VTT 252 Pima Medical Institute Equine Research Paper

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VTT 252

Pima Medical Institute



Please do your own research on hot brands, cold brands, microchipping and tattooing.  Please include the freeze brand style and explanation of the numbers used on BLM mustangs freeze brands and lip tattooing in racehorses.  Make sure you cover all these topics.

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VTT 252 Equine Medicine and Nursing Welcome!!! • I know many of you have never dealt with the equine patient before so let’s conduct a quick review so you are more familiar with the animals you will be dealing with the next 8 weeks This is a horse This is also a horse This is not a horse…. . Any Questions?? What are we talking about today?? ▪ What is an equine tech?? ▪ Basic anatomy of the horse ▪ How DO we restrain a 1500lb patient??? ▪ They come in many colors and breeds!! What is an Equine Vet Tech? • CVTs who have furthered their education and become specialists in the field of equine nursing and care. • . The American Association of Equine Veterinary Technicians and Assistants (AAEVT) provides a certification program for equine vet techs. This 1- to 2-year program builds on what vet techs learned while obtaining their degree and applies it directly to the core and well-being of horses. Basically they do everything a small animal CVT would do but on a much larger scale. Anatomy of the Horse External Anatomy of the horse The Hoof 1- coronary band 2- hoof wall 3- toe 4- quarter 5- heel 6- bulb/ heel bulb 7- pastern (P2) Bottom of Hoof Skeletal Anatomy The Horse Stomach 1- esophagus 3- fundus 4- margo plicatus: separates the glandular and nonglandular portions 5- body 6- pyloric part 7- pylorus 8- cranial duodenum Gastric Ulcers Gastric ulcers in horses over 3-4 mos of age occur along the margo plicatus. They occur in horses “under stress” as well as secondary to chronic NSAID use. The GI System The Large Bowel Equine Terminology • • • • • • • • • • Foal: baby horse of either sex Suckling: a foal still nursing the mare Weanling: a foal no longer nursing the mare Yearling: a one-year-old of either sex Filly: female from birth to 3 years of age Mare: female 4 years of age and up Broodmare: a mare used for breeding Colt: intact male from birth to 4 years of age Stallion/Stud: intact male 4 years of age and up Gelding: castrated male of any age iClicker • True or False- Horses are monogastric • A. True • B. False iClicker • True or False The Toad is a part of the horse’s hoof • A. True • B. False Riding Disciplines Western • Uses a stock saddle with a horn and fenders; feet are placed in the stirrups • Disciplines include halter, western pleasure, western riding, reining, cutting, trail, roping, team penning, rodeo events English • Uses a lighter saddle requiring more balance and leg strength by the rider. Feet are placed in irons, not stirrups • Disciplines include show jumping, dressage, endurance, 3-Day Eventing, hunter, equitation Tattoos • Lip tattoos are placed on the inside of the upper lip • ALL racehorses must be tattooed prior to their first race • The first character is a letter A-Z and designates the year the horse was foaled; i.e., A for 1997, B for ’98, etc.; the rest are numbers • Can fade with age making them difficult to read Brands • Placed on the left or right hip or the left or right shoulder • Two methods of branding • Hot brand • Freeze brand • Branding “language” is all its own Equine Behavior What Affects Behavior? Environment: Experiences Diet Exercise Stress Genetics • Gender • Type • Breed • Family group • Smell • • • • • Identify other horses Mating Locate water, feed Vomeronasal organ Pheromones • Ears & Hearing • Detect sounds • Determine location of sound • To provide sensory information • Hear in range 14 Hz to 25 kHz (humans 20 Hz to 20 kHz) • Auricle – 180o rotation • Ear position generally relates to visual attention • Touch • Responsive to pain, pressure, cold and heat • Sensitive areas • Eyes, ears and nose • Withers, ribs, flanks and legs • Suffers fatigue VISION • Primary detector of danger Monocular field Up to 215o Binocular field 60-70o • Acute ability to detect movement Marginal zone Monocular field • Monocular & Binocular vision • Monocular field of vision: 215o for each eye • Binocular field of vision: 60o-70o • Often raise head to observe close objects • Lower head to observe faraway objects Visual Signs • • • • • Ears Tail Mouth & lips Eyes Nostrils What “moods” do you think these are? Don’t do this…. • Horse Kick Or this…. Horse Behavior Social Organization • Harem groups – Domestic horses, Przewalski horse & some zebra • Territorial breedersDonkeys & some zebras Social Organization • • • • • • Harem Family Mares Stallion Bachelor Group Family = mare and her offspring • • • Mares 9 months – foals weaned If the foal is a female, she will remain close to her dam until she is a 2 or 3 year old If the foal is a colt, at around 18 months it may be chased out of the breeding group by the stallion • Ten Natural Survival Traits • Depends on flight as its primary means of survival • One of the most perceptive of all domestic animals • Very fast response time • Can be desensitized from frightening stimuli • Horses forgive, but do not forget Ten Natural Survival Traits • Horses categorize • A) something not to fear, so ignore or explore • B) Something to fear, so flee • Horses are easily dominated • Horses exert dominance by controlling the movement of their peers. Horse accept dominance when: • We or another animal cause them to move when they prefer not to • We or another animal inhibit movement when they want to flee Ten Natural Survival Traits • The body language of a horse is unique to the equine species • Horse is a precocial species (newborn foals are neurologically mature at birth) Types of Horse Behavior • Ingestive behaviorbehavioral activities associated with eating & drinking • Eliminative behaviorbehavioral activities associated with defecation & urination • Epimeletic behavior -Caregiving & care-seeking behavior. Most common between a mare & foal Types of Horse Behavior • Sexual • Polygamous • One offspring • Seasonal Breeders • Fetal behavior • Parturient behavior Horse Behavior • Self-care behavior • Autogroom • Homeostatic influences • Grooming • Rest • Awake 80% • Drowsiness 8% • Sleep 12% • Mutual Groom Types of Horse Behavior Investigative Behavior • Play behavior • Exploratory behavior Types of Horse Behavior • Allelomimetic Behavior • Mimicry Types of Horse Behavior Agonistic Behavior Agonistic-Aggressive activity by an animal along with submissive behavior of another. Includes both aggression and submission between or among animals. Examples include biting, kicking, pawing, stomping, rearing. Types of aggression – Pain, space and annoyance related; Frustration-boredom; Resource; Maternal; Sex related Types of Horse Behavior • Dominance/Submissi on (Social Order) Horse Behavior • • • • • • • Spacing Behavior of animals relative to the space they occupy and distance relationships with other animals. Individual distance – Distance an animal attempts to maintain between itself and other animals Group distance – Distance a group of animals attempts to maintain between it and other groups. Personal or individual space – Space occupied by an animal Social distance – Max. distance animals will allow in terms of separation from a group or another individual. Flight distance-Distance an animal attempts to maintain between itself and other individuals such as those that threaten well-being or may offer something the animal assumes to be undesirable. • • Home range – Area selected and used routinely by a group of animals. Territorial – Animals define and mark an area and defend it from use by other animals. Average Time Budgets For Horses Horses are diurnal 10 10 20 60 Eat Stand Lie Other Behavioral Considerations in Equine Handling • HERD INSTINCT • HOMING INSTINCT • FLIGHT • DOMINANCE HEIREACHY • TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR • SELF-DEFENSE • HABIT Stress • Good Stress – The stressful condition in which the horse can find a solution that will relieve the stress • Harmful Stress – A stressful condition in which there is no possible solution or escape. Responses To Harmful Stress • Habituate • Develop abnormal behavior • Permanent fear memory Equine Behavioral Issues • Oral • Cribbing • Tongue movements • Lip movements Equine Behavioral Issues • Locomotion • Head movements (bobbing, tossing, shaking, swinging, nodding) • Throat rubbing • Pacing • Weaving • Fence or stall walking Equine Behavioral Issues • Locomotion • Circling • Stomping • Kicking • Pawing • Digging • Tail rubbing Equine Behavioral Issues • Self-Mutilation • Self-biting (flank, chest, shoulder) • Wall-kicking • Lunging into objects EQUINE VICES • AGGRESSIVE VICES • Biting • Charging • Crowding • Rearing • Kicking • Striking • Fighting EQUINE VICES • METABOLIC VICES • Coprophagy or dirt eating • Cribbing • Mane and tail chewing • Wood chewing iClicker • Which anatomical structure would not give you insight to a horse’s mood or possible behavior? • A. Ears • B. Hooves • C. Tail • D. Nostrils iClicker • True or False- A horse’s first instinct is to kick • A. True • B. False Restraining the Horse Restraint • Horses are always approached from their left side (also referred to as the near side) • The handler must always be on the same side as the veterinarian • A horse’s means of defense are kicking, biting, and striking Restraint (cont) • Eventually the rear-end of the horse must be dealt with; the best ways to go around the hindquarters are to: • Keep a wide berth- farther than the horse can kick • Keep one hand on the horse’s rump as you calmly walk around the hindquarters, staying very close to the animal- even if he does kick it won’t have the full impact • Try not to startle the animal- talking to him calmly lets him know where you are and he’s less likely to spook Halter and Lead Rope ◼ Main means of restraint on all horses, except young foals ◼ Halter goes over the muzzle/face and buckles behind the ears on the left side and the lead rope attaches to the O-ring underneath ◼ Extra length of lead rope is grasped in the left hand while the horse is led with the right hand http://codymcarthur.com/2011/06/ 07/horsevideos/ http://vimeo.com/bluedoorpub/review/117280725/8d2fb710ab Foal Restraint • Foals will typically have foal halters on to allow them to get used to the feel of them on their face BUT they are NEVER used for restraint & leading like in an adult Foal Restraint (cont) • Young foals are grabbed around the rump and shoulders • Older foals can have a lead rope attached to their halter but NEVER pull on the ropethe rope is wrapped around the hindquarters to “pull” the foal forward by pressure from the rear; referred to as a “butt rope” • Foals, like puppies learning to leash train, will resist the pull of the rope and their necks are very weak and deformities can be induced by pulling on their necks! What NOT to do These pictures show great ways to get hurt should your horse decide to spook or shy away from something. Stud Chains • Stud chains, or lead shanks, are used to provide extra control in studs and other reactive individuals • Can be used over the nose and snapping on the right upper Oring, around the entire muzzle, or as a lip chain (commonly used in racehorses) • Note about the lip chain- never yank on it!! It is located on sensitive tissue & if yanked roughly the horse can flip over backwards in attempt to get away from the pain Shoulder Twitch • A good way to get the horse’s attention & cooperation • The skin in front of the shoulder blade is grasped and rolled Two-handed for extra attention Ear Twitch • This form of twitch is considered by many to be a last resort- too many use it first • Use of this twitch technique before exhausting all other means of restraint is a sure way to get an owner upset with you! • Involves grasping the ear and twisting- all show horses have to have their ear hair clipped and just one ear twitch can make them completely uncooperative for their owners for a very long time! Make sure arm/hand maintain contact with the horse so he knows where your hand is- if you just grab the ear you’ll also startle him, making matters even worse Ear Twitch (cont) Grab the base of the ear- not the tip! The ear is squeezed and rotated Mechanical Twitches • Top: rope twitch with wooden handle • Middle: chain twitch with wooden handle • Bottom: humane twitch made of aluminum; essentially useless Placing a Chain or Rope Twitch Once over the nose the chain/rope is twisted, holding the nose Do not wrap the lead rope around the twitch handle Lip Chain Placement iClicker • Which of the following is not a restraint device? • A. Twitch • B. Halter • C. Rope • D. Drugs • E. All the above • Lip Twitch • differnt haltering • working around hind quarters • twitching
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Equine Research

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Equine Research
Horse branding is the most visible evidence of ownership. Brands recognize horses
from specific ranches to expand their marketability. Freeze branding falls under cold brands
and is considered the best alternative to identify mustang horses permanently. The alphaangle process represents the BLM key code which permits the pairing of signs and numbers
(Fought, 2021). Freeze branding utilizes a brand iron immersed in fluid nitrogen to produce
an observable sign of white hair growing on dark-shaded horses or a hairless mark on grey or
white horses (Schiavino, 2021). Hot branding uses a hot iron to scar a horse’s skin. The
procedure inflicts pain on the horse because a hot iron burns the horse’s hair follicles. The hot
iron burned by fire or electrically causes long-term hair loss on the burned surface.
Unfortunately, hot branding is difficult to see, mainly...

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