Gene cloning is the process in which a gene of interest is located and copied (cloned) out of DNA extracted from an organism. When DNA is extracted from an organism, all of itsgenes are extracted at one time. This DNA, which contains thousands of different genes.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules areDNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological organism
his process is also known as “genetic engineering.” Genes of one species can be modified, or genes can be transplanted from one species to another. Genetic engineering is made possible by recombinant DNA technology.Organisms that have altered genomes are known as transgenic.
he polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technology in molecular biology used to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Gene therapy is the use of nucleic acid polymers as a drug to treat disease by therapeutic delivery into a patient's cells, where they are either expressed as proteins, interfere with the expression of proteins, or possibly even correct genetic mutations
Genomics is a discipline in genetics that applies recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble, and analyze the function and structure of genomes (the complete set of DNA within a single cell of an organism
Comparative genomics is a field of biological research in which the genomic features of different organisms are compared. The genomic features may include the DNA sequence, genes, gene order, regulatory sequences, and other genomic structural landmarks.
Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data produced by genomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects) to describe gene (and protein) functions and interactions.
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