1000 word Central American (Latino) Study essay

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Question Description

Write a one thousand words paper on the following subject:

Describe and explain the works (authors and literary movements if they apply) that best represent the rich legacy Central American literature has received from its history and cultural diversity. Give examples each for the pre-Columbian, Colonial, and Independent Periods.

1. Instructions to write your paper/first exam:

  • Type double space between lines, 12 pt Times New Roman font, 1” margins--do not quadruple space between paragraphs.
  • Use your notes from lectures, videos and assigned readings
  • Use the Study Guide as a reference for the historical periods


Please write about how the rich Legacy Central American literature receive and influenced by its history and cultural diversity based on the three periods( pre-Columbian, Colonial, and Independent Periods). Please remember to use examples from the study guide which are the thing I've learnt from the class. You should have gone through the study guide before you start to write. You MUST use the materials that are listed on the study guide to help you write, no extra research. The essay has to be written with the materials on the study guide to show the understanding of course. The essay should consist two parts : history and cultural diversity by going through pre-Columbian, Colonial, and Independent Periods with examples. The essay MUST follow the study guide please.

No plagiarism please. Meeting the requirement will definitely earn extra tip.

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Study Guide for LTNS 679 First Exam, Fall 2017 This guide is designed to lead you through a general review of class lectures, assigned videos, and assigned readings, in preparation for the exam scheduled for Monday 9, October. It is organized chronologically. Each section includes the major historical, political and cultural events; and the intellectual, literary, and aesthetic issues that shaped the chronological period. I. Cultural and Literary Legacy from the Pre-Hispanic Period (Before 1492) (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and assignments posted on ILearn) 1. Concept of Mesoamérica: A cultural region sharing a number of common characteristics throughout most of pre-Hispanic history; its various cultures and main languages, and its geographical location in the Western hemisphere. 2. The legacy of Mesoamerican cultures: A different view of the world and a different set of values. 3. Mesoamerican cultures: ▪ Náhuatl (Teotihuacana, Olmeca, Tolteca, Mexica, Nicarao) ▪ Maya (Quiché, Cachiquel, Otomí, Mixteca, Tarasco, Zapoteca) ▪ Chorotega, Pipil, Mangue, etc. 4. Great subjects or themes in Mesoamerican indigenous literature. • • • • • • • • Myths and legends Sacred songs (hymns) Epic poetry, lyric poetry, religious poetry Chronicles History Didactic prose Teachings about the gods Principles of a pre-Hispanic philosophy 5. The Creation myth, Nahua sources: (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and assignments posted on ILearn) • Dual principle, dual cosmic energy: “Our Mother, Our Father,” origin of all that exists: Ometéotl, god of duality and origin of other gods. Ome = two (dual); Teotl = cosmic energy. Ometéotl is also known as Ometecuhtli & Omecíhuatl or Tonacatecuhtli and Tonacacíhuatl • Legend of the Five Suns and the fragility of the earth • The creation myth and role of Quetzalcóatl as a creator of humankind, redeemer, and cultural hero • Why the Aztecs believed that sacrifice was necessary Study Guide LTNS 679 First Exam 2 6. The Creation myth in the Maya Culture: The Popol Vuh. (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and assignments posted on Ilearn) • • • • • Myth of the Creation of the world and the first animals and humans Heroic deeds: the story of Hunahpú (Hunter) and Xbalanqué (Jaguar Deer) Philosophical and ethical questions posed in the Popol Vuh Different elements involved in the story (religion, history, ancestry, cosmology) Human relationships, feelings and emotions, family ties, roles of men and women, cultural traditions, prejudices, and religious beliefs • The relationship of humans with Nature, the earth, and the environment • Fantastic elements; role of animals and relationship between humans and animals 7. Códices/Books (from pre-Hispanic and Colonial periods): • The Maya Codex. (Assigned reading: “The Madrid Codex,” assigned video: Cracking the Maya Code). • Annals of the Cakchiquels (Memorial of Sololá) 16th Century, definite version in the 17th century. Origins of the Cakchiquel people and their struggles with the Spaniards during the 16th Century. Heroic age. • Titles of the Lords of Totonicapán (Títulos de los Señores de Totonicapán) Another series of chronicles known from 1554 , translated into Spanish in 1884. This is the third sacred book of Guatemala and also relates the exodus of the Toltecas. • The Chilam Balam. Contents (History, Formularies with Metaphors, Myth and Mysticism, Practical Calendars and Classifications, Medical Recipes, and Spanish Traditions). 8. The dance drama Rabinal Achí: Combines poetry, dance, choreography, music, costumes and masks, to transmit the Mayan history, mythology and symbolism of the community. (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and assignments posted on ILearn) • • • • • Historical background Structure of the dance drama Characters Plot Its survival as a testimony of the cultural resistance against colonial domination II. Conquest and Colonization Period (1492–1810) The Spaniards and their view of the New World as an extension of their own empire and as provinces of their country: A clash of two worlds and different cultures. 1. The Spanish Heritage: The various cultures that shaped the multiple Identity of Iberia (Spain), brought by the Spaniards to the New World. (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and assignments posted on ILearn) • The Americas first received the full sweep of Mediterranean tradition through Spain Study Guide LTNS 679 First Exam 3 • Spain and Latin America have a conflictive relationship branded by several traumas (the conquest of the New World and the end of the splendid ancient indigenous civilizations) • Who are the Spaniards and where do they come from (their history) • The Renaissance in Europe (Humanistic education, method of study; new ideas and religious reformation, invention of the printing press, meaning of Thomas More’s Utopia, etc.). • The Spanish Renaissance (the Reconquista or unification of the longed-for Christian kingdom, the official discovery of the Western Hemisphere, the publication of the first grammar of the Castilian language, the flourishing of the arts and literature, etc) 2. Chronicles and Relaciones of the Conquest: During the Spanish conquest, the only valid narrative art is the “Relaciones” and letters of the chroniclers, mainly of those who, without following a specific historical interest, give a fresh and vivid vision of things. • Chronicles of Conquest (epic) • Chronicles of Exploration (mythic) • Chronicles of Colonization (contradictory) Chroniclers: a) Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492-1581) who, in old age while retired in Antigua Guatemala, wrote with a prodigious memory about the events that he witnessed as a soldier in the conquest of Mexico and pacification of Central America. b) Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo (1478-1557) Records of events and traditions he witnessed or learned of directly from the indigenous people, which are not only the news of places and battles, but fantasy mixed with narration, some of them have all the elements of a true short story. c) Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474 or 1484-1566) a historian, social reformer, and Dominican missionary who was the first to expose the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples of the Americas, and to call for the abolition of slavery there. 3. The Baroque • The Baroque period in Europe (Meaning of the word baroque, characteristics of the Baroque, use of the Baroque art by the Catholic Church, etc.) • The Baroque in Spain (the Golden Age of Spanish literature) • The Baroque Culture Of The New World or Barroco de Indias (The Baroque as a shifting art used by the people of the New World to express their self-doubts and their constant changing identity) • Sincretismo (Spanish/indigenous/African) in the New World culture Study Guide LTNS 679 First Exam 4 4. Review of the video When Worlds Collide: Indigenous, European and African cultures in the New World. The Baroque of the New World as expression of the cultural and religious syncretism of mestizaje. The Colonial society: system of castes. The subject of identity in the mestizo population. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ The great indigenous cultures of the Americas The history of Spain and the role of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand How contact changed the Old World and the New World Religious syncretism in the New World The caste system created by the Spanish in the New World, and its failure African (Black) culture and its legacy in the Americas Who was Bartolomé de Las Casas, and what did he accomplished? What caused the fall of the Spanish Empire? Who was the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and what does he represent? What is mestizo culture. 5. The Colonial Era in Central America: The Kingdom of Guatemala and provinces of Central America, a baroque society of Spaniards, Criollos, Mestizos, Indians and Africans, based on a system of castes: the roots of cultural syncretism and cultural resistance. Rigid Religious Beliefs: The cultural imprint of Colonial times before the independence of Central America, is a religious one, a world view directly linked to obscure and rigid beliefs. • Instead of creating a rich literature, a process of annihilation began, enforced by the Holy Inquisition. • From the beginning of the XVI century, the Spanish crown ruled to forbid the circulation of books in the Kingdom of Guatemala, and persecution was aimed precisely against fiction. • With this open war against imagination, narrative literature could hardly be developed. • Considering the narratives an “accursed thing,” religious poetry was encouraged due to its “gift” of lyric communication with God, unlike the novels and stories, which were about earthly things, and most of the time contained subjects related to the devil and not heaven. • The opportunity to create a valid literature―inside a very important cultural process where mestizaje was taking place at the same time―was lost. • Poetry was always present throughout the period. The Güegüence (or Macho Ratón): (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and assignments posted on ILearn) A satirical dance/drama which brings together indigenous and Spanish cultural traditions combining theater, music, dance, costumes and masks. A forceful expression of protest against colonial rule, the satirical narratives account the humorous adventures of a roguish hero (pícaro) who tricks and outwits the Spanish authorities. • Parallel elements and differences between the Rabinal Achí and The Güengüence Study Guide LTNS 679 First Exam 5 • First drama that represents the socio-cultural resistance of the indigenous and mestizo population • An expression of Baroque art • An integral play • Plot is secular, not religious • The style is mestizo • A play of analysis and synthesis • A precursor of modern plays Most important literary figures of the Colonial Era: ▪ Rafael Landívar; wrote in Latin the Rusticatio Mexicana that evokes the homeland lost forever, in fifteen books and an annex. ▪ Sor Juana de Maldonado y Paz. Cuentos de Camino (Stories from the Road): Colonial literary tradition only consisted of indigenous oral narrations, Cuentos de camino―in which animals appear as characters, and whose liveliness, tricks and shrewdness are the source of popular didactics (or the origin of popular teachings). • Human passions and weakness are recreated under the skin of an innocent rabbit or a fierce tiger in a naïve and lively world of orchards and shortcuts told by an anonymous narrator. • This anthropomorphic-zoological world constitutes the mirror of the Colonial rural society which still existed with these characteristics at the outset of the 19th century and republican ideas. • The Cuentos de camino are one of the richest sources of Central American narrative surviving in the form of oral tradition during the 20th and 21st centuries. • Contemporary writers have taken subjects from these Cuentos de camino, recreating them so that they don’t disappear. More literary genres produced during the colonial time: • Street poetry, specially Romances (Ballads) • Baroque popular theatre (for example, The Güegüence) • Religious poetry, songs and plays (Loas, Posadas, Pastorelas) The Caribbean coast of Central America • Various indigenous cultures of South American (Colombian) and Caribbean ethnolinguistic origin (not of Mesoamerican root) • Arrival of British (and other European powers), plus a population of African origin • British influence on its Central American Caribbean coast possessions (cultural, linguistic, and religious) • Syncretism of Mesoamerican, Caribbean and African oral traditions, and religious beliefs within the dominant European culture • A multiple cultural legacy in the Caribbean coast from immigrants (end of 17th century through 18th century): Sephardic Jews, Chinese, Hindus, and Arabs from the Ottoman Empire (mainly Syrians, Lebanese and Palestinians) Study Guide LTNS 679 First Exam 6 III. Independence Period in Spanish America, and U.S. Expansionism and Annexation Period (1810–1898) In literary and artistic terms, the Romantic Era (Review your notes on class lectures, and readings on ILearn) Independence from Spain in the 19th century: The Federal Republic of Central America. Beginning of The Independent Period in Central America The Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny. The U.S.–Mexican war and its consequences. The strategic importance of Nicaragua during the California Gold Rush, and the changes it brought to the region. Cornelius Vanderbilt’s Steamship Transit Company, and the Walker affair in Nicaragua. End of the 19th century: The triumph of separatism. The political weight of a social elite with a colonial mentality, and the Catholic Church’s political, ideological, and economic influence. The consolidation of the Nation-States, and the transformation of Liberal ideology from romantic utopianism into positivist pragmatism. Narrative and poetry from 1821 on First Independent authors and first works of narrative in Central America. European influences and European styles. Romantic Novels/historical sagas) • Characteristics of Realism and Naturalism (novels of manners [customs] and naturalist novels) • From Realism to Regionalism • From Naturalism to Social Narrative • Realistic and Naturalistic elements characterizes Central American narrative and dominate the first half of the 20th century Authors (narrative) • Antonio José de Irrisari • José Milla Authors (poetry) • José Batres Montúfar • Juan Diéguez Olaverri IV. Modernismo (1888-1918 approx) (Review your notes on class lectures, and readings on ILearn. All the information is there) By the end of [the Romantic era], a new literary movement had swept through Latin America, Modernismo, the first since the Barroco de Indias to have a distinctly New World inflection. Its founder and chief advocate was Rubén Darío. The Nicaraguan (1867-1916) was the first major poet in the language since the seventeenth century, the end of the Golden Age of Spanish literature (whose masters included Garcilaso, Saint John of the Cross, Fray Luis, Luis de Góngora, Francisco de Quevedo and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz). The poetic revolution led by Darío spread across the Spanish-speaking world and extended to all of literature, not just poetry. In Spanish, there is poetry Study Guide LTNS 679 First Exam 7 before and after Rubén Darío, whose stature as a classic writer remains unequaled and is now beyond dispute. • Modernismo as a literary response to the modernization of Latin America in the last decades of the 19th century, and the reason why Darío gave it that name. • What made Darío’s Azul... so influential, and how long has this influence lasted • Most prominent characteristics of the Modernista movement. Influence of the Modernista Movement in Latin America and Spain. How did Modernismo establish Latin America’s literary independence from Spain by articulating a Latin American identity, and how was this identity. • Modernismo as a rupture with the early Romantic’s optimism about the U.S. as a potential ally and model to be imitated. Modernista writers of Latin America feared U. S. expansionism not only in politics but, even more important, in culture. Latin American countries that traced their cultural and religious roots to the ancient indigenous cultures, as well as to Iberia, Rome and Greece, would not be taken over by a colonial power that was Anglo-Saxon and Protestant, with a pragmatic approach to material progress that was dangerously at odds with their culture. • The political role of Darío and other writers and intellectuals in Latin America. Meaning of Darío’s poem “To Roosevelt”. The importance of José Enrique Rodó’s essay “Ariel”. • Literary and poetic innovations achieved by Rubén Darío, and themes and topics he wrote about. Characteristics of a Modernista poem. • The “Roosevelt Corollary” of the Monroe Doctrine, a new “Manifest Destiny” to justify U.S. intervention in Central American affairs at the beginning of the 20th Century. U.S. Government determination to end the Liberal Revolution in Nicaragua through the downfall of President Zelaya. ...
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bilhamay
School: Purdue University

Thank you for working with me.

Running head: CENTRAL AMERICAN (LATINO) HISTORY

Central American (Latino) History
Name:
Institutional Affiliation:

1

CENTRAL AMERICAN (LATINO) HISTORY

2

Central American (Latino) History
Pre Columbian Era
The pre-Columbian era is defined by all the periods in the history and prehistory of
America's culture and the indigenous people who lived in America before the influence of
Europeans. The social aspect of the America's native people revolved around religion, economic
activities and the warfare. A lot of inhuman activities such as the human sacrifices beliefs shape
their history before the arrival of Europeans. The Maya and Inca had to undergo through a hard
time trying to contain the sudden attacks from Aztecs in their search for people to sacrifice for
their gods. The written works in this period include;, the codices, Nahuatl and Quechua
literature and quipu of Incan and Mayan societies and a lot of pictographic illustrations that were
developed by the indigenous Americans. Apart from these works there also exist other
mythology stories such as the Popol Vuh, the Apu Ollantany, Chilam Balam and the Runa Indio.
Most of these works had been translated in modern history, and the original writers are given a
significant place in the American history.
The Mesoamerican literature is divided into many subjects which are Faith, astronomy
and time, history, legacy and power, myths and genres and the daily literature. Through these
subjects came out the history of the indigenous Americans which still holds a great part of the
modern American history. Religion astronomy and time played a great role in the
Mesoamerican civilization whereby they kept track of time through natural phenomena and
performed religious rituals to symbolize the passing of a given stage or ceremony. The Mayan
and Aztec codices are a true example of well documented astronomical and time set rituals that
indicated a passage of time and perhaps a very true pre-Columbian literature. Secondly, in

CENTRAL AMERICAN (LATINO) HISTORY

3

history and legacy, the ancient history is carved in monumental structures such as temples, altars
and even in some caves that remain prehistoric sites. The purpose of these carvings was to
symbolize heritage and power of the ancient societies. Thirdly the mythical and fictional genres
are portrayed in writings and pictures and sometimes it is perceived as one of the most common
forms of communication in the ancient civilizations. Apart from these three pre-Columbian
history explanations, there also existed some everyday literature such as graffiti and descriptions
of objects which played part in literature.
The Mesoamerican culture was divided into three major categories which were the
choretega, Maya, and Nhuatl and whereby all these cultures held some nearly similar aspects in
economic activities and sometimes the religion. The myths and fictional stories shaped the
literature part during their era, and its existence shaped the modern day literature to heights that
indicate a great influence on European livelihood. The myths indicated the origin of people and
sometimes explained how the world came to be formed including the plants and animals. For
example, the Popul of Vuh is a legendary myth among the Quiche people; Codex chimalpopoca
is a myth by the Aztecs which explained the creation mythology of the five sons, history ToltecaChichimec and the Codex Aubin which is a mythical explanation of the wanderings of Mexica
from ...

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