The Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Data

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Question Description

Title of Assignment – The Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Data

The Research Questions – Through what mechanisms, does disability discrimination operate in large, bureaucratic organizations? Also, why are there experiences of Ascriptive inequalities in the workplace?

NOTE:

This entire paper needs to be done APA style

Please label all sections appropriately,

Please put APA style citations in all paragraphs

Please do references APA

This Major Assignment 2 is composed of four parts, each of which will be completed over four weeks. These parts include: (1) Introduction, (2) Role of the Researcher, (3) Results, (4) Trustworthiness and Summary

Overview of this Assignment

The purpose of the Major Assignment is to immerse you in the qualitative research process. The process includes hands-on opportunities for you to collect, organize, analyze, and interpret qualitative data. This qualitative research process begins with some items that have already been identified for you:

  1. The research topic for this effort is the meaning of social change for Walden graduate students. You have been examining videos and reading about social change as part of the course study.
  2. The knowledge you have gained plus your reflections on the meaning of social change will form the beginning of the inquiry. That is, the research question you will explore is “What is the meaning of social change for Walden graduate students?”
  3. The description of your efforts of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data will form the basis of your methods section. And, the results of those efforts—the analysis and interpretation of those data—will be summarized.

For this Major Assignment 2:

  • Review the “What Kind of Social Change Agent Are You?” webpage and take the social change quiz. Consider how this quiz will inform your Assignment.
  • Review the expectations of The Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Data Overview and Guidelines for this Major Assignment 2.
  • Review the Yob and Brewer (2015) article related to social change found in this week’s Learning Resources and consider how you can prepare yourself for social change through your research.
  • Consider the research topic of the meaning of social change for Walden graduate students as well as the research question for this Major Assignment, “What is the meaning of social change for Walden graduate students?”

Part 1: Introduction – for this area must have 2 pages;

You will begin to examine social change from a Walden graduate student perspective, explore positive social change as a research problem, and explore the gap in research.

Part 1: Introduction (must have)

  1. Write a background statement of approximately 1–2 pages that includes:
    1. What you have learned about social change as a social issue.
    2. What you have learned about social change as a research problem. Support your insights with academic citations from the Learning Resources.
    3. Describe the gap that your study will address.
  2. From the gap, create a brief purpose statement that is aligned with the following research question:

Part 2: Role of the Researcher - Overview

What is the meaning of social change for Walden graduate students?

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Complete the coding for your first Scholars of Change video. You began coding this video in previous discussions. Be sure to incorporate feedback and ideas from the Discussion 1.
  • Complete the coding for your second Scholars of Change video. You will use the same process as the first Scholars of Change video you coded. Be sure to incorporate feedback and ideas from this week’s Discussion 2.
  • Consider your role as a qualitative researcher and begin writing Part 2 of this Major Assignment.

This part of the Assignment Requirements

  • Review your analytic memos, field notes, etc., written during each aspect of the data collection process, and examine your role and experience and how that is shaping your experience (reflexivity).
  • Describe the roles you are portraying in this research effort (i.e., a graduate student, classmate, interviewer, etc.).
  • Identify any ethical issues that could or did arise during the data collection processes (i.e., these could include doing a study within one’s own work environment, conflict of interest, or power differentials).

Role of the Researcher Instructions – (must have)

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Complete the coding for your first Scholars of Change video. You began coding this video in Week 5. Be sure to incorporate feedback and ideas from the Discussion 1.
  • Complete the coding for your second Scholars of Change video. You will use the same process as the first Scholars of Change video you coded. Be sure to incorporate feedback and ideas from this week’s Discussion 2.
  • Consider your role as a qualitative researcher and begin writing Part 2 of this Major Assignment.
  • Review your analytic memos, field notes, etc., written during each aspect of the data collection process, and examine your role and experience and how that is shaping your experience (reflexivity).
  • Describe the roles you are portraying in this research effort (i.e., a graduate student, classmate, interviewer, etc.).
  • Identify any ethical issues that could or did arise during the data collection processes (i.e., these could include doing a study within one’s own work environment, conflict of interest, or power differentials).

Part 3: Results - Overview

During this course, you have coded your two Scholars of Change videos, you have conducted and coded your phone interview, and you have gathered data from the Walden social change website and any other documents or websites you might have included.

Part 3 Instructions: Results - (must have)

You will write up the results of your findings. You will include the following in your write-up:

  1. Data Sources—briefly describe each data source including location, duration of data collection, how data were recorded, and unusual circumstances.
    • Two Scholars of Change videos
    • One phone interview
    • Resources from the Walden social change website
  2. Instrumentation—briefly describe the type of instrumentation you used for your data collection.
  1. Data Analysis—based on the data sources in “A.”, provide a detailed analysis to include the following:
    • Report the process used to move inductively from coded units to larger representations including categories and themes.
    • Describe the specific codes, categories, and themes that emerged from the data using quotations as needed to emphasize their importance.
      1. 1st cycle—describe, give examples.
      2. 2nd cycle—describe, give examples/moving from codes to categories.
      3. Identify themes—provide examples and illustrate your results with a figure or a chart.

Part 4: Trustworthiness and Summary – Overview

The Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Data

For this Part finalize your analysis in your Part 3, Results section, and finalize your presentation of results from the different data sources. Trustworthiness and Summary section will finalize the last part of this Assignment 2.

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Review the social change articles found in this week’s Learning Resources.

Part 4 Instructions: Trustworthiness – (must have)

  1. Trustworthiness—summarize across the different data sources and respond to the following:
    • What themes are in common?
    • What sources have different themes?
    • Explain the trustworthiness of your findings, in terms of:
      • Credibility
      • Transferability
      • Dependability strategies
      • Confirmability

Part 4 Instructions for Summary – (must have)

  • Based on the results of your analyses, how would you answer the question: “What is the meaning of social change for Walden graduate students?”
  • Self-Reflection—Has your own understanding of you as a positive social change agent changed? Explain your reasoning.
  • Based on your review of the three articles on social change, which one is aligned with your interests regarding social change and why?

Required Media

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 10 minutes.

In this media program, Dr. Susan Marcus, Core Research Faculty with the School of Psychology at Walden University, introduces you to the world of coding using Word or Excel documents. In this first video, you will learn how to organize your data.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 12 minutes.

In this media program, Dr. Susan Marcus, Core Research Faculty with the School of Psychology at Walden University, introduces coding and how to move from content to codes. This video focuses on what Saldaña (2016) calls “first cycle” coding. Three different approaches are presented. Analytic memos will also be discussed.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 15 minutes. In this media program, observe the focus group taking place. Think about how you might plan and conduct a focus group for your research topic.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 9 minutes.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 14 minutes.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

References

Yob, I., & Brewer, P. (n.d.). Working toward the common good: An online university's perspectives on social change, 1-25.

Ravitch, S. M., & Carl, N. M. (2016). Qualitative research: Bridging the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. https://doc-04-2g-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.co...

Chapter 5, “Methods of Data Collection” (pp. 145–183)

Saldaña, J. (2016). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://stevescollection.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/8/6...

  • Chapter 1, “An Introduction to Codes and Coding” (pp. 1–42)
  • Chapter 2, “Writing Analytic Memos About Narrative and Visual Data” (pp. 43–65)

Ravitch, S. M., & Carl, N. M. (2016). Qualitative research: Bridging the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. https://doc-08-2g-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.co...

  • Chapter 7, “An Integrative Approach to Data Analysis” (pp. 215–236)
  • Chapter 8, “Methods and Processes of Data Analysis” (pp. 237–270)

Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2012). Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. https://doc-00-2g-apps-viewer.googleusercontent.co...

  • Chapter 12, “Data Analysis in the Responsive Interviewing Model” (pp. 189–211)

The following articles are examples of literature reviews on the aspects of social change. Choose one of the articles for this week’s Discussion 2.

Thomas, E. F., McGarty, C., & Mavor, K. I. (2009). Transforming “apathy into movement”: The role of prosocial emotions in motivation action for social change. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 13(4), 310–333.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Kezar, A. (2014). Higher education change and social networks: A review of the research. Journal of Higher Education, 85(1), 91–125.
http://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P...

Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 932–968.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Dickinson, W. B., Leech, N. L., & Zoran, A. G. (2009). A qualitative framework for collecting and analyzing data in focus group research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(3), 1–21.

Walden University. (2015). Social change. Retrieved from https://www.waldenu.edu/about/social-change

As you review this website, think about Walden’s meaning of social change and how this website will guide you as you consider positive social change for your Major Assignment 2.

Document: Excel Video Coding Document Template (Excel spreadsheet)
Review this Excel template as you view this week’s media programs. Also, you will use this template for organizing your transcripts and preparing them for coding.

First  Cycle  Coding:  Structural  Coding     First  Cycle  Coding:  Structural  Coding   Program  Transcript     [MUSIC  PLAYING]     SUSAN  MARCUS:  Hi.  This  is  Dr.  Susan  Marcus.  And  we're  back  to  start  our  coding  for   a  qualitative  data  analysis.     We've  got  the  questions  and  the  content  into  our  Excel  spreadsheet.  And  we're  going  to   begin  with  what's called  first  cycle  coding.  This  is  our  first  approach  to  the  data  from  the   perspective  of  looking  for  units  of  meaning  that  we  can  then  take  apart  and  then put back  together  for  the  interpretation.     If  this  were  a  real  research  project  or  your  dissertation,  also  keep  in  mind  your  primary   research  questions,  the  theoretical  approach  that  you  might  be  using  to  examine  the   research  questions,  and  the  methodological  approach  or  design  as  well.  Here,  we're  just   approaching  this  from  a  very  basic  qualitative  data  analysis  approach.  So  we'll  keep  it   simple  for  the  purposes  of  this  demonstration.  Regardless,  the  first  step  before   beginning  data  analysis  is,  to  use  an  expression,  to  wash  your  brain,  to  let  go  of  all   preexisting  ideas  and  biases  you  have  about  what  you  are  looking  for  and  to  approach   the  data  with  curiosity  and  inquiry.     So  we'll  begin  with  the  first  cycle  coding  process  using  descriptive  codes.  This is  a  really   easy  way  to  get  into  the  data  analysis  process  using  single  words  or  short  descriptions   to  identify  what's going  on  in  the  content  of  the  interview.  So  for  example  here,  a   description  of  what's happening  here  is  she's reporting  on  her  degree.     Here  she's reporting  on  the  year  of  the  degree.  So  here  she's describing  the  type  of   work  that  she  did  before  she  came  to  Walden.  And  here  it's the  same.  And  here,  as  we   read  through  the  text,  the  simple  description  was  why  she  went  on  to  get  her  degree.     So  I  would  go  through  in  this  first  column  making  simple  identifying  remarks  describing   each  piece  of  content  from  the  responses.  And  when  I  get  done  with  my  descriptive   coding,  the  completed  document  looks  like  this.  So  for  example,  when  she  talks  about   why  she  came  to  Walden,  short  comment  how  she  found  Walden.     The  other  thing  you'll  note  here  is  that  I've  started  to  put  quick  memos,  my  impressions   as  I'm beginning  and  doing  this  coding  process.  So  here's my comment  here  in  my   descriptive  code-­-­  "seeing  a  problem."  And  my  thought  as  I  was  writing  the  code  was   she  seeing  that  there's a  problem  now  that  will  impact  the  future.     And  here's my other  comment  here  based  on  what  she  said.  My  impression  of  what   she's describing  sounds  dire.  These  are,  again,  little  short  notes  that  I  take  that  I  can   expand  on  later  on  and  use  in  the  later  coding  process.     © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   1 First  Cycle  Coding:  Structural  Coding     Next,  we'll  try  a  more  interpretive  style  of  coding  called  concept  coding,  where  we  read   each  piece  of  text  and  see  what  kind  of  meaning  or  concept  or  idea  comes  to  mind.  So   let's look  at  this  first  bit  of  text  here.  As  you  can  see,  I've  highlighted  this  piece  of  text  in   red  because  it's quite  moving.  "There  are  so  many  kids  that  have  problems.  I  just   wanted  to  be  there  to  help  them  because  of  the  community  and  because  these  children   will  be  our  future."     So  several  concepts  come  to  mind  that  I'd  like  to  put  in  as  my text.  She's seeing  a   problem.  And  she  wants  to  be  part  of  the  solution.  She's seeing  the  future  and  also   seeing  possibility.  So  here,  using  a  hard  return,  I've  identified  four  possible  concepts   that  come  out  of  that  one  piece  of  text.     Here,  this  is  where  she  was  talking  about  the  type  of  work  that  she  was  doing  before   Walden.  Just  to  give  you  one  quick  little  thing,  "I  retired  from  the  Army.  Prior  to  retiring,   just  the  times  I  would  go  to  get  my  kids'  school  and  I  would  say,  I  am  never  going  to   work  in  a  school."  So  the  concept  that  comes  to  mind  is  that  she  is  not  seeing  herself  as   a  teacher  or  social  change  agent.     And  this  is  the  way  I  would  go  through  the  text,  reading  each  bit  of  text,  observing  what   was  coming  up  as  I  was  reading  the  text,  and  writing  a  short  comment  or  phrase  that   was  more  evocative  and  interpretive  so  that  when  I  finished  my  concept  coding,  my  data   sheet  looks  something  like  this.  Here  are  my  descriptions.  Here  are  my  interpretive   comments.  And  again,  you  can  see  as  I've  made  my  comments,  I  also  note  down  what   comes  to  mind  for  me.     So  this  is  a  really  great  example  of  how  to  be  reflexive  while  coding.  You  respond  to  the   text.  And  then  you  can  also  make  a  note  about  yourself.     So  I  say  things,  this  is  my internal  conversation.  "Never  say  never."  Sometimes  my comments  to  myself  are  the  same  as  my comments  for  the  concepts-­-­  "transformation."   I  write  down  or  I  note  my  wonderings.  I  wonder  if  this  is  true  for  other  people.  So  this  is,   hmm,  maybe  I  should  keep  this  in  mind  when  I'm looking  at  other  interviewee   transcripts.     So  that  brings  us  to  the  end  of  our  first  cycle  coding.  We've  looked  at  descriptive  coding,   short  descriptions,  concept  coding,  more  interpretive  coding,  writing  memos,  personal   reflections,  and  then  the  last  part  of  the  process  before  we  move  on  to  our  second  cycle   coding,  is  to  take  a  few  moments  and  create  a  brief  summary  of  your  impressions  of   what  you  got  from  her  interview.  So  here  I  write,  "The  participant  describes  her   understanding  of  social  change  in  terms  of  experience  in  seeing  how  important  it  is  to   get  in  there  and  make  a  change.  There's urgency  in  some  of  her  statements."     And  observe  here,  how  as  I  write,  I  also  insert  quotes.  So  that's how  I  connect  my   interpretation  with  what  the  interviewee  has  said.  "And  a  clear  connection  to  how   present  action  can  change  the  future  at  the  social  level."  And  again,  I'm using  quotes  to   illustrate  some  of  the  comments and  summative  statements  that  I've  made.     © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   2 First  Cycle  Coding:  Structural  Coding     This  is  a  very  basic  approach  to  qualitative  data  analysis.  As  you  look  through  your   coding  manual  book  and  read  other  kinds  of  qualitative  research,  you'll  see  that  there   are  so  many  different  ways  to  approach  your  data.  The  important  thing  to  recognize  is   coding  is  not  just  a  one  time  pass  through  of  the  data.  You'll  actually  go  through  the   data  several  times  using  different  coding  processes  in  order  to  look  at  the  data  from   different  points  of  view.     [MUSIC  PLAYING]       © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   3
Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One   Program  Transcript     NARRATOR:    This  program  contains  excerpts  from  two  interviews.    Observe  the   differences  between  the  two  interview  demonstrations.    In  addition,  note  the   information  about  interview  techniques  Dr.  Linda  Crawford  provides  throughout   the  program.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    This  interview  provides  excerpts  from  two  30-­minute   interviews.    As you  view  the  videos,  you  have  two  jobs  –  one  as  a  researcher  and   one  as  a  student.    In  your  researcher  job,  you'll  be  collecting  data  on  both   interviews,  practicing  observation  skills,  and  later,  you'll  be  analyzing  the  data.     As you  collect  the  data,  take  care  to  be  accurate  in  your  observation  of  behavior   and language. Then  differentiate  between  observation  and  interpretation.    For   example,  if  you  had  notate  the  participant  moved  back  in  the  chair,  folded  her   arms  and  waited  before  responding,  that's an  observation.    On  the  other  hand,   the  notation,  “The  participant  was  offended  by  the  question,”  is  an  interpretation.   As an  observer,  you  don't  know  the  reason  for  the  behavior.    Here,  perhaps  the   participant  may  just  have  wanted  time  to  think  about  the  answer  and  wasn't   offended  at  all.    So,  take  care  to  differentiate  between  observation  and   interpretation. In  your  student  job,  learn  from  the  modeling  some  aspects  of  how   to  conduct  an  interview  with  skill.    Interviewing  is  an  art  with  the  goal  of  inviting   the  participant  to  provide  as  much  information  as  possible  for  the  study.    To  do that,  you  need  to  establish  a  level  of  rapport  and  trust.    Use  questions  that  draw   out  the  participant  and  engage  the  participant.    As you  observe  the  interviews,   look  for  both  strong  and  weak  models  of  establishing  rapport  and  trust  and   questioning.    Weaker,  ineffective  interview  strategies  can  cause  confusion,   anxiety  and  discomfort.    Some  examples  of  ineffective  strategies  are  giving   inadequate  information  on  how  the  interview  will  proceed,  using  closed  or  one-­ word  answer  questions,  withdrawn  body  language.    All  of  those  may  cause  the   participant  to  feel  uncomfortable,  ignored  or  even  coerced.  On  the  other  hand,   strong  and  effective  interview  strategies  engage  the  participant,  encouraging  him   or  her  to  provide  clear  and  useful  information.    Some  examples  of  effective   strategies  are  clear  explanation  and  information  on  how  the  interview  will   proceed,  using  open-­ended  question  and  probe,  balancing  rapport  and  neutrality,   appropriate  body  language.  As you  observe,  identify  and  notate  as  specifically  as   you  can  the  exact  content,  verbal  language,  body  language  of  both  the   interviewer  and  the  interviewee.    How  are  questions  asked,  what  responses  do   they  generate,  how  does  body  language  play  into  the  interview,  what  is  the  effect   of the interviewer's  action  on  the  interviewee.    With  study  and  observation  and   practice,  you  will  build  habits  that  allow  you  consistently  to  collect  clear  and  valid   data. As an  interviewer,  you  are  a  researcher,  a  scientist.    You  are  also  an  artist   painting  a  relationship  between  yourself  and  the  participant.    Let's see  what  the   painting  might  look  like.       LAURA:    Hi.     © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   1   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Oh,  hi,  Laura,  come  on.    Watch  the  cord,  please.     Thank  you  very  much.    I'm sorry  about  it  but  you  know  how  it  goes.    Thank  you,   have  a  seat.    Laura,  I'm so  happy  that  you  agreed  to  do  this  interview  because   it's really  going  to  help  me  get  my  study  done  and  get  my  degree.    So,  thanks  a   lot.    I  have  5  questions.    You  ready  to  go  on  them?       LAURA:    But,  how  long  is  this  going  to  take?       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Oh,  that  was  in  the  stuff  I  sent  you.    30  minutes  is   what  I'm thinking,  okay.    That  be  a  work  -­       LAURA:    Yeah,  yeah,  I  think  that  will  be  okay.    But  what  –  you're  taking  notes  or   something?     DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Yeah.    Oh,  right.    I'm going  to  be  taking  some  notes,   so  please  don't  let  that  distract  you.    It  –  I  won't  print  your  name  with  it,  so  it'll   keep  your  –  your  stuff  will  all  be  anonymous.    And  to  remind  you,  I'm also  going   to  tape  it.    Okay  –  that  was  okay  with  you  still?       LAURA:    Yeah,  I  guess,  yeah,  okay.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Okay,  all  right.    Are  you  ready  to  go  now?    (Yes)    And   remind  you  of  the  topic,  we're  talking  about  workplace  morale.    (Okay)    Okay.     Now,  let  me  see  –  do  I  have  the  tape  in  here,  yeah,  okay.    Oh,  how  does  this   thing  work?    You  know,  every  one  is  different.    Oh,  I  think  it's –  it's running,  so  I   think  we're  okay.    All  right,  thanks  a  lot.    What  is  workplace  morale?         LAURA:    Well,  I  guess  –  I  guess  would  say  workplace  morale  means  it's a  fun   place  to  work  that  you  know  it's a  place  I  don't  mind  going,  I  like  going.    Nice   people.     DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Nice  people,  okay.    Now,  we've  all  had  bad   workplaces.           LAURA:    Well,  I  guess  what  I  can  think  of  is  a  program  that  I  wanted  to  start  at   the  school  here,  an  after  school  program.    I  was  very  excited  about  it  and  you   know  my  principal,  Rick  Baxter,  totally  squashed  the  (ew)  idea.    I,  you  know  I'm in   graduate  school,  so  I'm using  my  new  ideas  that  I'm learning  to  put  everything   into  really  developing  this  program  and  seeing  it  as  something  that  the  kids  here   really,  really  need  and  I  know  it  would  be  appreciated.  And,  so,  I  went  in  to  talk  to   him  and  explain  my  ideas  and  he  basically  said  no  way,  we  don't  have  time  for   any  extra  stuff,  stick  to  the  basics  –  make  sure  your  learning  outcomes  are  good.     © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   2   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One   He  told  me  to  focus  on  the  important  things.    And  I  just  –  I  left  that  meeting   feeling  just  –  just  terrible,  all  the  work  I  put  in.    And,  that's just  –  that's just  one   example.    I  mean  and  the  other  teachers,  we  talk  about  it,  too.    It's any  new   ideas,  whether  it's in  the  classroom,  outside  of  the  classroom.    I  mean,  we  want   to  really  help  these  kids  and  we  want  to  really  get  them  excited,  you  know  get   them  to  be  learning  by  getting  excited  about  things.  And  Rick  just  doesn't  help  us   you  know  in  that  way.    He'll  say  things  like  no  way,  forget  about  it,  stick  -­  you   know  it's something  that  makes  you  –  I  know  for  me  at  least,  it  makes  me  kinda   feel  put  down,  you  know  acting  like  I'm doing  the  things  I'm supposed  to  be  doing   because  I'm focusing  on  other  things.    So,  I  don't  feel  respected  and  _____  just   have  demeaning  comments  and  (My  goodness) that  really  hurts  my morale.  And   with  this  last  program,  that  was  like  the  icing  on  the  cake.    I  just  I  felt  like  you   know  what,  I  just  gave  up  on  it.    And  you  know  so  now  so  I'm not  feeling  good   about  my  morale  here,  I  have  to  say.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    I  can  understand  –  I've  had  a  similar  (Really?)  yeah,  a   similar  experience  where  I  had  a  program  I  wanted  to  do  and  it  got  totally   squashed  the  principal.    So,  I  understand  exactly  how  you  feel.    But  really  I'm sorry  that  happened  to  you,  that's  really  unfortunate.    00:07:25    Do  you  think  that   workplace  morale  in  education  is  similar  to  workplace  morale  in  other   professions?       LAURA:    Well,  yeah,  definitely.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Do  you  think  your  school  has  good  workplace  morale?     LAURA:    Not  really.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Well,  why?       LAURA:    Well,  it's because  of  the  way  Rick  treats  us.    You  know,  if  we  can't  have   new  ideas,  if  we're  not  respected,  then  you  know  how  are  we  supposed  to  feel   good about what we're  doing.    And  the  just  it's just  I  feel  criticized.    You  know  I   just  –  it's definitely  I'd  say  Rick.    If  I  had  to  put  it  on  anything,  I'd  have  to  say  it   was  Rick  that  just  would  make  me  say  why  I  don't  have  very  good  morale.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    I  can't  believe  –  that's really  too  bad  for  the  leader  of   the  school  to  be  behaving  like  that  towards  you.         LAURA:    Yeah.    Oh,  I  better  check  the  time.  I  really,  oh,  I  really  have  to  go.    (You   do?)  Yeah,  so-­       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    I  have  one  more  question,  I'll  ask  it  really  fast.       LAURA:    Well,  okay,  I  guess  if  it's really,  really  quick.       © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   3   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One   DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    It's really  fast.    What  are  some  ways  your  school  could   improve  workplace  morale?       LAURA:    You  know,  it's not  really  that  bad.    I  have  to  go,  I  really  have  to  go.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Okay,  thanks  a  lot.    Bye,  bye.    Watch  the  cord,   please.    Thank  you,  don't  trip.    You'll  mess  up  my  study  if  you  do.    Okay,  thanks,   bye-­bye,  Laura.         LAURA:    Bye.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    We  have  now  observed  and  collected  data  from  one   interview.    It  may  be  helpful  to  take  a  break  to  separate  the  two  observations.    As a  researcher,  it's a  good  practice  to  take  breaks  between  observations.    Many  of   us  have  had  the  experience  of  teaching  several  classes  in  a  row  of  the  same   preparation.    By the  last  class,  it's a  mental  jumble  –  we  can't  remember  what  we   taught  or  to  whom,  and  we  find  ourselves  saying  things  like  –  did  I  tell  you  people   this.  That  mental  jumble  can  also  happen  in  research  when  the  observations   follow  very  closely  upon  each  other.    But  when  people  give  us  time  to  assist  in   research,  it  is  important  that  they  have  our  full  attention,  that  we  are  fully  present   to  them  and  focused  on  them.    So,  take  a  break.    When  you  come  back,  recall   that  you  have  two  jobs.    One  as  a  researcher  to  collect  accurate  observational   data.    Two,  as  a  student,  to  learn  skills  for  conducting  interviews.    Let's see  how   the  next  interview  compares  with  the  first.       LAURA:    Hi.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Oh,  hi,  Laura,  glad  to  meet  you.    (Pleased  to  meet   you,  too,  hi.)  Please  have  a  seat.    Thank  you  for  taking  the  time  for  this  interview.     Your  participation  in  this  educational  project  on  workplace  morale  for  teachers  is   really  important  as  a  study.    It'll  help  us  understand  more  about  how  to  support   teachers  and  ultimately  help  the  student  achievement  and  student  outcomes.   We'll  be  interviewing  yourself  and  about  10  other  teachers,  so  we'll  have  all  this   information  that  will  contribute  to  the  project.    Now,  I  know  you've  read  about  the   project  and  how  we're  conducting  it,  but  I'd  just  like  to  review  a  few  items  with   you.    (Okay)    First  of  all,  as  you  know,  your  participation  is  totally  voluntary.    So,  if   I  ask  you  a  question  that  you  don't  want  to  answer  or  if  you  need  to  stop  the   interview  at  any  time,  just  let  me  know.  Also,  as  you  know,  I'll  be  audio  taping  the   interview  and  also  be  taking  some  notes.    When  I  finish,  when  we  finish  the   interview,  I'll  be  giving  you  a  transcript  of  the  audio  tape  and  sharing  my  notes   with  you  so  you  can  look  at  them,  review  them,  make  any  corrections  that  you   see  need  to  be  made  to  make  sure  that  we  capture  what  it  is  you  wanted  to  say.   This  study  may  be  published  and  in  publication,  we  won't  use  any  of  your  names   –  yourself  or  any  of  the  other  teachers,  even  if  we  use  direct  quotes,  we'll  use   pseudonyms.    And  it  also  might  be  presented  in  conferences  and  professional   meetings.    Okay  –  do  you  have  any  questions?    (No)    As you  know,  we've  set   © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   4   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One   aside  about  30  minutes  for  the  interview  and  that  seems  to  be  okay  for  you?           DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Okay.    We  won't  go  beyond  that  time  unless  you  wish   to  do  so.    (Okay)    Audio  taping  is  still  fine?         LAURA:    Yes,  that's fine.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Okay.    Ready  to  go?    (Yes)    Let's start  then.    Laura,   what does workplace  morale  mean  to  you?     LAURA:    Workplace  morale  I  would  say  basically  means  that  it's a  fun  place  to   work,  that  it's a  place  where  you  are  looking  forward  to  getting  up  and  going  to   every  day  and  that  there's nice  people  there  that  you  enjoy  working  with.         DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    What  makes  it  fun?     LAURA:    I  would  say  the  idea  that  you  can  try  out  new  ideas,  that  your   colleagues  support  you,  that  there's a  sense  of  friendship,  camaraderie,  flexibility   on  the  part  of  the  supervisor,  and  support  –  just  feeling  supported,  I'd  say.       DR. LINDA  CRAWFORD:    So,  support  actually  makes  you  enjoy  the  work?     (Yes)    I'd  like  to  hear  some  stories  about  workplace  morale.    And  if  you  could  tell   me  a  story  that  might  have  enhanced  workplace  morale  and  one  that  de-­ enhanced  it  –  without  naming  any  real  names,  that  would  be  really  helpful  to  me.     Do  you  have  some  stories  like  that?         LAURA:    Yeah.    I  think  I'll  one  that  you  call  de-­enhanced.    (Okay)    At  a  school  I   worked  at  before,  there  was  a  principal  who  he  just  didn't  –  didn't  give  us  the   flexibility  to  try  out  new  ideas.    I  had  a  program  I  had  my  heart  set  on  starting.    I   had spent  so  much  time  on  it  and  I  really  felt  like  it  would  help  solve  some  of  the   problems  and  difficulties  that  kids  were  having.    It  was  an  after  school  program   and  I  just  thought  it  would  just  be  so  –  the  creativity  and  the  critical  thinking   involved  would  just  really  help  the  kids.  And,  he  just  said  no  way,  he  squashed   the  whole  idea  and  I  felt  bad  because  I  felt  like  I  had  nowhere  to  go.    I  couldn't   even  -­  you  know,  every  time  I'd  try  to  bring  it  up  to  the  point  that  he  said,  “Just   please  don't  bring  this  up  to  me  again.    Stick  to  the  basics.    That's -­  you  know   that's what  you  were  hired  for.”    And,  I  was  completely  deflated  after  that  and  so   that,  yeah,  that  didn't  make  me  feel  very  good  about  my  job.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    After  that,  did  you  propose  any  other  new  programs?         LAURA:    No.    No,  I  knew  it  wouldn't  work  out.    But  I'd  had  other  times  and  it  was   because  I  had  other  times  where  little  things  he  would  just  squash  and  that  was   just  sort  of  like  the  icing  on  the  cake  and  I  knew  you  know  that  there  was  nothing   else  I  could  do  at  that  point.     © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   5   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One     DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Had  you  shared  this  idea  with  any  of  your  colleagues?     LAURA:    Yes.    They  liked  the  idea  and  then  they  told  me  about  time  that  the   same  thing  happened  to  them.    We  were  all  very  frustrated  and  you  know  it  got  to   the  point  that  we  were  just  complaining  to  each  other  and  that  didn't  help  you   know  because  it  sort  of  you  know  after  complaining  and  just  that  negative  talk  at   least  for  me  sort  of  makes  me  feel  even  worse.  You  know,  we  were  trying  to   support  each  other  but  that  wasn't  helpful.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    When  you  say  that  you're  open  to  constructive   critique,  I'm interpreting  that  to  mean  that  you  don't  need  to  be  told  everything   you  do  is  right  and good.     LAURA:    Right,  yeah.    Right,  like  for  instance,  you  know  there's guidelines.    You   know  we  need  to  be  told  that  you  know  we're  going  to  keep  in  those  guidelines.     You  know  that's –  but  it's all  in  the  way  you  do  it,  the  way  it's presented.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    So,  my  understanding  is  pretty  much  on  target  of  what   you're  saying?    (um-­hmm)    As you  think  about  the  responsibility  for  workplace   morale,  we've  talked  about  the  employees  and  the  teachers  and  the  supervisor   or  the  principal.    Particularly  in  education,  does  the  community-­at-­large  have  any   role  in  it  and  what  might  be  the  relative  roles  of  those  three  groups  –  the supervisor,  the  teachers  and  the  community-­at-­large?     LAURA:    I  would  say  the  community-­at-­large,  the  only  thing  I  can  think  about  is   parents  as  another  group  that  affects  our  workplace  morale  in  terms  of  if  they're   too  negative,  if  they're  not  open,  if  they're  not  supportive  and  helpful,  that  makes   our  job  harder.    You  know,  if  they're  –  and  especially  if  they're  not  supportive  if   we  have  new  ideas  or  new  programs.  That,  that  makes  –  so,  they're  an  important   piece.    And  then  the  colleagues  are  also  important,  very  important  in  terms  of   that  support.    But  if  I  were  to  put  it  in  rank  order,  I  would  say  your  principal,  you   know  for  teachers,  the  principal  is  the  most  important.    The  colleagues  second,   and  then  parents,  third  –  even  though  they're  all  important,  that's how  I  would   rank  them.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    could  we  go  back  to  an  earlier  question a little bit?  Do you  believe  that  you've  given  me  enough  information  or  all  the  information  you   want  about  a  positive  and  a  negative  experience?       LAURA:    Oh,  yeah,  no,  oh,  yeah.    The  –  oh,  I'm glad  you  mentioned  that  because   the  situation  I'm in  now  is  like  night  and  day  (Okay)  comparing  it  to  the  other  one.     We  really  have  a  collegial  atmosphere.    It  all  starts  with  a  program  this  principal   said  to  us  and  it  was  his  idea  –  he  said,  “I  want  each  of  you  teachers  whatever   your  interests  are  to  develop  a  program  that's going  to  enhance  student  learning,   student  critical  thinking  and  student  creativity,”  and  he  left  it  open  to  come  up  with   © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   6   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One   what  we  wanted  to  do  and  he  said  I  want  you  to  meet  every  week,  provide  each   other  support  and  feedback. And,  you  know,  I'll  be  at  these  meetings  and  we'll   help  each  other  and  we'll  brainstorm  because  he  really  believed  that  that's going   to  really  help  things.    And  for  me,  I  just  -­  you  know  I  felt  like  I  was  so  thrilled,  you   know  based  on  my  other experience,  I  thought  this  is  wonderful.    So,  I  developed   a  media  literacy  and  a  documentary  producing  program  for  the  kids  in  my  class.   And  other  teachers  did  totally  different  things.    And  we  meet  every  week  and  we   talk  about  it  and  we  give  each  other  really  helpful  feedback  and  it's become  just   this  great  –  it's really  enhanced  our  interest  and  you  know  we're  interested  in   each  other,  we  care,  we  give  each  other  good  feedback.    And,  you  know  I'm friends  with  some  of  the  teachers  now  that  I  didn't  you  know  hardly  know  just   because  of  the  support.  And  the  principal  is  there.    He  reigns  us  in  when  he   needs  to  and  we  can  handle  it  because  we  know  we  have  his  support,  we  know   he's just  sticking  to  the  guidelines  that  are  there  and  but  otherwise  –  and  if  we're   going  too  far,  he'll  help  us  brainstorm  for  a  way  to  work  around  it  or  address  it  so   that  you  know  it's appropriate.    And,  I'm just  really  thrilled.    And  the  interesting   thing  is  it  –  it  is  more  work  but  we're  able  to  really  make  changes  and  see  it.    We   can  see  everyday  in  that  class  when  we  see  it  with  the  kids.    We  see  it  on  their   faces  and  then  we  see  it  –  I  see  it  in  their  assignments  in  grades  going  on,  and   struggling  kids  doing  better  because  they're  excited  about  school. And,  you  know   and  we're  starting  to  bring  in  pieces  of  each  other's  programs.    Every  -­  you  know   all  these  programs  are  quite  different  and  it's just  been  wonderful.    It's still  in   process,  but  so  far  everything  is  completely  good  and  I  think you  know  part  of  it  is   that  it's a  good  principal,  but  all  of  us  as  teachers  at  this  particular  school  just   jumped  in  and  we're  ready,  we're  open  and  ready  to  try  it  out  and  it's been   working  really  well  and  so  I'm happy.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Laura,  I  want  to  respect  your  time  and  I  notice  we're  at   30  minutes.       LAURA:    Oh,  we  are,  okay.    Oh,  wow.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Yeah,  already.    I  do  have  one  more  question,  but  it's time's up,  so  I'd  like  to  know  if  you'd  like  to  stay  or  go.       LAURA:    Okay,  well,  you  know  I  was  going  to  go  but  I  have  to  say  I'm really   enjoying  this.    I  don't  mind  answering  another  question,  (You  sure?)  go  right   ahead.    (Okay)  I'd  like  to.    (All  right.)  Thanks.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    I'd  like  to  know  some  of  your  ideas  on  how  a  school   might  ensure  a  positive  workplace  morale.       LAURA:    Well,  I  guess  a  typical  school  that  aren't  doing  sort  of  these  unusual   motivating  programs,  one  simple  thing  they  could  do  is  just  more  social   occasions  for  the  teachers,  more  opportunities  for  teachers  to  get  to  know  each   other  on  a  social  level  because  I've  been  at  schools  where  I  only  like  have  one  or   © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   7   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One   two  teacher  friends  that  are  my  close  friends  at  the  school.  And,  you  know  don't   really  know  the  others  and  I  feel  it  can  be  a  bit  isolating.    And  just  to  be  able  to   talk  and  to  be  able  to  share  experiences  and  ideas  and  just  I  think  you  start  with   just  you  know  social  parties.    You  know,  little  after  school  you  know  get-­together   hour,  just  informally,  I  think  that  would  help.  I  think  it  would  be  a  simple  way  to   help  to  be  able  to  support  each  other.    And,  then  I  guess  the  key  thing  is  a   supervisor  who  sort  of  makes  it  a  point  to  be  flexible  and  trusting  and  supportive.     I  think  that's a  key  element  and  that's going  to  affect  everything.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    If  you  had  to  say  3  or  5  words  –  the  most  –  really  key   in  terms  of  this  area,  what  would  you  say?       LAURA:    Respect,  support  and  openness.         DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Okay.    Laura,  is  there  anything  else  you'd  like  to  share   with  me  on  this  topic  that  I've  not  asked  you  about  or  that  you  would  like  to  have   an  opportunity  to  say?       LAURA:    No,  I  can't  think  of  anything  else.    I  think  we've  covered  everything  on   this  topic,  yeah.     DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Well,  thank  you  so  much.    And  as  I  said,  I'll  be   sending  you  a  copy  of  the  transcript  and  also  my  notes.    If  you  see  any   corrections  or  anything  that  I've  missed,  please  do  let  me  know.    Thank  you  so   much,  Laura.       LAURA:    Okay,  thank  you.    Thanks.         DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    Bye-­bye.    (Bye-­bye)    Have  a  good  class.    (Okay)     Okay.       DR.  LINDA  CRAWFORD:    You  now  have  observed  and  collected  data  on  two   interviews.    As a  researcher,  you  have  three  tasks  in  addition  to  data  collection Organization  of  data,  analysis  of  data,  and  interpretation  of  the  data  to  answer   your  research  question.    Your  course  materials  and  assignments  will  develop   those  skills.    As a  researcher  doing  qualitative  studies,  you  need  to  carefully  plan   for  the  time  it  takes  for  you  to  collect,  organize,  analyze  and  interpret  data.    It  can   be  quite  a  bit  of  time.  Estimate  for  yourself,  for  example,  how  much  time  it  would   take  to  collect  data  for  10  audio  taped  40  minute  interviews.    As you  estimate  the   time,  plan  for  contacting  and  scheduling  the  interviews,  travel  time,  conducting   the  actual  interview  and  transcribing  the  interview.    That  estimate  feeds  into  your   feasibility  planning  for  the  study  and  it's important  for  you  in  order  to  allocate   adequate  resources  to  fulfill  your  research  goals.    Here,  you're  not  going  to  have   to  transcribe  the  interview,  but  you  are  going  to  be  organizing,  analyzing  and   interpreting  the  data.  Again,  you'll  be  relying  on  course  materials  for  guidance  in   that.  In  your  student  role,  you  have  observed  various  qualities  of  interviewing.     © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   8   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  One   Now,  imagine  yourself  as  an  interviewer.    What  would  your  body  language  be   like?    How  would  you  establish  rapport?    What  about  the  phrasing  of  your   questions  –  how  would  you  phrase  questions  to  draw  the  participant  into  dialog?   In  order  to  practice  that,  you  might  consider  a  question  and  write  it  3,  4,  5   different  ways.    Then  evaluate  the  phrasings  in  order  to  see  which  would  be  most   effective.    You  might  even  try  them  out  with  some  folks.    As  an  interviewer,  you   are  a  scientist  and  an  artist.    As a  scientist,  you  must  use  strong  and  rigorous   research  designs  and  procedures.    As an  artist,  you  are  painting  a  relationship  to   establish  comfort  with  your  participant  so  that  the  participant  can  contribute  as   much  as  possible  to  the  study.  Practice  your  science  and  art  by  designing  and   conducting  interviews.    Invite  people  to  observe  those  interviews  and  give  you   feedback,  participate  yourself  as  an  interviewee  and  observe  others  conducting   interviews.    One  way  to  do  that  is  to  observe  and  critique  interviews  conducted   on  news  programs.    This  study,  observation  and  practice  will  develop  you  as  a   skilled  interviewer.       © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   9  
Interviewing  Techniques  Part  Two   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  Two   Program  Transcript     We  have  now  observed  one  interview.    Let's see  how  the  next  interview   compares  with  the  first.       LINDA:    Oh,  hi,  Laura,  glad  to  meet  you.    I'm Linda.    (Pleased  to  meet  you,  too,   hi.)    Please  have  a  seat.    Thank  you  for  taking  the  time  for  this  interview.    Your   participation  in  this  educational  project  on  workplace  morale  for  teachers  is  really   important  as  a  study.    It'll  help  us  understand  more  about  how  to  support   teachers  and  ultimately  help  the  student  achievement  and  student  outcomes.     We'll  be  interviewing  yourself  and  about  10  other  teachers,  so  we'll  have  all  this   information  that  will  contribute  to  the  project.    Now,  I  know  you've  read  about  the   project  and  how  we're  conducting  it,  but  I'd  just  like  to  review  a  few  items  with   you.    (Okay)    First  of  all,  as  you  know,  your  participation  is  totally  voluntary.    So,  if   I  ask  you  a  question  that  you  don't  want  to  answer  or  if  you  need  to  stop  the   interview  at  any  time,  just  let  me  know.    Also,  as  you  know,  I'll  be audio taping the interview  and  also  be  taking  some  notes.    When  I  finish,  when  we  finish  the   interview,  I'll  be  giving  you  a  transcript  of  the  audio  tape  and  sharing  my  notes   with  you  so  you  can  look  at  them,  review  them,  make  any  corrections  that  you   see  need  to  be  made  to  make  sure  that  we  really  capture  what  it  is  you  wanted  to   say.    This  study  may  be  published  and  in  publication,  we  won't  use  any  of  your   names  –  yourself  or  any  of  the  other  teachers,  even  if  we  use  direct  quotes,  we'll   use  pseudonyms.    And  it  also  might  be  presented  in  conferences  and   professional  meetings.    Okay  –  do  you  have  any  questions?    (No)    As you  know,   we've  set  aside  about  30  minutes  for  the  interview  and  that  seems  to  be  okay  for   you?         LAURA:    That  will  be  okay.         LINDA:    Okay.    We  won't  go  beyond  that  time  unless  you  wish  to  do  so.    (Okay)     Audio  taping  is  still  fine?    (Yes)    Okay.    Ready  to  go?    (Yes)    Let's start  then.     Laura,  what  does  workplace  morale  mean  to  you?       LAURA:    Workplace  morale  I  would  say  basically  means  that  it's a  fun  place  to   work,  that  it's a  place  where  you  are  looking  forward  to  getting  up  and  going  to   every  day  and  that  there's nice  people  there  that  you  enjoy  working  with.       LINDA:    What  makes  it  fun?       LAURA:      I  would  say  the  idea  that  you  can  try  out  new  ideas,  that  your   colleagues  support  you,  that  there's a  sense  of  friendship,  camaraderie,  flexibility   on  the  part  of  the  supervisor,  and  support  –  just  feeling  supported,  I'd  say.       LINDA:    So,  support  actually  makes  you  enjoy  the  work?    (Yes)  I'd  like  to  hear   some  stories  about  workplace  morale.  (Okay)    And  if  you  could  tell  me  a  story   © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   1   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  Two   that  might  have  enhanced  workplace  morale  and  one  that  de-­enhanced  it  –   without  naming  any  real  names,  that  would  be  really  helpful  to  me.    Do  you  have   some  stories  like  that?         LAURA:    Yeah.    I  think  I'll  start  with  the  one  that  you  call  de-­enhanced.    (Okay)     At  a  school  I  worked  at  before,  there  was  a  principal  who  he  just  didn't  –  didn't give  us  the  flexibility  to  try  out  new  ideas.    I  had  a  program  I  had  my heart  set  on   starting.    I  had  spent  so  much  time  on  it  and  I  really  felt  like  it  would  help  solve   some  of  the  problems  and  difficulties  that  kids  were  having.    It  was  an  after   school  program  and  I  just  thought  it  would  just  be  so  –  the  creativity  and  the   critical  thinking  involved  would  just  really  help  the  kids.    And,  he  just  said  no  way,   he  squashed  the  whole  idea  and  I  felt  bad  because  I  felt  like  I  had  nowhere  to  go.     I  couldn't  even  -­  you  know,  every  time  I'd  try  to  bring  it  up  to  the  point  that  he   said,  “Just  please  don't  bring  this  up  to  me  again.    Stick  to  the  basics.    That's -­   you  know  that's what  you  were  hired  for.”    And,  I  was  completely  deflated  after   that  and  so  that,  yeah,  that  didn't  make  me  feel  very  good  about  my  job.       LINDA:    After  that,  did  you  propose  any  other  new  programs?         LAURA:    No.    No,  I  knew  it  wouldn't  work  out.    But  I'd  had  other  times  and  it  was   because  I  had  other  times  where  little  things  he  would  just  squash  and  that  was   just  sort  of  like  the  icing  on  the  cake  and  I  knew  you  know  that  there  was  nothing   else  I  could  do  at  that  point.       LINDA:    Had  you  shared  this  idea  with  any  of  your  colleagues?     LAURA:    Yes.    They  liked  the  idea  and  then  they  told  me  about  times  that  the   same  thing  happened  to  them.    We  were  all  very  frustrated  and  you  know  it  got  to   the  point  that  we  were  just  complaining  to  each  other  and  that  didn't  help  you   know  because  it  sort  of  you  know  after  you  know  complaining  and  just  that   negative  talk  at  least  for  me  sort  of  makes  me  feel  even  worse.    You  know, we were  trying  to  support  each  other  but  that  wasn't  helpful.       LINDA:    When  you  say  that  you're  open  to  constructive  critique,  I'm interpreting   that  to  mean  that  you  don't  need  to  be  told  everything  you  do  is  right  and  good.       LAURA:    Right,  yeah.    (Okay)    Right,  like  for  instance,  you  know  there's guidelines.    (Okay)    You  know  we  need  to  be  told  that  you  know  we're  going  to   keep  in  those  guidelines.    And  you  know  that's –  but  it's all  in  the  way  you  do  it,   the  way  it's presented.       LINDA:    So,  my  understanding  is  pretty  much  on  target  of  what  you're  saying?     (um-­hm)    As we  think  about  the  responsibility  for  workplace  morale  -­  we've  talked   about  the  employees  and  the  teachers  and  the  supervisor  or  the  principal  -­   particularly  in  education,  does  the  community-­at-­large  have  any  role  in  it  and   © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   2   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  Two   what  might  be  the  relative  roles  of  those  three  groups  –  the  supervisor,  the   teachers  and  the  community-­at-­large?     LAURA:    I  would  say  the  community-­at-­large,  the  only  thing  I  can  think  about  is   parents  as  another  group  that  affects  our  workplace  morale  in  terms  of  if  they're   too  negative,  if  they're  not  open,  if  they're  not  supportive  and  helpful,  that  makes   our  job  harder.    You  know,  if  they're  –  and  especially  if  they're  not  supportive  if   we  have  new  ideas  or  new  programs.    That,  that  makes  –  so,  they're  an   important  piece.    And  then  the  colleagues  are  also  important,  very  important  in   terms  of  that  support.    But  if  I  were  to  put  it  in  rank  order,  I  would  say  your   principal,  you  know  for  teachers,  the  principal  is  the  most  important.    The   colleagues  second,  and  then  parents,  third  –  even  though  they're  all  important,   that's how  I  would  rank  them.         LINDA:    Could  we  go  back  to  an  earlier  question  a  little  bit?    Do  you  believe  that   you've  given  me  enough  information  or  all  the  information  you  want  about  a   positive  and  a  negative  experience?       LAURA:    Oh,  yeah,  no,  oh,  yeah.    The  –  oh,  I'm glad  you  mentioned  that  (That's okay,  it's all  right)  because  the  situation  I'm in  now  is  like  night  and  day  (Okay)   comparing  to  the  other  one.    We  really  have  a  collegial  atmosphere.    It  all  starts   with  a  program  this  principal  said  to  us  and  it  was  his  idea  –  he  said,  “I  want  each   of  you  teachers  whatever  your  interests  are  to  develop  a  program  that's going  to   enhance  student  learning,  student  critical  thinking  and  student  creativity,”  and  he   left  it  open  to  come  up  with  what  we  wanted  to  do  and  he  said,  “I  want  you  to   meet  every  week,  provide  each  other  support  and  feedback.    And,  you  know,  I'll   be  at  these  meetings  and  we'll  help  each  other  and  we'll  brainstorm,”  because  he   really  believed  that  that's going  to  really  help  things.    And  for  me,  I  just  -­  you   know  I  felt  like  I  was  so  thrilled,  you  know  based  on  my  other  experience,  I   thought  this  is  wonderful.    So,  I  developed  a  media  literacy  and  a  documentary   producing  program  for  the  kids  in  my  class.    And  other  teachers  did  totally   different  things.    And  we  meet  every  week  and  we  talk  about  it  and  we  give  each   other  really  helpful  feedback  and  it's become  just  this  great  –  it's really enhanced   our  interest  and  you  know  we're  interested  in  each  other,  we  care,  we  give  each   other  good  feedback.    And,  you  know  I'm friends  with  some  of  the  teachers  now   that  I  didn't  you  know  hardly  know  just  because  of  the  support.    And  the  principal   is  there.    He  reigns  us  in  when  he  needs  to  and  we  can  handle  it  because  we   know  we  have  his  support,  we  know  he's just  sticking  to  the  guidelines  that  are   there  and  but  otherwise  –  and  if  we're  going  too  far,  he'll  help  us  brainstorm  for  a   way  to  work  around  it  or  address  it  so  that  you  know  it's appropriate.    And,  I'm just  really  thrilled.    And  the  interesting  thing  is  it  –  it  is  more  work  but  we're  able  to   really  make  changes  and  see  it.    We  can  see  everyday  in  that  classroom  we  see   it  with  the  kids.    We  see  it  on  their  faces  and  then  we  see  it  –  I  see  it  in  their   assignments  in  grades  going  up,  and  struggling  kids  doing  better  because  they're   excited  about  school.  And,  you  know  and  we're  starting  to  bring  in  pieces  of  each   © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   3   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  Two   other's  programs.    Every  -­  you  know  all  these  programs  are  quite  different  and  it's just  been  wonderful.    It's still  in  process,  but  so  far  everything  is  completely  good   and  I  think  you  know  part  of  it  is  that  it's a  good  principal,  but  all  of  us  as  teachers   at  this  particular  school  just  jumped  in  and  we're  ready,  we're  open  and  ready  to   try  it  out  and  it's been  working  really  well  and  so  I'm happy.       LINDA:    Laura,  I  want  to  respect  your  time  and  I  notice  we're  at  30  minutes.       LAURA:    Oh,  we  are,  okay.         LINDA:    Yeah,  already.    (Oh,  wow)  I  do  have  one  more  question,  but  it's time's up,  so  I'd  like  to  know  if  you'd  like  to  stay  or  go.       LAURA:    Okay,  well,  you  know  I  was  going  to  go  but  I  have  to  say  I'm really   enjoying  this.    I  don't  mind  answering  another  question,  (You're  sure?)  go  right ahead.    (Okay)  I'd  like  to.    (All  right.)  Thanks.       LINDA:    I'd  like  to  know  some  of  your  ideas  on  how  a  school  might  ensure  a   positive  workplace  morale.       LAURA:    Well,  I  guess  a  typical  school  that  aren't  doing  sort  of  these  unusual   motivating  programs,  one  thing,  simple  thing  they  could  do  is  just  more  social   occasions  for  the  teachers,  more  opportunities  for  teachers  to  get  to  know  each   other  on  a  social  level  because  I've  been  at  schools  where  I  only  like  have  one  or   two  teacher  friends  that  are  my  close  friends  at  the  school.  And,  you  know  don't   really  know  the  others  and  I  feel  it  can  be  a  bit  isolating.    And  just  to  be  able  to   talk  and  to  be  able  to  share  experiences  and  ideas  and  just  I  think  it  could  start   with  just  you  know  social  parties.    You  know,  little  after  school  you  know  get-­ together  hour,  just  informally,  I  think  that  would  help.  I  think  it  would  be  a  simple   way  to  help  to  be  able  to  support  each  other.    And,  then  I  guess  the  key  thing  is  a   supervisor  who  sort  of  makes  it  a  point  to  be  flexible  and  trusting  and  supportive.     I  think  that's a  key  element  and  that's going  to  affect  everything.       LINDA:    If  you  had  to  like  say  three  or  five  words  –  the  most  –  really  key  in  terms   of  this  area,  what  would  you  say?       LAURA:    Respect,  support  and  openness.         LINDA:    Okay.    Laura,  is  there  anything  else  you'd  like  to  share  with  me  on  this   topic  that  I've  not  asked  you  about  or  that  you  would  like  to  have  an  opportunity   to  say?       LAURA:    No,  I  can't  think  of  anything  else.    I  think  we've  covered  everything  on   this  topic,  yeah.       © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   4   Interviewing  Techniques  Part  Two   LINDA:    Well,  thank  you  so  much.    And  as  I  say,  I'll  be  sending  you  a  copy  of  the   transcript  and  also  my  notes.    If  you  see  any  corrections  or  anything  that  I've   missed,  please  do  let  me  know.    Thank  you  so  much,  Laura.       LAURA:    Okay,  thank  you.    Thanks.         LINDA:    Bye-­bye.    (Bye-­bye)    Have  a  good  class.    (Okay)    Okay.       LINDA:    You  now  have  observed  and  collected  data  on  two  interviews.    As a   researcher  doing  qualitative  studies,  you  need  to  carefully  plan  for  the  time  it   takes  for  you  to  collect,  organize,  analyze  and  interpret  data.    It  can  be  quite  a  bit   of  time.  Estimate  for  yourself,  for  example,  how  much  time  it  would  take  to  collect   data  for  10  audio  taped  40  minute  interviews.    As you  estimate  the  time,  plan  for   contacting  and  scheduling  the  interviews,  travel  time,  conducting  the  actual   interview  and  transcribing  the  interview.    That  estimate  feeds  into  your  feasibility   planning  for  the  study  and  it's important  for  you  in  order  to  allocate  adequate   resources  to  fulfill  your  research  goals.    You  have  observed  various  qualities  of   interviewing.    Now,  imagine  yourself  as  an  interviewer.    What  would  your  body   language  be  like?    How  would  you  establish  rapport?    What  about  the  phrasing  of   your  questions  –  how  would  you  phrase  questions  to  draw  the  participant  into   dialog?    In  order  to  practice  that,  you  might  consider  a  question  and  write  it  3,  4,   5  different  ways.    Then  evaluate  the  phrasings  in  order  to  see  which  would  be   most  effective.    You  might  even  try  them  out  with  some  folks.    As  an  interviewer,   you  are  a  scientist  and  an  artist.    As a  scientist,  you  must  use  strong  and  rigorous   research  designs  and  procedures.    As an  artist,  you  are  painting  a  relationship  to   establish  comfort  with  your  participant  so  that  the  participant  can  contribute  as   much  as  possible  to  the  study.    Practice  your  science  and  art  by  designing  and   conducting  interviews.    Invite  people  to  observe  those  interviews  and  give  you   feedback.    Participate  yourself  as  an  interviewee  and  observe  others  conducting   interviews.    One  way  to  do  that  is  to  observe  and  critique  interviews  conducted   on  news  programs.    This  study,  observation  and  practice  will  develop  you  as  a   skilled  interviewer.       © 2016  Laureate  Education,  Inc.   5  
Interview Guide Example Date: Time: Interviewee Code #: Location of Interview: Parts of the Interview Introduction Question 1: © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc.  Interview Questions Hi, this is _____. Thank you very much for helping me practice my interview skills. As you know, the purpose of this interview is to talk about what social change means to you as a Walden student. This should last about 10 minutes. After the interview, I will be examining your answers to practice data analysis, and some of your answers will be shared with my Instructor and classmates. However, I will not identify you in my documents, and no one will be able to identify you with your answers. You can choose to stop this interview at any time. Also, I need to let you know that this interview will be recorded for transcription purposes.  Do you have any questions?  Are you ready to begin? 1. Can you tell me what program you are in at Walden? a. And what year did you start? Page 1 of 3 Parts of the Interview Question 2: Interview Questions 2. Was working for social change important to you before you came to Walden? a. Can you give me an example of what you did? Question 3: 3. Was the social change mission important to you in making your choice to come to Walden? a. Please describe how it was important/not important to you. Question 4: 4. From your perspective, what is social change? a. Can you give me some examples of what you mean by that? Close © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. 1. Thank you for your answers. Do you have anything else you’d like to share? Page 2 of 3 Parts of the Interview Interview Questions 2. Do you have any questions for me? 3. Thank you for your time. Goodbye. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 3 of 3
Interview Guide Instructions 1. Prepare! a. Choose a recording device to capture your voice and your interviewee’s voice. Smartphones have a variety of apps for recording and downloading calls. Several are free. Some charge an additional fee for downloading the file. Some also have a transcribing service, but there is an extra charge. You can also use a simple handheld recording device. Conduct the interview using the speakerphone so both voices will be distinctly heard. b. Decide how you want to create the transcription. As indicated above, you can use a transcription service; they will charge anywhere between $1 and $3 a minute. Alternatively, you can transcribe the interview yourself by typing the text into MS Word. This is free, but time consuming—about 1–2 hours, as you need to record the contents of the interview verbatim. Be sure to identify when the interviewee is speaking, and highlight the questions you ask. c. Create an Interview Guide Form. An example is provided in the course, or you can create your own. If you use this one or another, be sure to leave space for your notes. d. Prepare a brief introduction. There is an example in the Interview Guide Example. e. Practice your interview with a friend to get comfortable with the questions and the recording device. f. Set up your appointment. 2. Conduct your interview. a. Test to make sure your recording equipment is working. b. Have your interview guide with you and a pen to take notes. Immediately after: i. Make detailed notes of your experience. Include how you were feeling during the interview, and your unspoken reactions to the interviewee’s comments. ii. Check to make sure the recording worked c. As soon as possible, transcribe the interview. Questions: 1. Can you tell me what program are you in at Walden? a. And what year did you start? © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 1 of 2 2. How was working for social change important to you before you came to Walden? a. Can you give me an example of what you did? 3. How was the social change mission important to you in making your choice to come to Walden? a. Please describe how it was important/not important to you. 4. From your perspective, what is social change? a. Can you give me some examples of what you mean by that? © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 2 of 2

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JesseCraig
School: Cornell University

I have done your work. Thank you so much.

Running head: The Analysis & Interpretation of Qualitative Data

The Analysis & Interpretation of Qualitative Data:
Student’s name:
Institution affiliation:
Date:

1

The Analysis & Interpretation of Qualitative Data

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The Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Data
Introduction
Social change alludes to any huge modification after some time in conduct patterns &
social esteems & norms. The expression "social change" has been characterized & examined over
the scholastic Social issue is a nonexclusive term connected to the scope of conditions & aberrant
behaviors which are held to be signs of social disruption. It is a condition which many individuals
in the society consider undesirable & need to be amended by changing some methods of social
planning. Numerous social issues are due to the processes of social change. All things considered,
a changing society unavoidably creates issues. In splendidly integrated society, it is stated, there
would be no social issue in light of the fact that in such society all institutions & conduct would
be conveniently harmonized & characterized as adequate by the estimations of society (Kezar,
2014). Changing societies are in a consistent process of disorganization & re-organization. Social
issues are a piece of the cost of social change. Times of rapid change may result to the
disequilibrium & dis-organization of the formal operation of society.
Social change considered acceptable in the society may lead to an increase in social issues.
Eight rights & privileges are given to ladies in developing nations, may have been largely accepted
as an attractive change, for ladies can appreciate the freedom & go into political, economic &
different spheres of social life. However, such activity, partic-ularly in urban modern regions,
particularly in metropolitan urban areas, additionally has offered rise to issues of the compelling
performance of ladies' part in the home as spouse & mother, & sub-standard family existence with
insufficient support & care of kids. These & numerous different conditions related with social
change give rise to fluctuated social issues (Aguinis et al, 2012). Hence, both are firmly joined in
their relationship.

The Analysis & Interpretation of Qualitative Data

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Hiring the right workers can improve or disintegrate an organization. Worker recruitment
is normally about finding an ideal choice for an organization; optional to, experiencing steady
examination for the correct determination of the prospective applicant. In any case, there is an ageold gap amongst the management & employees. Employees regularly speculate management's
motives & dislike having authority forced on them. At the same time, administrators are just
human. Some endeavor to assign responsibility by still pretending to be in control". Based on this,
there appears to have an existing low rate of employment for people who have challenges in the
workplace compared to the significantly low unemployment rate of individuals, who do not display
subsequent challenges encountered in the workplace. For example, individuals who have a
psychological problem, or a physical reason for necessary accommodations and change; therefore,
management, human resources, or the personnel psychologist has to factor in these reasons for the
decision-making process for employment.
The employment rate for individuals with a physical or mental challenge has a ratio of 33.4
% when compared to 75.6 % for their non-challenged peers. There are persistent concerns that
disparate treatment by employers may be contributing to this employment gap. For example,
employers may be hesitant to hire workers or maintain employment of workers with challenges
because of negative attitudes about their ability to keep up the organizational norms. This
perceived lack of skills among people who face challenges, or perceptions that accommodation or
other costs may be too high to maintain their employment, may decrease the trust between
management & the employees.
Role of the Researcher
As a student graduate researcher, I have a crucial role to play in conducting the research,
data collection and qualitative data analysis. My first role was organizing how to collect relevant

The Analysis & Interpretation of Qualitative Data

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data by coming up with a data collection strategy. For my case, I was involved in planning and
conducting a focus group in order to collect qualitative data to obtain a more understanding of my
research question. I identified the objectives the research objective to be covered by this focus
group depending on my research question, "why are there experiences of Ascriptive inequalities
in the workplace?" I ensured that each group has about six to eight members who participated in a
semi-structured conversation about why there as experiences of ascriptive inequalities in the
workplace (Laureate Education, 2016).
I set up enough groups that enabled me to collect sufficient information and appointed a
moderator to lead each group. I ensured that group members were recruited out in the community
by obtained a list of people with relevant authority and recruit them by making phone calls.
Relating to members of the groups regardless of their age, sex, interest or background really helped
me since this made them be comfortable to participate in the interview. I also took care of them by
proving snacks and drinks, and returns due to their participation for instance, giving shopping card
to those who volunteered to participate in this research (Laureate Education, 2016). Comfortability
of group members was further enhanced by reading their body language to identify if they are
tired, ensuring the conversation took place in a conducive environment and giving them directions
where necessary.
As an interviewer, I prepared the research questions by scripting the key points to be
covered to ensure accurate information is collected. I then collected the focus group data through
audio recording and taking notes. My final role as a researcher was to grouping, organizing, coding
and sorting data which I have collected. I created memos which contain my thoughts, reflections,
process description and results about my research question, "why are there experiences of
Ascriptive inequalities in the workplace?". I utilized the computer-assisted qualitative data analysis

The Analysis & Interpretation of Qualitative Data

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software which was an excel spreadsheet in this case to analyze my data. The only ethical issue
that did arise during the data collection process was the conflict of interest among some focus
group members (Rubin, 2...

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