Earth and Environmental Science Essay

Question Description


-Essay Instructions will be attached.

-Will need two separate pieces to the essay.

-first piece is the outline which is due October 14th.

-second piece is the full essay which is due December 12th.

-So the time frame will be made long for the essay but the outline time frame will be 8 days.

-Would like to know the topic of the paper and get the okay from my instructor before it is written.

-Below is the textbook for the class if used for references.


Historical Geology/California State University Fresno by Wicander/Monroe/Miller/Spoolman

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Term Paper Guidelines EES 112 One writing assignment is required for the course. It should be at least 2,000 words long. Spelling and grammar will be heavily emphasized in the grade assignment. Each paper will also be checked for plagiarism. You cannot pass the course without completing the writing assignment with a passing grade. The topic of the term paper should be relevant to the course. Examples of past topics include evolution, dinosaurs, a particular type of dinosaur, a particular time period, formation of earth, etc. If you are not sure if your topic is relevant, please check with me. Be very careful about plagiarism. It is easy to do accidentally - it's your job to make sure that you write an original paper. I WILL check your references - if I see that your material is too similar to your references, you may lose points or may score zero depending on the seriousness of the offense. FORMAT OF THE PAPER REMEMBER: THIS IS ONLY AN EXAMPLE! YOU DO NOT NEED TO DO YOUR PAPER ON EARTHQUAKES IN CALIFORNIA!! ALSO: DO NOT LABEL THE PARTS OF YOUR PAPER SUCH AS BODY, INTRODUCTION, ETC. Your paper should include the sections listed below. It should be typed with 1 inch margins, double-spaced, and with 12 point type. PAGE 1 — Cover sheet Include the title of your paper and your name as the author BEGINNING ON PAGE 2 — Introduction Introduce the topic (e.g. earthquake hazard) and the place (location, population, etc.). Include any historical background you may not address in the body of the paper. You might also include here anything about the significance or impact of your topic either globally or in a particular location. Body This is the bulk of the term paper and the most important section - you should break it down into several topics that relate to your paper (These topics should have their own headings). If your topic is “Earthquakes in California” for example, you could break down the body of the paper into several topics like those listed below -each topic will turn into at least one paragraph or a few paragraphs at most: 1) The history of earthquakes in California 2) Faults in California (or Faults in the San Francisco Bay Area) 3) The San Andreas fault a) The 1906 San Francisco earthquake - Location of the epicenter - Magnitude - Surficial features caused by the earthquake (offset fences, ground rupture) - Damage caused in San Francisco b) The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (See examples in a) above) 4) The Hayward fault 5) Future earthquake potential and earthquake prediction Conclusions Summarize your paper in a paragraph or two. Only include items that are the most relevant, exciting, or important. References cited You should reference at least 4 or 5 books, newspaper/journal/magazine articles, maps, or websites to research your topic. Be sure your references are reputable such as,, National Geographic, etc. Include references for anything used in your figures - whether you photocopy, trace, scan, download figures. Follow the format below for citing your references: Articles Smith, J.D., 1995, Historical earthquakes in California, California Geology , v. 100, p. 25- 32. Books Smith, J.D., 1995, Historical earthquakes in California, Earth Science Publishers, New York, 315p. Web sites Discovering Plate Boundaries, Rice University: [] You should incorporate your references into your text like this: “There were 15 earthquakes larger than magnitude 3.0 in the Bay Area during 1999 (Smith, 1995). Figure 3 shows a map of earthquake epicenters in the Bay Area for 1999 (see ).” Many of you will choose to use several web sites as references. Make sure you include the entire URL or web address. For example, if you are referencing a specific earthquake, use the URL that takes me directly to the information you are citing ( and not the general web site that you started your search through ( You may be docked points for references that I can’t find (particularly for web sites). Figures and Figure Captions You should use figures such as maps, photos, line drawings, etc. to supplement your paper. Only include figures if they are relevant, necessary to get your point across, or if the topic is better understood with the figure. Unnecessary figures will be considered "filler material" and may not count toward your total score on the assignment. You are required to include at least 2 figures. You must include at least one map to show the location or global significance of the topic you are researching. For example, if you are looking at earthquakes in California, you could include a map of California that shows the major fault lines in the state. If you are writing about a hazard related to plate tectonics (e.g., earthquakes or volcanoes), you should include an appropriate map showing the plate tectonic setting (for “Earthquakes in California”, you could incorporate the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates into your map of California) ...
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Final Answer

Check the attached file and let me know whether you need any corrections

Surname 1
Evolution can be described as the process by which the modern organisms have
descended from their ancient ancestors. It is important to note that evolution is responsible for
both the remarkable similarities one can see in all life and also the amazing diversity that one can
see in life. When one explains evolution on a simple base it works under the fundamental
principle were genetic variation with the selective force works for the evolution to occur.
Evolution can thus occur through the descent and the genetic differences which are heritable and
can be passed to the next generation. Second is mutation, migration which is known as the gene
flow, gene drift and also the natural selection. The third mechanism is that of the understanding
importance of genetic variation. These are the fundamental basis which one should try to look for
when thinking about the process of evolution and they will form the larger part of the paper.
Formation of species
Darwin’s theory of evolution
Darwin’s theory of evolution holds only one notion that all life is related and it has
descended from a common ancestor. The theory uses the assumption that the development of life
come from a non-life and it strictly follows the naturalistic order which is descent with

Surname 2
modification. In this assumption, the argument is that a complex creature evolves from very
simplistic ancestors. The process occurs over time (Grassé, n.p.). With this, a random genetic
mutation occurs within the creature’s genetic code. After the mutation, the beneficial; mutation is
preserved as they have high chances of aiding the survival. The process is called natural
selection. After a time the beneficial mutations accumulates, and they develop into an entirely
different organism.
Over time the environment is changing, and the conditions are becoming different with
this organisms must be in the position of developing adaptation mechanism which they can use
to make sure that they are surviving. Taking an example of a bird than one may explain the
changes. Different birds have developed different adaptation to enhance their survival. Fresh
eating bird has sharp peak which they can use in the process of tearing the meat (Grassé, n.p.).
When it comes to the nut-eating birds they have short and a strong peak which they can use to
break the nuts as they source their food. Looking at the nectar-feeding birds, they have a long
beak which they can use to source the nectar from the flowers. When looking at the mammals,
the same pattern can be seen. Fresh eating has sharp teeth’s mainly canines for tearing the meat.
They are so very fast. Grass eating mammals have a horny paddy which they use to cut and chew
the cud. They have four stomachs to aid the digestion of their food. Looking at the marine
mammals such as whale they have fins which they. Organisms had to change and adapt
according to their environment.
When looking at extinction at the basic level, it reduces diversity by killing within
specific lineages. In extinction, the organism with inferior traits is faced with huge challenges.
One of them they fail to adapt to the prevailing environmental condition. Second, they cannot

Surname 3
pass on their traits as they are overtaken by the superior organisms. By the end, they will die.
When looking at mass extinction, it can prune whole branches off the tree of life. Mass
extinction plays an important role when it comes to the evolution as it will stimulate the growth
of other branches (Bijlsma, et al n.p.). The disappearance of plans and organism in any given
habitat creates new opportunities for the surviving species. Over time when this extinction
continues what happens is that the species becomes more specialized to that habitat and they
complete adapts to the environment.
The case of the mammals can offer a complete example of mass extinction. They were
found about 200 million years ago, but they remained in small groups. Mammals only diversified
after the end of Cretaceous mass extinction where the non-avian dinosaurs became extinct 65
million years ago. In less than 20 million years after the extinction mammals have evolved to
form great variety as it can be seen in the modern world (Bijlsma, et al n.p.). They play same
roles in the ecosystems as the dinosaur predecessors were doing during their time. With this mass
extinction at as the mechanism of giving species time to adapt to the environment by reducing
the overall competition which this organism undergoes. An organism with inferior trait cannot
stand during a mass extinction. It will be weeded out by factors such as hunger and lack of
adaptation mechanisms.
When it comes to sex, the same pattern of inferior and superior occurs in the case. In this
case, some organism is too weak, and they are referred to as the inferior species. Some of the
organism is too strong, and they are given the name superior species. When it comes to sex, the
inferior species are not given any chance of mating or padding their inferior genes to their
female’s counterparts. In this process, one can use the case of buffalos (Ma...

HaltonTheProf (1004)
University of Virginia

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