The details of the prompt

timer Asked: Oct 6th, 2017
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Question Description

Due TONIGHT at 11:30PM (10/06)

Essay Question based on textbook readings (link below) and the attached lectures.

Chapters 19 & 21 in the textbook.

Can use outside sources if needed but not too many. No internet or web sources!

Here's a link to a free pdf of the textbook:

Attached are

1. The details of the prompt

2. Lecture materials (I to III)

3. An example essay that received an A in the same course.

Please follow all instructions.

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Topic Essay #3 The above painting sends out a strong social message. Obviously, it depicts a working class home and the woman. She is mending a worn-out shirt, mostly likely belonging to her husband. While doing that, it seems that the wife is praying for her husband and other family members. This image sends a message that women's true place is home and that their role is to make best of her condition and pray for a better life. Obviously, this does not fully convey women's life during the era of industrial revolution because many of them were working in textile factories and even in the mines to survive and support the family. Some of them even walked the streets as a means of survival. Yet, this image gives off a strange sense of serenity even in poor working class life. I guess that was what the ruling class of the day wanted the people to believe. Now, here is our topic essay question: The industrial revolution most thoroughly and profoundly transformed society. Western societies and communities that had gone through industrial revolution did not look and feel like what they used to be before the onslaught of industrial revolution. Describe how the lives of the people, both the ordinary – peasants and urban laborers – and the unordinary – like the bourgeoisie (owners of the means of production) -- were shaped by the forces of industrialization? Your essay should be three pages in double space at least and submitted to Turnitin. Industrial Revolution Let us embark on our journey into one of the most momentous revolutions that shaped history of the western world -- industrialization. Before the advent of industrialization, roughly before the 18th century, European societies in general were highly feudalistic. Under feudalism, the basis of power and influence society was hereditary privileges that were derived from aristocratic birth and land ownership. In the eighteenth century, however, feudalism came under increasing challenges from a rising class of people whose wealth was self-made and whose influence was based on economic contributions to society rather than on bloodlines. These people were known collectively as the bourgeoisie. We have studied how the bourgeoisie served as the backbone of the liberal phase of the French Revolution. Now, let us journey into the economic revolution undertaken by the bourgeoisie, which culminated in the French Revolution. Unlike feudal landlords, the bourgeoisie's wealth was not tied mostly to the land. They were actively engaged in international trade. Also, they began to invest heavily in mining and textile production. These two industries will serve as the locomotives of the industrial revolution, which brought about dramatic transformations not only in economic production but in every aspect of human existence. They of course sought enjoyment in life but controlled and somewhat business like as in this image of their gathering place. Just like the previous revolutions we studied together, religious, scientific, intellectual, and political ones, after the industrial revolution, the world was no longer the same place after the industrial revolution. Through industrialization, the human civilization experienced explosion of productive forces that led to introduction of goods and services that were not thought possible in quantities as well as in qualities. Naturally, people who had control over this particular way of production ended up dominating the society. Our journey must begin with the ingredients of the industrial revolution. Industrialization requires the following elements: labor, technology, natural resources, capital, and the entrepreneurial spirit. First, cheap labor: One of the most important developments in modern European history was a dramatic increase in population during the 18th and 19th centuries. At around 1700 European population was about 110 million. This number increased to more than 400 million in 1900. Population size nearly quadrupled in two centuries. Why? Many reasons, but, essentially, people simply lived longer than before through better diet and improvement in medical sciences and technology. The agricultural revolution explains the dramatic improvement in diet, which leads to greater resistance to disease, and healthy reproduction. The agricultural revolution was brought about by more extensive and intensive use of land, which means more acres were planted. Also, yield per acre increased as well. To increase farmlands under cultivation, Europeans drained marshes and wetlands. Woodlands and wildernesses were cleared too. In addition, the science of agronomy introduced modern crop rotation, winter crops, as well as wider use of fertilizers. The agricultural revolution was also supported by use of farm machines such as seed drills and threshing machine that allowed more efficient harvests. These factors produced a healthy and expanding population, but engendered social and economic problems. The foremost is the question of where will this large population find economic resources to survive on. Could the rural population of countries such as England and Germany secure enough land to farm on? These are relatively small countries with large and expanding population. Farmlands were unavailable to many and the landless peasants were forced to migrate to urban centers. These migrants from the countryside were soon turned into a pool of cheap labor for industrialization. There is a controversial issue related to the migration of rural population to urban centers. That controversy is over the “Enclosure Act” of Great Britain. By tradition, most villages in Britain reserved a portion of public land as the so-called "the commons" for the use by all residents. No one was allowed to plant crops on the common but people were allowed to graze their animals, forage for food, and gather firewood. When these village lands were “enclosed” and sold, villagers lost their traditional rights and, for some, the only means of livelihood. If you were in that situation what would you have done? People who could no longer survive on the common field left for cities and became urban laborers. (Here is one family migrated to city but could not find dwelling nor work.) Second, new technologies: The pressure of growing population demanded great increases in the production of essential goods, such as the woolen and cotton textiles needed for clothing. Traditionally such a production was done by hand and in people's homes. This type of production was known as “cottage industry.” This family based, home production was not productive and efficient enough to meet the demands for goods caused by massive population increases. The owners of the means of production needed better ways and tools to increase the production and benefit from the rising markets. Beginning in the mid eighteenth century, technological innovations reduced dependence on human skills and muscle power. Actually, the age of industrialization was opened by a single new technology -- the steam engine (to the right) that provided power source to operate new machines to make manufacturing more efficient. According to popular culture, it was an English precision instrument maker, James Watt (to the right), who invented the steam engine (left). However, it is more accurate to say that the technology was perfected by contributions from many technicians and engineers. (It is true though that Watt produced the first effective machine (below) that turned pressurized steam into energy.) In any event, before the steam engine was used in contraptions such as textile machines and locomotive, it was first used to pump water from mine shafts that passed below the water table. This technology permitted an increase in coal production, turning it into an efficient and relatively cheap source of energy and heat. Deep mining made possible by steam engines also made iron ore more readily available. Machines, of course, were made from iron that become cheaper and more refined by the use of coal in smelting. Here it is, the third ingredient of industrialization, cheap natural resources. Raw cotton is another example of how cheap resources fueled industrial revolution. The availability of inexpensive steam power and iron for machinery led to invention of technologies such as spinning jenny, spinning mule, and powered loom. In 1806, the first steam loom factory opened at Manchester. The resultant change in scale of textile manufacturing was stunning. According to one historian, “whereas a master weaver with thirty years of experience could produce two bolts of cotton cloth a week on a hand loom, a fifteen-year-old boy at a power loom could produce seven” The British, who had a well-developed global commerce already in place, became textile merchants to the world. More than half of the world’s cotton cloth came from Britain by the middle of the 19th century. Cheap cotton from the U.S. grown by African slaves provided precious raw material for Great Britain's textile industry. Railroad was another technological revolution resulted from the availability of cheap coal and iron, steam engines, and new mechanical contraptions. The new industrial enterprises whose markets were not limited to local markets required fast and cheap ways of transporting resources and finished products. In 1804, the first steam locomotive was built. (It would take twenty more years for the people to actually ride on the rail, though.) The early locomotive rode on iron rails with five wagons with seventy passengers and ten tons of iron ore achieved a dizzying speed of five miles per hour. In any event, despite the slow speed, one of the early locomotives was named, “Rocket,” which seems somewhat exaggerated. Of course, faster locomotives were soon introduced. Improvement in iron producing technology, on the other hand, allowed engineers to build bigger bridges, some of which carried railroads. The last of the four basic ingredients of industrialization is the capital and entrepreneurial spirit. As discussed earlier, before the advent of industrialization, until the 18th century, feudal lords monopolized power and influence based on hereditary titles, property, and privileges. Unlike feudal aristocrats, however, the bourgeoisie were business-minded and invested their wealth in new ventures such as textile mills, mining, and ironworks, rather than in acquiring more farmland to be rented out to peasants. Also, they had different way of life compared to the landed nobility who used their wealth to maintain an expensive and courtly, but not-so-productive aristocratic way of life symbolized by country estates, fox hunting, and excessively elaborate attire. The bourgeoisie, on the other hand, sought to maximize profit by relying on all means necessary. Their propensity to accumulating wealth through investing in manufacturing and commerce rather than buying and renting agricultural lands, and their obsession with cost cutting and increasing efficiency provided capital resource and spiritual foundation for the industrial revolution. This is called entrepreneurial spirit. This spirit often meant treating workers more like machines than human beings. But in the end, this economic outlook ushered in the epoch of industrial production that unleashed explosive productive energy. (Here, you are looking at the Bank of England, the symbol of Britain's entrepreneurial spirit.) These four elements were the engines of the industrial revolution. They were not the only but key elements that will propel such nations as England, Germany, France, and the United States into a higher level of economic might and prosperity. The Second Industrial Revolution Let us continue with the industrial revolution that liberated human race from limitations of agricultural economy and its way of life. In agricultural society human labor is the primary source of power and energy, therefore, the most important productive force. European peasantry, therefore, led a rather deprived material live, literally working their bodies to death. I know something about agricultural life and I can tell you that farming without the help of machines could be a torture. Your back and hands are your primary production tools to they are never really in rest. When I was young, in the countryside, I saw many grownups around me with missing or badly disfigured fingernails. They worked so much with their hands that their nails were abraded or twisted. Yet, they barely managed to feed their family. Industrial revolution allowed Europeans to produce more, with less human labor, and new things to make everyday life more comfortable. Of course, these benefits were not for everybody. Some enjoyed more of these industrial products than others. For some life became even more difficult and challenging because of industrial revolution. (I will address the issue of class division in the following lecture.) But two things were undeniable: Industrialization weakened feudal, agricultural tradition in Europe. It also introduced an array of new inventions and consumer goods that made the lives of those who were able to afford them comfortable. Let us now analyze the meaning of the second Industrial revolution. The first revolution brought about changes in the foundation of production: mode of production, power source, means of transportation, basic building material, source of fuel, and so on. The second industrial revolution was about utilizing these new bases of industrial production to manufacture, what is known as "amenities," things that make our daily existence more comfortable and convenient. In the second phase of the industrial revolution further advancements in the basic requirements of industrial production were made and new and better energy sources and materials were introduced. They included, petroleum, electricity (and electricity powered gadgets), steel, communication equipment and chemical products. How did these improvements come about? Let me start with steel. First there was iron. The problem with iron, however, is its heavy and bulkiness and inflexibility. Also, iron wears out easily because of the high carbon content in iron ore. For example, cast iron has 2.5%-4% carbon content. Wrought iron, which contains 1%-2% carbon, is little more malleable but still, it is not a vast improvement from cast iron. The key is to get rid of the carbon from iron ore. During the second Industrial Revolution, technological advancement was made to reduce the carbon content to less than 2%. The result was the introduction of steel, which is strong, but elastic. It meant that steel could be shaped into many different forms, including girders for buildings and bridges, and machines. (The above is the famed Crystal Palace in London built in 1851. This architectural master piece demonstrated to the world what could be done with steel.) One of the first industries to benefit from steel was textile industry. Power looms and weaving machines made of steel. It is no exaggeration to say, steel production meant national power. Take a look at the steel production of European countries measured in tons. Great Britain's industrial might was reflected in its steel production. Countries 1871 1891 1911 Great Britain 334,000 3,208,000 6,566,000 Germany 143,000 2,452,000 14,303,000 France 80,000 744,000 3,837,000 Russia 7,000 434,000 3,949,000 With production of steel, which was equated with nation power, modern transportation industry was born -- railroad, steamboat, and, eventually, automobiles. Not only that, could modern architecture have been possible without steel? Could the human civilization have come up with such a beauty as the Eiffel Tower (1887-1889), the Statue of liberty, or Empire State Building? In particular, the rise of the railroad industry was truly spectacular. Great Britain in 1850 had 6,621 miles of railroad. 1873, it had 15,145 miles. What about Germany? From 3,639 miles to 14, 842 miles. In the U.S. in 1869, the continental railroad was completed to connect the east and the west via iron (or steel) horse. More importantly, in the second phase of the industrial revolution the western societies introduce more sophisticated tools and farm machines that allowed people to produce more, making the cost of food less expensive. For example, already in the 1830s reaping machines, which could do ten times the work of a single person, was introduced. (The development and use of farm machines were more prevalent in America than in Europe though.) Now, the chemical industry. What kind of goodies has the Western Civilization gotten out of this industry? Synthetic dyes, chemical fertilizers, explosives, artificial fibers and so on. Eventually, modern pharmaceutical industry will come to being and offer products such as aspirin, antibiotics, and antiseptic products that vastly improved people's health. (To the left is a typical old well, which gave birth to petrochemical industry.) Unfortunately, chemical industry of Europe would also invent and produce chemical weapons capable of killing large number of people – the weapons of mass destruction, contemporary terminology.) And there were more: internal combustion engines powered by gasoline. In 1885, the first of modern automobile was introduced by Daimler, a German engineer. By early 20th century, more powerful internal combustion engines helped the human race to realize one of its wildest dreams, flying. Airplane was first flown successfully in 1903. Could you imagine our lives without automobiles and airplanes? Another example of the goodies of the second industrial revolution was electrification. What came out of it? First there was light, which allowed people who could afford it to prolong their daily activities. In a way, if you had money to bring electricity to your home, you could do more with your life. (General Electric Corporation still promises that GE brings good things to life.) Then came other inventions like telegraph, telephone, phonograph, and radio. Soon there followed household appliances that we rely on everyday: icebox (refrigerator), washer, vacuum cleaner, and the list can go on forever, to include radio, TV, computers in our own time. One of the most amazing aspects of the second phase of the industrial revolution is the communication revolution. (To the left is the one of the earliest telegraph machines.) As one historian writes, "Communication, meanwhile, had developed to meet the needs of entrepreneurs around the globe. First the telegraph (which could communicate even across the Atlantic ocean, thanks to a cable laid in 1866), then the telephone, patented by Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) in 1876, conquered the distances that modern economies traversed. From the 1890s, wireless communication was made possible by the work of Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), and by the early 1900s radio broadcasts could be received in ordinary household." Communication Revolution engendered development of mass media, including cheap and popular newspapers, news magazines, and eventually, radio and television. These medium will be utilize to entertain, educate, and sometimes, instill jingoism in the minds of masses. Here is one result of the rise of mass media; the people of London were elated at the news of the British victory in the Boer War. According to the critics of nationalism that makes people behave like this, the working people are dumped to fight and support a war that will only benefit those who exploit them. Before we finish this lecture, we should also recognize that industrial revolution was not limited to Western Europe and North America. There was a fiercely competitive Asian industrial power, Japan in Asia. Also, Russia was trying to industrialize itself rapidly. Incidentally, these two “imitators” of Western European industrial revolution would soon battle each other in the Russo-Japanese War. It is time t ...
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Tutor Answer

School: University of Maryland



Impacts of Industrial Revolution to The Lives of People
Institutional Affiliation




Beginning with the period of Renaissance mainly referred to as a cultural link between
the modern world and the middle ages, the western culture erupted in many different ways.
During the Renaissance period, the pre-industrial society change pace was tremendously slow
simply because feudalism was the order of the day in the western society as it was dominated by
a group of people who used privileges of hereditary to gain influence, power, and control of the
entire culture Coffin & Stacey 2009). Life was so challenging during the pre-industrial period for
the ordinary peasant, social life and individual work mixed due to the reason that people dwelled
on small land plots and grew crops generally for home-based feeding. Kids learned many things
like milking and churning butter. For a long time and numerous generations, families within rural
areas depended on tools that had improved little over the past centuries; this included the wooden
plows that relied on much energy to pull them. In that case, the community experienced
increased levels of poverty, lack sufficient food, people lived in poor health the conditions, and
thus this posed a significant thre...

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Good stuff. Would use again.

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