With the climate today in healthcare, hospitals must seek other ways to cut costs. Staffing
tends to be the first area of cuts to budgets. However; it has been found that patient safety errors
tend to increase when staff is decreased (Frederickson, 2013). Some states have taken it upon
themselves to set up maximum patient to staff ratios. These states have seen lower incidents and
higher staff satisfaction (Tellez & Ann Seago, 2013).
PROBLEM: Increasing patient to staff ratios also increases safety risks to patients.
RESEARCH PURPOSE: To determine if there is correlation between increased patient to staff
ratios and increase in medication errors, treatment errors, falls, cardiac arrests, and deaths.
PIOCT Questions: (P) Do nurses who have higher patient loads (I) make more errors and (O)
potentially have worse patient outcomes (C) than nurses who have smaller patient loads (T) over
the course of 6 months to 1 year.
Frederickson, W. (2013). Nurses Are Exposing the Reality: Patients Are At Risk. Minnesota
Nursing Accent, 5-7.
Tellez, M., & Ann Seago, J. (2013). California Nurse Staffing Law and RN Workforce Changes.
Nursing Economic$, 18-26.
Bibliography for Qualitative
Cox Patrick, W. W. (2014). The American Epidemic: The U.S. Nursing Shortage and Turnover Problem.
Marshall Digital Scholar.
Kundson, L. (2013). Nurse staffing levels linked to patient outcomes, nurse retention. AORN Connections.
Mills Jane, C.-S. J. (2016). Retaining early career registered nurses: a case study. Bio Medical Central, 1-6.
Susan Bradley, F. K. (2015). Too few staff, too many patients: a qualitative study of the impact on
obstetric care providers and on quality of care in Malawi. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. Retrieved from
References for Quanitative
Fitzsimons, S. M. (2013). Knowing Generation Y: a new generation of nurses in practice. British Journal of
Frederickson, W. (2013). Nurses Are Exposing the Reality: Patients Are At Risk. Minnesota Nursing
Rep. Schakowsky, J. D.-I.-9. (2017, May 5). H.R.2392 - Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient
Safety and Quality Care Act of 2017. Retrieved from Congress.gov:
Tellez, M., & Ann Seago, J. (2013). California Nurse Staffing Law and RN Workforce Changes. Nursing
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