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The history of westwards expansion in nineteenth century was presented in the past as the glorious march of white settlers across the American continent, yet by pivoting the center historians have shown that this expansion brought settlers into conflict with various diverse groups. What conflicts are exposed when we look at this period from the perspective of different actors, like Native Americans, African American slaves, Mexicans, and Chinese immigrants? Did westwards expansion create any coalitions between these groups, or create more conflict and division? (4 pages)

Please watch 3 videos from youtube and 1 from a website

(1) we shall remain - after the mayflower

3 we shall remain trail of tears

Readings from the slave narratives

Please also understand the book "A Different Mirror" by Ronald Takaki from chapter 2 to chapter 8

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Writing History Essays Structure:  Essays should contain an introduction, main body of evidence and conclusion.  The introduction should introduce the main ideas of the essay – spell out what these are rather than list what you will be talking about- and contain a thesis statement; a sentence or two that summarizes the main argument of the essay.  The main body should advance the argument of the essay by presenting evidence and analysis. Each paragraph should contain a sentence that sums up the main point of the section.  The conclusion should summarize the main conclusions of the essay and restate the argument. Argument:  The essay should advance a clear argument, which represents your response to the question and shows your own interpretation of the issues.  You should try to avoid using the first person when presenting your argument; let your evidence speak for you.  You cannot overstate the main points of your argument!  Your argument must answer the question! Analysis:  Historians seek to analyze available evidence; your paper should integrate facts and your interpretation of them.  Try to avoid long narratives of what happened. If your writing starts to sound like a story, you need to add more analysis of why and how these events happened. Citations:  Use citations wherever you quote directly or paraphrase another’s ideas.  At the end of the sentence, put (Takaki, page number) or (Global Lyceum, Primary Source name) or use whichever citation style (MLA, APA, Chicago) you are most familiar with in your discipline.  To avoid accidental plagiarism, clearly distinguish in your own notes between quotes, paraphrasing and your own ideas.  Avoid long block quotes from the material, either choose the most relevant sentences to quote or paraphrase what the author is saying in your own words.  Quotes that are shorter than three lines can be integrated into the text; they do not need to be indented. Checklist Before you submit the paper, have you:       Answered the question? Set out a clear argument with an introduction and conclusion? Defined your argument in a thesis statement? Used citations to show where you have used quotes or paraphrasing? Proofread your paper?
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Westward Expansion




Did westwards expansion create any coalitions between these groups, or create more
conflict and division?
The “manifest destiny” is a concept that is closely attached to the westward movement. It
involves the ideology that the United States was destined to expand boundaries towards the
uncharted west. The presence of a transportation revolution which involved developed canals,
roads and the expansion of the railroad greatly facilitated the westward movement.
Developmental of steamboats was also an integral aspect of the movement. During the westward
movement, the United States transitioned from rural-agricultural practices to more urbanindustrial practices. Despite the seemingly progressive nature of the westward movement, it was
also associated with significant ills, especially in the attempts of possessing new lands and
industrializing the communities. It is vivid that most ethnic and cultural groups became prey to
the expanding forces. The most affected were the Native Americans who were overly victimized
and in some instances dwelt-with with force. The African Americans and Chinese immigrants
were at loggerheads with the white settlers while the Mexicans found them in territorial battles
with the government. Collaborative measures were often only engaged in an intelligent manner
and were mainly between parties with ambitions that aligned, for instance, coalitions with the
ranchers, cowboys and European immigrants. Concisely, despite the central role and progressive
nature of the westward movement, it discriminatorily led to more conflicts and tensions between
the government and other ethnic communities.
One of the most identifiable conflicts involved the Native Americans. The Native
Americans were the earliest settlers in America. However, the United States government
required the land of the natives to advance the course of the westward movement. Friction



between the government and Indians of the West was inevitable. The forceful removal of
approximately 15,000 Cherokees was a highlight of the heightened skirmishes which saw the
natives marched towards Oklahoma. This event noted as the ‘Trail of Tears.' Worse still, the
‘Removal Act’ of the year 1830 (Manning & Wyatt, 2011, p. 203)was a guarantee to the native
Indians that they would get lands in the west, a promise that was gradually broken. In this case,
the prevalently assumed progressive nature of the westward movement can only view in specific
contexts of the parties involved. For example, the dominative measures adopted by the U.S.
government seemed only to benefit it while tightfistedly oppressing the native communities. The
aspect of subjugation is also vivid in this case. The government was in need of the land and the
minerals therein. The natives were later resettled into reservations and promised an annuity, one
that was hardly paid on time. The poor and repulsive treatment was a pivotal influence of the
Dakota Sioux Uprising of 1862. Shortly after, the government instated an assimilation process
that aimed to ‘Kill the Indian, save the man’ (Pratt, 2017) the assimilation step aimed to ensure
that the natives behaved just as the white Americans. The Dawes Act of 1887 further fueled this
concept. At the end of the westward movement, the natives had to choose between assimilation
and marginalization. It could be argued that the westward movement was instrumental in the
development of the ...

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