What scientific evidence would you need to support the hypothesis that the planets formed at the same time and from the same primordial material as the sun and the rest of the solar system? Does any of that evidence currently exist?
You would need evidence of past events before the formation of our
solar system. For example, if we were able to find evidence of a
supernova that blew up before the formation of the solar system and
scattering the primordial materials into a certain spot into the
universe we could then conclude that the sun and the planets formed
approximately at the same time from the same materials, assuming no
other factors such as other events were involved.
However evidence like this is nearly impossible to find and it
require far too much computation to be certain it happened. No such
concrete evidence exists currently, however astronomers and Nasa
leaning towards the idea that the planets and the sun formed from
the remains of other dead stars since we have elements heavier than
carbon such as platinum which could have only formed from a