most people worked from home, which meant that they did not move from one place to another (National Center for Health Statistics, 2018). The increased level of physical inactivity led to increased cases of obesity and other health-related causes. Overview of physical inactivity Human beings are meant to be continually active to ensure that all the body systems are functioning well. Physical inactivity leads to the misuse of different body parts, which leads to cardiovascular disease, premature aging, and depression when not corrected early. Mental health is adversely affected by increased physical inactivity (Lightfoot et al., 2018). The diseases caused by physical inactivity lead to increased mortality among all ages. Physical exercise leads to the improved general health of a person and leads to a reduced mortality rate. Physical inactivity affects both the internal and external body systems. The Musculoskeletal System consists of the muscles and bones that help move the body. The body uses a lot of energy to ensure that the muscles are well maintained. When a person is experiencing physical inactivity, specific muscles in the body are not used. Without activity the body understands that the muscles are not needed and hence starts the breakdown process of the muscle, which leads to body weaknesses. Moreover, inactivity leads to increased breakage of bones, resulting in brittle bones that can easily be broken. 2 Not being physical affects the cardiovascular system, which is responsible for transporting blood and oxygen in all bodies. It leads to stickier and thicker blood and blood vessels, respectively. This leads to an increased risk of a blood clot, which can negatively impact a person's general health. Making a person at higher risk for heart attacks. As a result of physical inactivity, it can lead to a lot of stress and depression as people have no outlet to let out any frustrations they may have faced. The feelings of anxiety and depression can be passed on to the next generation, and hence people end up having an age of physically inactive people. Moreover, a person's influence on the younger generation is immense. When young people live among consistently inactive people, then such young people will possess the same habits. However, when children grow up in a family that is active and participates in sporting activities, then such children will maintain the same character. People who adopt an active lifestyle possess outlets for all the frustrations they face, and hence they are likely to have happier lives. Such emotions are transferred to future generations born in that line of sport-loving people. Physical inactivity inhibits cerebral blood flow, which leads to increased muscle tension and serum concentrations. The decrease in cerebral blood flow means that a person experiences a lot of stress and lacks extended concentration levels. Such a person is easily distracted, and they cannot fully commit to a particular task as their minds wander from one issue to the next— people who are physically inactive feel insufficient and experience low esteem levels. Furthermore, lack of physical activity leads to people who cannot withstand pressure, and they quickly give up when things get tough. Such people have no will to fight for what they want, and hence they cannot be relied upon as they can leave a project without completing it. 3 From a social perspective, many things can cause to the increase rates of inactivity in individuals. One topic, especially as of the last couple of years, has been thought of as one of the biggest influencers: inflation. Continuous inflation in the country has made people avoid expenses that are not necessary. Some costs that help individuals increase their activity levels include a gym subscription. Physical inactivity in some cases is due to the increased costs of a gym subscription, which is a place that allows people to undertake sporting activities. Accessibility to gyms allows a person to have access to a personal trainer who will take them through different exercises which enable them to keep fit. However, when gym subscription costs are high, most people avoid it and prefer to stay at home doing their routine tasks with minimum fees (Pinto et al., 2020). The advancement in technology has created online activities that one can join. However, they are still not available to everyone. The online exercises require a monthly subscription and commitment that most people lack; not to mention, internet connection that also comes at a cost. Although there are other avenues that allow induvial to stay in shape outdoors and at home without a cost, it seems that the rate of lack of motivation is still high. Affective-Reflective Theory (ART) states that when a person is stimulated to exercise, they will evaluate the different emotions and feelings associated with exercising (Brand & Cheval, 2019). For example, when a friend reminds a person to exercise, the person will remember the emotions they experienced the last time they exercised. If the feelings associated with exercising bring pleasure, then such a person will go to exercise. However, when the emotions associated with exercising are displeasure, most people will not exercise as they will not experience such emotions anymore. Exercise generally doesn’t come in the form of “fun.” It 4 takes a lot of energy and effort. Unless someone has already established a healthy goal and lifestyle, it is very difficult to continue to be motivated. The theory of Energetic Cost Minimization states that a person's behaviors during their physical activity reduce the energy used. People are encouraged to be active at all times so that the body becomes accustomed to their behaviors. When the body adapts to a person's behaviors, it will effectively allocate the necessary energy for all activities by ensuring that it is minimal. Statistical facts related to physical inactivity Physical inactivity leads to many health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases. Obesity is caused by the increased consumption of food as the body stores it as fat and does not convert it into energy as any of it is used. The increased fat that is stored leads to heart diseases as they affect the regular beating of the heart. According to (Gichu et al. 2018), three million people die due to physical inactivity. Of those 3 million deaths, 6% are of coronary heart diseases, 7% of diabase, and another 10% from colon or breast cancer, which means 60,000 (6%) alone are from heart diseases (Gichu et al. 2018). The increased cases of physical inactivity call upon people to be more vigilant in ensuring that they become active in fighting these diseases. Physical inactivity diseases can be eliminated by taking regular walks and providing the body is happening even if it is not from vigorous activities. There is statistical process used in the analysis; firstly, the data is collected from primary and secondary sources. Secondly, data organization occurs where irrelevant information is removed from the study. Thirdly, the data is presented to make it possible to be easily analyzed. Data analysis occurs as the fourth stage by putting the different statistical techniques into practice. Finally, data interpretation occurs where decisions are made from the presented data. 5 Data interpretation enables the stakeholders to understand the other variables in-depth and deduce any errors made during the whole process. Data collection Exploratory statistical analysis describes the various stages of physical inactivity and how those stages impact different people in a community. Using this analysis, it is possible to determine the other diseases associated with physical inactivity and even provide solutions that should be undertaken to solve any arising issues. Conclusion and possible solution Physical inactivity has remained a challenge in the modern world as people are yet to take the personal initiative to be active. The increased cost of living has made people view participation in sporting activities as a luxury that they cannot pay for at any given time. People need to note that engaging in sporting activities does not have to be costly. Instead, even playing the primary games at home and walking with one's partner help reduce physical inactivity diseases. The increased levels of inactivity have led to people being unhappy and stressed as they lack outlets to release the frustration they face daily. Physical inactivity remains a significant challenge, and hence organizations and other relevant authorities should encourage employees to be physically active. In cases where an organization has sufficient funds, they can create a gym in their facilities that employees can visit in a day to release any relevant frustrations experienced. 6 Reference Brand, R., & Cheval, B. (2019). Theories to explain exercise motivation and physical inactivity: ways of expanding our current theoretical perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1147. Gichu, M., Asiki, G., Juma, P., Kibachio, J., Kyobutungi, C., & Ogola, E. (2018, November 7). Prevalence and predictors of physical inactivity levels among Kenyan adults (18-69 years): an analysis of STEPS survey 2015. BMC Public Health. Lightfoot, J. T., De Geus, E. J., Booth, F. W., Bray, M. S., Den Hoed, M., Kaprio, J., ... & Bouchard, C. (2018). Biological/genetic regulation of physical activity level: consensus from GenBioPAC. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 50(4), 863. Pinto, A.J., Dunstan, D.W., Owen, N., Bonfa, E., & Gualano, B. (2020, April 30). Combating physical inactivity during the Covid-19 pandemic. Nature Review Rheumatology. National Center for Health Statistics (US). (2018). Health, United States, 2017: With Special Feature on Mortality. National Center for Health Statistics (US).
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Based on the different recommendations that are noted to be made by the World Health
Organization (WHO), physical inactivity is featured to be the failure to accumulate at
least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or even 75 minutes of being involved in
vigorous physical activity or even a combination of both intensities in a given week.


Overview of physical inactivity

In most cases, people are supposed to be continually active to ensure that their body
systems work well and that all organs are active.

An individual who does not get involved in physical activity tends to affect the
cardiovascular system responsible for the transportation of oxygen and blood in all parts
of the body.






Physical Inactivity

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Based on the different recommendations that are noted to be made by the World Health
Organization (WHO), physical inactivity is featured to be the failure to accumulate at least 150
minutes of moderate physical activity or even 75 minutes of being involved in vigorous physical
activity or even a combination of both intensities in a given week. Across the globe, it is featured
that physical inactivity is the fourth greatest risk factor that is associated with mortality, which is
often attributed to about 4 or 5 million deaths that could have been prevented in various settings.
This condition tends to be a major risk factor for most non-communicable diseases (Pinto et al.,
2020). This is due to physical inactivity only being exceeded by other conditions such as high
blood pressure, smoking, and high body mass index (BMI).
Physical inactivity is also featured in being sedentary, and it occurs when the body does
not move for a long time. This can take different forms, and the common forms of physical
inactivity noted in different settings include sitting, sitting on a computer, lying on the sofa,
watching TV, and even sitting at a desk for a long time (Lightfoot et al., 2018). On the other
hand, physical activity takes different forms, and it does not just involve joining the gym or even
running a marathon. But it can take different forms, such as gardening or even housework. It is
moving the body with different activities within an individual's environment.
People who experience this kind of inactivity tend to be seated for a long time or avoid
different strenuous activities. For instance, when Covid-19 was noted, it is notable that it led to
the standard of living across the world to change as people adopted a culture of staying indoors
to help in the controlling of the pandemic. Most companies changed their mode of operation and
focused on using remote work that demanded that most people work from home (Pinto et al.,

2020). This implied that people were not needed to move from one place to another place as
usual. The increased physical inactivity led to increased cases of obesity and other significant
health issues.
Overview of physical inactivity
In most cases, people are supposed to be continually active to ensure that their body
systems work well and that all organs are active. Physical inactivity is notable in that it leads to
misuse of various parts of the body, which tend to cause various health-related issues such as
cardiovascular diseases, depression, and even premature aging at an earlier age. In different
settings, especially healthcare settings, it is notable that physical inactivity has become a major
factor of concern (Gichu et al., 2018). This is a fact that the different diseases resulting from
physical inactivity are categorized as causing increased mortality across the different age groups.
With improved and regular physical exercise, it leads to good health among the population.
The impact of physical inactivity is noted in an individual's internal and external body
systems. The Musculoskeletal system is featured as an important system in the body composed
of bones and muscles that help in the body's movement. The body tends to use more energy to
ensure that the muscles are well maintained and work most appropriate to coordinate the body
parts as required (Pinto et al., 2020). When an individual's body is not working appropriately and
experiencing physical inactivity, different muscles in the body tend not to work in the best ways
as required. Without an individual being involved in an activity, the body tends to understand the
muscles are not needed and therefore starts the breakdown process of the muscles. This leads to
the body is weak. Also, it is notable that physical inactivity leads to an increased breakage of the
bones, leading to the breaking of the brittle bones.

An individual who does not get involved in physical activity tends to affect the
cardiovascular system responsible for the transportation of oxygen and blood in all parts of the
body. This is featured to lead to stickers and thicker blood and blood vessels. This is categorized
as an increased risk of blood clotting that will negatively impact the general health of an
individual (Lightfoot et al., 2018). This makes an individual at a higher risk for heart attacks. As
a result of different physical inactivity, it tends to lead to depression and stress as people tend to
lack a way that they can use to get out of frustration. This feeling of depression and anxiety can
be passed on to the next generation, and people tend to have different ages of physically ...

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