There is no Scientific Basis for Race It a Made Up Label Essay

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Thompson Rivers University Department of English and Modern Languages ENGL 1100: Introduction to University Writing Instructor: Tara Chambers Critical Summary Assignment Due Date: Sunday July 3rd @ 11:59pm (PDF doc) 500-750 Words Grading Weight: 10% INSTRUCTIONS: Please compose a critical summary about the article “There is No Scientific Basis for Race – It is a Made-Up Label” by Elizabeth Kolbert (found in the “Readings” folder). This summary should be 500-750 words, typed, double spaced, and 12pt font (Times New Roman is preferred) and uploaded to Moodle by 11:59pm on Sunday July 3rd. Ensure you provide a clear introduction that includes the necessary information, one to two summary paragraphs (maximum) that summarize the contents of the article, a paragraph devoted to a critical analysis of the article, and a conclusion (therefore, this assignment may be four or five paragraphs). Use the notes you have taken in class, and follow the Critical Summary structure template that is posted on Moodle (in the Critical Summary PP Slides). Your grade will depend on how well you understand and evaluate the article, as well as how closely you follow the critical summary template. INSTRUCTIONS FOR CRITICAL SUMMARY: Please compose a critical summary about the article “There is No Scientific Basis for Race – It is a Made-Up Label” by Elizabeth Kolbert (found in the “Readings” folder). This summary should be 500-750 words, typed, double spaced, and 12pt font (Times New Roman is preferred) and uploaded to Moodle by 11:59pm on Sunday July 3rd. Ensure you provide a clear introduction that includes the necessary information, one to two summary paragraphs (maximum) that summarize the contents of the article, a paragraph devoted to a critical analysis of the article, and a conclusion (therefore, this assignment may be four or five paragraphs). Use the notes you have taken in class, and follow the Critical Summary structure template (in the Critical Summary PP Slides). Your grade will depend on how well you understand and evaluate the article, as well as how closely you follow the critical summary template. WRITING INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPHS HANDOUT The introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of an essay. Its purpose is to be so inviting that the reader will not want to stop reading. In all college essays, this introductory paragraph contains a thesis statement. Some instructors and courses require the student to use a 1-3-1 essay format. The essay consists of an introductory paragraph with a three-point thesis statement, three body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. Included in this packet are sample thesis statements, sample introductory paragraphs, and exercises. INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPHS.doc disk C-1 (5) WHAT IS A THESIS? The thesis of an essay is a statement of the main idea of that essay. It is the statement of what the writer is going to explain, defend, or prove about his topic. It is usually placed at the end of the introductory paragraph. The thesis statement is a complete sentence that presents a viewpoint about the topic, which can be defended or shown in the essay. A thesis statement should not be a simple statement of fact. Examples: Read each of the following statements. If you think the statement is a fact, mark it with an F. If you think the statement is a thesis, mark it with a T. 1. In the United States, kindergarten is not compulsory. 2. Putting a child into kindergarten before he or she is physically or emotionally ready can have several unfortunate effects on a child. 3. In some European countries, children do not begin formal schooling until age seven or eight. 4. Many students in community colleges have part-time jobs while they are going to school. 5. Working a part-time job while going to school puts an enormous strain on a person for a variety of reasons. 6. Five actions need to be taken to save the grizzly bear from extinction. 7. To save the grizzly bear, we need laws from Congress, the cooperation of hunters and campers, and an educated general public. 8. It is estimated that approximately 200 grizzly bears live in Yellowstone National Park. 9. The discovery of many artifacts in Russell Cave has changed some of the theories previously held about life in North America thousands of years ago. 10. Russell Cave is the oldest known home of human beings in the southeastern United States. 2 INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPHS.doc disk C-1 (5) THESIS PRACTICE Which thesis in each pair would be most helpful to the writer of a 500-word essay? 1. 2. 3. A. Chinatown in San Francisco will remain a ghetto as long as its population increases, its wages are substandard, and its citizens experience discrimination. B. The Chinatowns in big cities like Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco remain ghettos because of cultural problems. A. Few people are prepared to live in the California wilderness, as interviews with several rescue scouts have indicated. B. Survival in the California wilderness depends on three main factors: physical fitness, proper clothing, and knowledge of edible plants. A. Rod McKuen writes of love, loneliness, and nostalgia in a shallow free verse. B. The poetry of Rod McKuen has popular appeal because, like Shakespeare's sonnets, the reader recognizes the emotions portrayed since they are stereotypical. Try to develop thesis statements of your own on the following topics: 1. Television - 2. Capital punishment - 3. Mandatory drug testing - 3 INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPHS.doc disk C-1 (5) ATTENTION GETTING DEVICES The first several sentences of an introductory paragraph should consist of attention getting or interest sentences. Below are several examples of different techniques which may be used to lead the reader to the thesis statement, which is the final one or two sentences of the introductory paragraph. 1. NARRATION Harry Houdini, the great escape artist, never ran out of ways to attract the interest of the general public. Even the events surrounding his death demonstrate his flair for the dramatic. According to an often quoted story, Houdini, just before he died, told his wife that he would communicate with her from "the other side." From his death to just before her death in 1943, when she gave up trying to reach him, this promise kept his widow from fading into obscurity. It was this ability to stimulate the interest of the public that also served him well in life, particularly during his performances. Houdini, a successful showman, knew how to captivate his spectators. He could excite them with the danger and suspense of his acts, amuse them with unexpected touches of humor, or stimulate their curiosity. 2. FACTUAL DATA OR STATISTICS Harry Houdini, the great escape artist was born in 1874. There has been some controversy over where he was born. Some biographers argue Budapest, Hungary; others, however, support his claim of having been born in Appleton, Wisconsin. This controversy notwithstanding, Houdini's real name was Erich Weiss, and at an early age Erich demonstrated an uncanny grasp of the art of trapeze flying. As he grew older, he became fascinated with magic and with the fantastic tricks of such performers as the French magician Robert-Houdini, from whose name he later derived Houdini. It was from such magicians that he also gained his showmanship. Houdini, a successful showman, knew how to captivate his spectators. He could excite them with the danger and suspense of his acts, amuse them with unexpected touches of humor, or stimulate their curiosity. 3. QUOTATION In his article on "conjuring" in the 1926 Encyclopedia Britannica, the great master of escape Harry Houdini asserted that he owed his success to his "great physical strength and the fact that he [was] slightly bowlegged." But when one reads about the remarkable career of this amazing performer, one finds the man's showmanship more impressive than his athletic attributes. Houdini, a successful showman, knew how to captivate his spectators. He could excite them with the danger and suspense of his acts, amuse them with unexpected humor, or stimulate their curiosity. 4 INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPHS.doc disk C-1 (5) 4. STARTLING STATEMENT It has been said that each of us, at one time or another, considers committing suicide. But the real tragedy is that each year more than half a million people not only contemplate suicide but actually succeed in taking their own lives. This high suicide rate is influenced by a number of factors. Among them are psychological states, sociological conditions, and ineffective means of prevention. 5. GENERAL STATEMENTS Mention life insurance to most people, and they confess that they are confused about the subject. Some even swear that their insurance agent had to get special training to deal with the difficult language of life insurance. People need not be confused, however, because there are actually only three basic types of life insurance--ordinary life, term life, and endowment life--and each has features designed to meet particular requirements. Fast-food restaurants are becoming more and more popular in the United States. The rapid pace of contemporary society and the need of those "on the go" for quick meals bring the American public through the doors of fast-food restaurants in ever-increasing numbers. No longer is the fast-food restaurant primarily a hangout for teenagers. On the contrary, during recent years people of all ages have come to rely on fast-food outlets as a means of satisfying their appetite for the all-American meal of hamburger, French fries, and soft drink. Playing host to such a mass of hungry drop-ins is bound to put a strain on those who work in a fast-food restaurant. Of the different types of customers who frequent fast-food restaurants, some are more welcome than others. In particular, three types of customers become very familiar to those who must serve them: the impatient ones, the picky ones, and--perhaps the salvation of the employees--the easy-to-please ones. 6. COMBINATION Born in 1874, the great escape artist, Harry Houdini lived in an age that, as a result of new advances in science, was fascinated with the unusual and inexplicable. The Great Houdini took advantage of his audience's taste, performing seemingly impossible tasks and reaping their wonder and appreciation. If his audiences had only known the most of what they saw during a performance was easily accomplishable for a "slightly bowlegged" man of "great physical strength," they might not have been quite so impressed. Houdini, however, was a successful showman who knew how to captivate his spectators. He could excite them with the danger and suspense of his acts, amuse them with unexpected touches of humor, or stimulate their curiosity. Factual detail Generalization Generalization Generalization Quotation 5 INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPHS.doc disk C-1 (5) WHAT NOT TO SAY IN YOUR INTRODUCTION 1. Avoid telling the reader that you are beginning your essay: In this essay, I will discuss . . . I will talk about . . . I am going to prove . . . 2. Do not apologize in your paper: Although I am not an expert . . . In my humble opinion . . . 3. Do not refer to later parts of your essay: By the end of this essay one will agree . . . In the next paragraph people will see . . . 4. Do not use trite expressions. Since they have been so overused, they will lack interest. Using such expression shows that you have not taken time to use your own words to express your ideas. Some examples of trite expressions are: busy as a bee you can't tell a book from its cover haste makes waste 5. Do not make your introduction too long. This paragraph usually needs about half as many sentences as your body paragraphs. (The length of the introduction may vary in proportion to the length of the essay. A long 2,000 word research paper may require a longer introduction.) 6. Do not use second person you as if your reader were sitting next to you. 6 INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPHS.doc disk C-1 (5) x Introductions and Thesis Statements INTRODUCTIONS Since the dawn of man, writing has been used to communicate ideas. In academic settings, ideas are typically communicated using formal types of writing such as essays. Most academic essays contain an introductory paragraph, which includes a thesis. The Oxford English Dictionary defines an introduction as, “A preliminary explanation prefixed to or included in a book or other writing; the part of a book which leads up to the subject treated or explains the author’s design or purpose. Also, the corresponding part of a speech, lecture, etc.” INTRODUCTIONS Since the dawn of man, writing has been used to communicate ideas. In academic settings, ideas are typically communicated using formal types of writing such as essays. Most academic essays contain an introductory paragraph, which includes a thesis. The Oxford English Dictionary defines an introduction as, “A preliminary explanation prefixed to or included in a book or other writing; the part of a book which leads up to the subject treated, or explains the author’s design or purpose. Also, the corresponding part of a speech, lecture, etc.” The INTRODUCTION DO! Provide Context • Begin somewhat broad in scope • Provide Relevant Background • Provide an Anecdote (if appropriate) Convince your reader your essay is worth their time! Do NOT! • Begin too broad in scope • Include irrelevant details • Begin your “true” argument • Use tired old clichés • Rely on dictionary definitions Do not forget to provide a THESIS statement! INTRODUCTIONS: Are refugees beneficial to their host countries? “For many individuals, Canada is now the land of opportunity. People from all over the world are choosing Canada as their new home. Over *statistic* immigrants and refugees settled in Canada in 2017. Many of the newcomers have skills that can easily be adapted to their new country. Therefore, immigrants and refugees are beneficial for strengthening the Canadian work force which, in turn, strengthens the Canadian economy.” Thesis Statements! The argument you will defend Defensible and debatable Supported by sub arguments, evidence, and analysis “Three-Pronged Thesis Statement” ESSAY STRUCTURE! EXAMPLE: Is Thomas Edison an important person? Thomas Edison’s genius was the perfect combination of innovative thinking, hard work, and a positive attitude. Thomas Edison was influential because he created the light bulb, phonograph, and a telegraph transmitter. Sub Topics (body paragraphs) Inner city schools are in serious trouble and need more funding to address problems such as overcrowded classrooms, the low percentage of trained teachers, and the lack of resources such as textbooks for students. 1. overcrowded classrooms 2. low percentage of trained teachers 3. lack of resources These will be the topics of your three body paragraphs Common Errors to Avoid. Don’t just state the topic! In this essay I will discuss the pros and cons of eating red meat. This essay is about World War 1. Do NOT include statements such as “I believe” OR “in my opinion” EXAMPLES I believe the government should fund additional cancer research. In my opinion, World War 1 was the first modern war. Why? Don’t just state a fact or observation as the thesis statement. Examples: Every year thousands of Americans lose their lives in automobile accidents related to drunk driving. World War involved many new weapons. Why? Come up with a Three-Pronged Thesis Statement for one topic Parking on campus Weekend food options on campus Lower tuition School music programs 1. Ask a question 2. Create a Declaration (argument) 3. Three points of support 4. Combine to write thesis After the Break: Summarizing Your Article Briefly yet effectively communicate the content of Your Assigned Article. 1. What is your article about? 2. How does the author support their argument? A Successful Academic Summary • Concisely states the main point or points from the original source. • Faithfully represents the original source’s main ideas • Omits details, examples, repetition, digression, personal opinion • Avoids plagiarism • Includes the source in a prominent position. ACTIVE READING: decide what information is relevant and irrelevant to your task Who/What: Is this passage mostly about? When: Does it take place (if relevant) What: Is important about the topic or subject? (What’s the issue) Where: Does it take place (if relevant) Why: Is this topic or subject important? How: Does it occur (if relevant) Make sure to Annotate, Annotate, Annotate!
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CRITICAL SUMMARY

There is no Scientific Basis for Race-It's a Made-Up Label

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CRITICAL SUMMARY
There is no Scientific Basis for Race-It's a Made-Up Label
Human beings have proven to be the most cooperative species on the planet considering
the vast cities we have built and the technological advances we have made, among other great
achievements. Yet, surprisingly, we can also be intolerant of each other. One infamous way that
this tendency is shown is in racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is structural,
internalized, interpersonal, and institutional. However, one may wonder if there is, indeed, a
social hierarchy whereby one race is superior to another. Thanks to genetic sequencing,
researchers have proven that the whole distinction of race is misconceived and that we are all
more closely related than we may think. This is the statement of topic in Elizabeth Kolbert’s
article titled, There is no Scientific Basis for Race-It's a Made-Up Label, which was published on
October 22, 2018, by National Geographic. Kolbert’s article provides mea...


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