biology 203 Endocrine system Heart Blood

User Generated

Ybhwva

Science

Bio 203

University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Description

"Endocrine system, Heart, Blood

I am gonna upload the learning objectives. they are just 3 pages

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Learning Objectives Objectives that begin with L are also learning objectives for the laboratory component of this course. Objectives that begin with LO will only be assessed in the lab. 1. List the functions of blood. 2. Explain the contents of blood, both the matrix and specialized cells. Explain how platelets differ structurally from the other formed elements of the blood. 3. LO Identify microscopically each of the following: erythrocytes (red blood cells or RBCs), the five types of leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs), and platelets. 4. State the function of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. 5. L State the normal ranges for erythrocyte counts, total leukocyte count, and platelet count. 6. L Define and calculate hematocrit. Give normal hematocrit values for males and females. 7. Discuss the following properties of erythrocytes. a. Structure b. Function c. Development d. Recycling 8. L Discuss the structure and function of hemoglobin. 9. List triggers for erythropoietin (EPO) release and effects of EPO on RBC development. 10. Explain why jaundice results when the liver is not functioning normally and how RBC’s are involved. 11. List human blood types and explain why donor and recipient must be cross matched before a transfusion. 12. L List the type of antigen and the type of antibodies present in each ABO blood type. 13. L Describe how the presence or absence of Rh antigen results in blood being classified as positive or negative. 14. L Distinguish between the development of anti-Rh antibodies and the development of anti-A and anti-B antibodies. 15. L Predict which blood types are compatible and what happens when the incorrect ABO or Rh blood type is transfused. State which blood type is considered the universal donor and which blood type is considered the universal recipient, and explain why. 16. L Explain the scenario that can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn and how administration of RhoGAM can prevent maternal sensitization. 17. Identify the 5 types of white blood cells and assign a general function to each. 18. Describe the site and factors that facilitate white blood cell development. 19. Describe platelet function and development. 20. Define hemostasis. List necessary components in order for hemostasis to occur. 21. Define anemia and hemophilia. 22. LO Identify signs of infectious mononucleosis and sickle-cell anemia on blood smears. Learning Objectives Objectives that begin with L are also learning objectives for the laboratory component of this course. Objectives that begin with LO will only be assessed in the lab. 1. L Describe the major functions of the endocrine system. 2. Compare exocrine and endocrine glands 3. L Define the terms hormone, endocrine gland, endocrine tissue (organ), and target cell. 4. LO Identify the locations of all endocrine organs. 5. L Compare and contrast how the nervous and endocrine systems control body function, with emphasis on the mechanisms by which the controlling signals are transferred through the body and the time course of the response(s) and action(s). 6. L List the major chemical classes of hormones found in the human body. 7. Compare and contrast peptide hormones, biogenic amines, and steroid hormones. A. Structure/backbone B. Mechanism/location of synthesis C. Receptor location and signaling pathways used 8. L Describe the roles of negative and positive feedback in controlling hormone release. 9. L Describe the locations of and the anatomical relationships between the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary glands. 10. Compare and contrast the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary glands. A. Cell types contained C. Regulation of hormone release B. Hormones secreted 11. L Define the terms releasing hormone, inhibiting hormone and tropic hormone. 12. L Explain the role of the hypothalamus in the release of anterior pituitary hormones. 13. L Perform outcomes A-C for each of the following hormones: TRH, TSH, thyroid hormone, GnRH, LH, FSH, testosterone, CRH, ACTH, cortisol, aldosterone, androgens, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. A. Describe the stimulus for release of the hormone B. Identify the gland or endocrine tissue/organ and the cells within that gland/tissue/organ that produce the hormone. C. Name the target tissue or cells for the hormone and describe the effect(s) of the hormone on the target tissue or cells. 14. Describe the regulation and effects of antidiuretic hormone. Draw a negative feedback loop that shows how ADH keeps blood pressure stable. Give examples of situations that lead to an increase in ADH levels. 15. Compare and contrast the exocrine and endocrine functions of the pancreas. 16. Compare and contrast insulin and glucagon A. Stimulus for secretion B. Effect on target cells 17. Describe Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A. Causes B. Treatment Learning Objectives Objectives that begin with L are also learning objectives for the laboratory component of this course. Objectives that begin with LO will only be assessed in the lab. 1. Describe functions and location of the heart. 2. LO Identify and describe the function of internal and external structures of the heart (see lab structures list) 3. L Trace a drop of blood from anywhere in the body to the heart, through the lungs, back to the heart, and back into systemic circulation. 4. L List names of all heart valves and the chambers they separate. Describe the function of heart valves. 5. L Define the words artery and vein. Explain why an artery in the pulmonary circuit carries low oxygen blood while an artery in the systemic circuit carries high oxygen blood. 6. L Identify and describe the pathways of coronary arteries and cardiac veins. List veins and arteries that run together. Describe the implications of blocked coronary arteries and treatments used for this condition. 7. Diagram and label the pericardium and the 3 layers of the heart wall, including tissue type. Explain the significance of intercalated discs. 8. Explain the structure and function of the conduction system of the heart. 9. Explain the function of cardiac muscle cells. Diagram and label a cardiac action potential – include the names of each phase and the ion (and direction that ion moves) responsible for each phase. 10. Explain why the long duration of refractory period in cardiac muscle and lack of summation and tetanus is desirable. 11. Define auto-rhythmic and pacemaker potential. Explain why a “heart in a box” can contract spontaneously. 12. L Label a normal EKG and correlate electrical events shown with mechanical events occurring in the body. 13. Define systole and diastole; list phases of the cardiac cycle and events that occur during each phase. 14. Explain the cause and timing of heart sounds (lub/dub). 15. Define mean arterial pressure and indicate how it is related to cardiac output. 16. Define cardiac output and ejection fraction. Calculate these values given appropriate volumes. 17. Explain intrinsic factors that regulate the heart. a. Preload b. Afterload 18. Explain extrinsic factors that regulate the heart. a. Autonomic nervous system b. Hormonal control 19. Explain how the baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes alter heart rate to maintain homeostasis.
Purchase answer to see full attachment
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Explanation & Answer

Attached.

Running head: BIOLOGY 203

1

Biology 203
Name
Institution

BIOLOGY 203

2
Biology 203
Learning Objectives

Objectives that begin with L are also learning objectives for the laboratory component of
this course. Objectives that begin with LO will only be assessed in the lab.
1. List the functions of blood.
The blood has three functions; transportation of oxygen and carbon II oxide between the
lungs and the rest of the body. It also protects the body and has the function of regulation.
2. Explain the contents of blood, both the matrix and specialized cells. Explain how
platelets differ structurally from the other formed elements of the blood.
The blood has three main contents the white blood cells (leukocytes), the red blood cells
(erythrocytes) and the platelets (thrombocytes). The extracellular matrix of the blood is the
plasma. The red blood cells have specialized cells which allow the carrying of oxygen to all the
body parts. The platelets differ from the other elements due to its small structure and the discoid
cellular fragments which they help to stop bleeding.
3. LO Identify microscopically each of the following: erythrocytes (red blood cells or
RBCs), the five types of leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs), and platelets.
Under the microscopic view, the RBCs have a biconcave shape which is bean-like structures.
There is also a layer of hemoglobin which is observed responsible for providing oxygen. The
five types of WBCs are all seen in the microscope when examining. These are monocytes,
lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. The microscopic view of the platelets is a
roundish shape and smaller than the RBCs with a purple color.
4. State the function of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

BIOLOGY 203

3

The function of the red blood cells is the transportation of oxygen through the Hemoglobin
and carbon dioxide. They also cycle the nutrients and hormones in our bodies and maintain the
body temperatures. The functions of the white blood cells are to protect the body against
infections and diseases. The function of the platelets is to safeguard the body against excessive
bleeding (blood clotting).
5. L State the normal ranges for erythrocyte counts, total leukocyte count, and platelet
count.
The standard range of erythrocyte counts in the male is 4.7 to 6.1 and in female 4.2 to 5.4
million cells per microliter. The count in leukocyte in blood is 4500 to 11000 which is 4.5 to 11
microliter. The total count range of platelet in blood is 150,000 to 450,000 per microliter.
6. L Define and calculate hematocrit. Give average hematocrit values for males and
females.
Hematocrit is the proportion of blood that contains the red blood cells it is calculated by
dividing the length of the packed red cells by the length of the whole column of blood. The
normal hematocrit values for a male is 38.8 to 50 percent and for a female is 34.9 to 44.5
percent.
7. Discuss the following properties of erythrocytes.
Structure
They are oval and biconcave in shape and have a sack-like structure to accommodate
hemoglobin.
Function
They are red and round which enables them to transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest
body parts and also transporting carbon dioxide to the lungs to be exhaled.

BIOLOGY 203

4

Development
The red blood cells develop from the bone marrow, and they usually pass through stages
of differentiation before developing to maturity.
Recycling
The liver recycles the RBCs then they and they're broken down starts with phagocytosis.
8. L Discuss the structure and function of hemoglobin.
The hemoglobin has a quaternary structure that has a lot of iron which helps in transportation
of blood via the RBCs in mammals and animals.
9. List triggers for erythropoietin (EPO) release and effects of EPO on RBC
development.
The triggers of erythropoietin release are due to decrease in the level of oxygen in the blood
and reduction in the amount of oxygen that is delivered to the tissues. The effect of EPO on the
development of RBCs is that it triggers the release of RBCs from the bone marrow which leads
to the formation and development of many RBCs in the body.
10. Explain why jaundice results when the liver is not functioning normally and how
RBC's are involved.
The function of the liver is to remove any chemical waste from the body therefore when the
liver becomes unfunctional it leads to yellow discoloration of the eyes and the skin. The RBCs
are involved in jaundice where the waste product of old blood cells (bilirubin) are not removed
from the body due to the liver not functioning well leading to jaundice.
11. List human blood types and explain why donor and recipient must be cross matched
before a transfusion.

BIOLOGY 203

5

The human beings have four types of blood these are A, B, AB and O. The donor and the
recipient must be cross-checked before transfusion to avoid agglutination and to ensure the
compatibility of the two individual blood.
12. L List the type of antigen and the type of antibodies present in each ABO blood
type.
Blood type A has only the antigen A and antibody B, blood type B has antigen B and
antibody A, blood type AB has antigen A and B but lacks antibody while blood type O has no
antigen and has antibody A and B.
13. L Describe how the presence or absence of Rh antigen r...


Anonymous
Awesome! Perfect study aid.

Studypool
4.7
Indeed
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4

Related Tags