Vena cava: The superior vena cava is the large vein which returns blood to the heart from the head, neck and both upper limbs. The inferior vena cava returns blood to the heart from the lower part of the body.
Erythrocyte: A cell that contains hemoglobin and can carry oxygen to the body. Also called a red blood cell (RBC). The reddish color is due to the hemoglobin. Erythrocytes are biconcave in shape, which increases the cell's surface area and facilitates the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide. This shape is maintained by a cytoskeleton composed of several proteins. Erythrocytes are very flexible and change shape when flowing through capillaries. Immature erythrocytes, called reticulocytes, normally account for 1-2 percent of red cells in the blood.
Leukocytes are white blood cells (WBC) that work with the immune system to defend against infectious disease. Damage to the kidneys, ureters, urethra or bladder can cause leukocytes to appear. They can also be triggered when foreign materials are found in the body. There are five types of leukocytes. If a high level of a particular type of leukocyte is found in elevated levels, this can be a sign of disease.
Thrombocyte: A platelet. Crucial to normal blood clotting. Although platelets are sometimes classed as blood cells, they are not. They are fragments of a large cell called a megakaryocyte (literally, a large cell).
Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs
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