NRS 428 GCU COVID 19 Pandemic Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases Paper

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nrs 428

Grand Canyon University



Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases

Write a paper (2,050 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to "Communicable Disease Chain," "Chain of Infection," and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.

Communicable Disease Selection





Hepatitis B






Epidemiology Paper Requirements

<Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.

<Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.

<Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?

<Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.

<Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of the disease.

<Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.

A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.


What are social determinants of health? Explain how social determinants of health contribute to the development of disease. Describe the fundamental idea that the communicable disease chain model is designed to represent. Give an example of the steps a nurse can take to break the link within the communicable disease chain. Up to 300 words and 2 references.

Resources within your text covering international/global health, and the websites in the topic materials, will assist you in answering this discussion question.


Select a global health issue affecting the international health community. Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems (i.e., continents, regions, countries, states, and health departments). Discuss how health care delivery systems work collaboratively to address global health concerns and some of the stakeholders that work on these issues. Up to 300 words and 2 references.

Resources within your text covering international/global health, and the websites in the topic materials, will assist you in answering this discussion question.

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Explanation & Answer

View attached explanation and answer. Let me know if you have any questions.

Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases – Influenza – Outline
I. Introduction
A. Influenza is a communicable and viral infection that is brought about by the
influenza virus.
B. Influenza viruses associated with the disease include type A, type B, and type C.
C. Influenza viruses are spread mainly from one person to another through sneezing
or coughing.
D. The disease is linked with various factors that may increase an individual's risk of
developing the flu including age, weakened immune system, chronic illnesses,
pregnancy, and living conditions among other factors.
II. Description of Influenza
A. Causes

Influenza is a viral infection caused by the influenza virus.


Another person can get infected with the disease by either inhaling the
droplets directly or picking the virus from a contaminated object and then
transferring the virus to the eyes, mouth, or nose.

B. Symptoms

In the early stages, influenza may look like a common cold associated
with sneezing, sore throat, and a running nose.


Other main symptoms of the disease include fever, shortness of breath, dry
and persistent cough, fatigue, aching muscles, fever, chills and sweats, and


Also, some individuals may experience vomiting and diarrhea.

C. Mode of Transmission

One of these ways is person to person.


Also, the disease can be transmitted by touching a material or a surface
that has the virus and then transferring the virus to the mouth, nose, or


In addition, the influenza virus can be transmitted by inhaling virus-laden

D. Complications

Some of these complications include pneumonia, myositis, multiorgan
failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and myocarditis.

E. Treatment

The most common method used to prevent influenza is annual influenza


Also, influenza can be treated using antiviral drugs. These drugs reduce
the duration of the illness and prevent severe complications such as

F. Demographic of Interest

Influenza has resulted in about 9 million to 41 million illnesses between
2010 and 2020.


Also, CDC outlines that the disease has resulted in about 140,000 to
710,000 hospitalizations and an estimated 12,000 to 52,000 deaths yearly
in the same period.


The annual influenza attack rate is approximated to be 20-30% in children
and 5-10% among adults.

III. Social Determinants of Health
A. Health social determinants are those aspects of an individual that influence their
health and wellness.
B. These determinants can include socio-economic, political, and cultural factors and
access to healthcare, living conditions, education, and economic stability.
C. Also, access to healthcare contributes to the development of the disease.
D. When it comes to education, educated individuals are more likely to access
preventive care and get vaccinated for the disease as compared to those
uneducated people.
E. In addition, economic stability also contributes to the development of influenza.
IV. Epidemiologic Triangle
A. Host Factors

The primary host for the influenza virus is human beings.


The response and susceptibility to a causative agent are influenced by a
variety of factors including immunologic status, age, presence of
medications, and other illnesses and living conditions.

B. Agent Factors

Agent factors include the infectious microorganism that causes the


As outlined, influenza is caused by the influenza virus.

C. Environmental Factors


The environmental factors are those elements that affect the opportunity
for exposure and the agent.

These factors include the climate and socioeconomic aspects such as
sanitation, crowding, and access to healthcare and animal carriers.

V. Role of the Community Health Nurse
A. One of the roles of community health nurses in preventing influenza is examining
and reporting the incidence of influenza.
B. Also, by collecting that data, community health nurses can use that information to
educate the general population on prevention strategies and treatment options for
C. In addition, it is the responsibility of community health nurses to raise awareness
of the severity and prevalence of influenza.
D. Moreover, it is the role of community health nurses to monitor the condition of
their patients by conducting follow-ups after they have been treated to evaluate
the effectiveness of the treatment.
VI. An organization that Addresses Influenza
A. The CDC is a healthcare organization that outlines various public health policies
and guidelines concerning preventing and controlling various diseases.
B. The organization collaborates with other agencies to establish the expertise, data,
and tools that communities and individuals require to mitigate diseases and
promote health.
C. Beside...

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