Final Applied Lab Project

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Question description

Final Applied Lab Project (1 credit Lab Component)

Addresses course outcomes 1-4:

  • recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems
  • make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations
  • weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific method
  • use knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and appropriate technologies to ask relevant questions, develop hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and draw conclusions

This is the culminating lab assessment in BIOL 103. It is designed to assess your ability to apply the principles of the scientific method.

The Effect of low pH on Enzyme Activity

Design an experiment in which you will test the effect of an acidic fluid on enzymatic activity. Recall: enzymes are proteins! To complete this project, it may be useful for you to first review the Scientific Method Tutorial, information about pH and enzymes in the text book and course modules, Lab 1 (Introduction to Science) and Lab 4 (Enzymes). As you review Lab 4, you will be reminded that there are several factors that impact enzymatic activity: pH, temperature, and amount of reagent. It is OK to use the same enzyme/substrate/method as you did in lab 4 (but modify the treatment), or you can search on-line to find a different enzyme/substrate/method for measuring enzyme activity for your project (include all references).

As you design your experiment for this project, please remember that you are trying to examine how an acidic fluid will modify the outcome of an enzymatic reaction. To successfully complete this project, you will need to identify the question(s) being asked in your experiment and the hypothesis that you are testing. In your experimental design, you must clearly explain what you are doing. That means that you will need to identify the enzyme, the substrate, the acidic fluid used as treatment, the control treatment and the method of measuring enzyme activity, as well as explain your experimental protocol. You must also thoroughly explain how the acidic fluid impacted enzyme activity based on the results from your own experiment as well as knowledge of enzymes and pH from the text book, modules, lab manual and potentially additional information sources.

Hint: Keep in mind that the acid will change the environmental conditions of the experiment (for example, a low pH value could change the shape of the active site on the enzyme protein), without directly participating in the reaction.

Lab Materials

You may need all or some of the following, depending on your experimental design:

Materials from your lab kit:

  • pH paper
  • hydrogen peroxide solution (you can purchase this at a pharmacy if you have used up the bottle that came with the lab kit)
  • plastic beakers or cups
  • vinegar
  • yeast (can be purchased at grocery store if more is needed)
  • balloons
  • plastic bottle
  • marker for labeling of beakers
  • Cell phone/digital camera - pictures required

You may choose to use additional materials (different acidic fluids and/or different organisms and/or different substrate if you chose an enzyme other than catalase).

Outline:

Include the following in your outline:

  • Name of enzyme you will use
  • Name of organism (if applicable)
  • The substrate and products in the chemical reaction
  • Method for measuring enzyme activity
  • Treatment: acidic fluid(s), pH, length of exposure, how you will treat your samples
  • The control(s) in the experiment
  • Hypothesis
  • How you will present your data (table and/or type of graph)
  • Anything else you would like to get feedback on before you start your experiment

Write a lab report that includes the following:

1. Title page: descriptive title, your name, course name, semester

2. Introduction: general background information about enzymes and specific information about your chosen enzyme, the question(s) that you are asking and a clear hypothesis for your experiment (20 points).

3. Design an experiment. Provide a detailed description of the materials and methods used to conduct the experiment. Identify control and experimental samples, as well as independent and dependent variables. Also include the methods used for data collection and analysis (20 points).

4. Conduct the experiment and record your results. Take picture(s) of your results. What did you observe? Present your data in table and/or graph format. Remember to label everything and include the unit of measure with all numbers (20 points)

5. Use your knowledge of enzymes and pH to interpret and discuss your results. It may be necessary for you to refer to the text book and course modules, lab manual and/or use additional information resources. What effect does the acidic treatment have on enzyme activity? Did you get the expected results? Explain. (20 points)

6. State a specific and accurate conclusion. Is your hypothesis supported by the results? Looking back, how could you have improved your experiment? (10 points)

7. Include a list of references to all information sources used in APA format (5 points).

Avoid Plagiarism

It is very important to write with your own words. If you do copy one or two sentences directly (use sparingly), use quotation marks (") around the copied text, followed by an in-text reference. All information sources need to be included in the reference list and as in-text references. Plagiarism will be reported to the proper UMUC authority. Guidance on how to avoid plagiarism can be found here: https://www.umuc.edu/students/academic-integrity/a...

Submission

Submit your final applied lab project in the assignment folder by the due date specified in the course schedule.

Grading

Your Outline will be graded based on the following criteria (100 points total):

Excellent (90-100%)

Good (70-89%)

Adequate (60-69%)

Unsatisfactory (0-59%)

Outline

100 points

Outline includes all the required components and planned experiment meets requirements for the assignment and is clearly and accurately described. Submitted on time.

90-100 points

Outline missing one or two of the required components, and/or planned experiment does not meet one of requirements for the assignment and/or minor issues with clarity and accuracy.

70-89 points

Outline missing several of the required components, and/or planned experiment does not meet several of the requirements for the assignment and/or major issues with clarity and accuracy.

60-69 points

Outline missing most of the required components and planned experiment does not meet the requirements of the assignment.

0-59 points

Your Final Applied Lab Project will be graded based on the following criteria (100 points total):

Excellent (90-100%)

Good (75-89%)

Adequate (50-74%)

Unsatisfactory (0-49%)

Introduction, Question and Hypothesis

20 points

Background information about enzymes in general and about specific enzyme used in project is clearly and accurately written. Questions and hypothesis are specific, relevant and clearly stated.

18-20 points

Background information about enzymes in general and about specific enzyme is somewhat unclear and/or inaccurate. Questions and hypothesis could be more specific, relevant and clearly stated.

15-17 points

Missing background information about enzymes in general or about specific enzyme used in project or questions and hypothesis.

10-14 point

Missing background information about enzymes in general and about specific enzyme used in project and questions/hypothesis.

0-9 points

Experimental Design, Materials and Methods

20 points

Experiment is designed to directly test the hypothesis; description of experiment is detailed and well written and includes all materials and methods used.

18-20 points

Experiment is mostly designed to test the hypothesis and/or description of experiment is somewhat inaccurate and/or some information about materials and methods used is missing and/or minor problems with clarity an organization.

15-17 points

Experiment is barely designed to test the hypothesis and/or description of experiment is inaccurate and/or most of the materials and methods used are missing and/or major problems with clarity an organization.

10-14 points

Experiment is not designed to test hypothesis and/or description of experiment and materials and methods used are missing.

0-9 points

Results

20 points

Results are clearly and accurately presented in a table and/or graph and picture(s).

18-20 points

Results are presented, but minor problems with clarity and/or accuracy.

15-17 points

Results are described, but major problems with clarity and/or accuracy and/or results not presented in table or graph.

10-14 points

Results are not included

0-9 points

Discussion of Results

20 points

A clear, accurate and well organized discussion of results that demonstrates good knowledge of enzymes.

18-20 points

Minor problems with clarity, accuracy or organization and/or demonstrates some gaps in knowledge of enzymes.

15-17 points

Major problems with clarity, accuracy or organization or demonstrates minimal knowledge of enzymes.

10-14 points

Missing discussion of results, or major problems with clarity, accuracy or organization and missing understanding of enzymes.

0-9 points

Conclusion

10 points

A well stated conclusion that is accurate and specific and directly related to the data collected. Clearly stated whether or not the results support the hypothesis. Relevant suggestion for improvement of experiment.

9-10 points

Conclusion stated, but slightly inaccurate, and/or not directly related to data collected and/or suggestion for improvement of experiment not very relevant.

7-8 points

Conclusion stated, but inaccurate and/or barely related to data collected and/or missing suggestion for improvement of experiment.

5-6 points

Missing conclusion, only suggestion for improvement of experiment.

0-4 points

Citations

5 points

All references used are included and in correct APA format, in-text references are included.

5 points

All references are included, but a few minor mistakes in APA format, and/or missing in-text references.

4 points

Missing one or several references and/or major mistakes in APA format.

2-3 point

No references included or references not in APA format.

0-1 points

Grammar and Spelling

5 points

0 - 3 minor spelling and grammatical errors

5 points

Between 4 and 7 minor spelling and grammatical errors

4 points

Between 8 and 12 spelling and grammatical errors

3 point

More than 13 spelling and grammatical errors

0-2 points

. Exercise 2: Experimental Variables Determine the variables tested in the each of the following experiments. If applicable, determine and identify any positive or negative controls. A study is being done to test the affects of habitat space on the size of fish populations. Different sized aquariums are set up with six goldfish in each one. Over a period of six months, the fish are fed the same type and amount of food. The aquariums are equally maintained and cleaned throughout the experiment. The temperature of the water is kept constant. At the end of the experiment the number of surviving fish are surveyed. A. Independent Variable: B. Dependent Variable: C. Controlled Variables/Constants: D. Experimental Controls/Control Groups: To determine if the type of agar affects bacterial growth, a scientist cultures E. coli on four different types of agar. Five petri dishes are set up to collect results: One with nutrient agar and E. coli One with mannitol-salt agar and E. coli One with MacConkey agar and E. coli One with LB agar and E. coli One with nutrient agar but NO E. coli All of the petri dishes received the same volume of agar, and were the same shape and size. During the experiment, the temperature at which the petri dishes were stored, and at the air quality remained the same. After one week the amount of bacterial growth was measured. A. Independent Variable: B. Dependent Variable: C. Controlled Variables/Constants: D. Experimental Controls/Control Groups: Exercise 3: Testable Observations Determine which of the following observations are testable. For those that are testable: Determine if the observation is qualitative or quantitative Write a hypothesis and null hypothesis What would be your experimental approach? What are the dependent and independent variables? What are your controls - both positive and negative? How will you collect your data? How will you present your data (charts, graphs, types)? How will you analyze your data? Observations A plant grows three inches faster per day when placed on a window sill than it does when placed on a on a coffee table in the middle of the living room. The teller at the bank with brown hair and brown eyes is taller than the other tellers. When Sally eats healthy foods, her blood pressure is 10 points lower than when she eats fatty foods. The Italian restaurant across the street closes at 9 pm but the one two blocks away closes at 10 pm. For the past two days, the clouds have come out at 3 pm and it has started raining at 3:15 pm. George did not sleep at all the night following the start of daylight savings. LAB 4 Experiment 1: Enzymes in Food Amylase is used by humans to facilitate digestion. Specifically, it is an enzyme that breaks down starch molecules into glucose molecules. This is why people sometimes observe a sweet taste after sucking on a starch-containing food for an extended period of time. Amylase is found naturally in human saliva and the pancreas. However, it is also present in some of the common plant foods consumed by humans. This experiment tests for the presence of amylase in food by using Iodine-Potassium Iodide, IKI. IKI is a color indicator used to detect starch. This indicator turns dark purple or black in color when in the presence of starch. Therefore, if the IKI solution turns to a dark purple or black color during the experiment, one can determine that amylase is not present (because presence of amylase would break down the starch molecules, and the IKI would not change color). Materials (1) 2 oz. Bottle (Empty) (1) 100 mL Graduated Cylinder 30 mL Iodine-Potassium Iodide, IKI Permanent Marker Ruler 2 Spray Lids 30 mL Starch (liquid) *Cutting Board *2 Food Products (e.g., sweet potato, apple, potato, corn, etc. *Ginger Root *Kitchen Knife *Paper Towels (non-starch containing) *Saliva Sample *Tap Water *You Must Provide Procedure: Remove the cap from the starch solution. Attach the spray lid to the starch solution. Rinse out the empty two ounce bottle with tap water. Use the 100 mL graduated cylinder to measure and pour 30 mL of IKI into the empty two ounce bottle. Attach the remaining spray lid to the bottle. Use a permanent marker to create four quadrants of equal size by drawing two perpendicular lines that intersect in the center of the paper towel (Figure 3). Figure 3: Paper towel set-up. Spray the sectioned paper towel and another blank paper towel with the starch solution. Allow the starch to dry for approximately one hour (this time interval may vary by location). Once the paper towels are completely dry, label the blank paper towel “saliva” and set it aside to be used in Step 14. Use the permanent marker to label the top left quadrant of the sectioned paper towel “positive control” and the top right quadrant “negative control”. Select two food items from your kitchen cabinet or refrigerator, and obtain a fresh ginger root sample. Note: If ginger root is not available, use banana as a positive control. Be sure to adjust data tables and labels accordingly. Obtain a kitchen knife and a cutting board. Carefully cut your selected food items and the ginger root to expose the internal surfaces. Set up a positive control for this experiment. Use the permanent marker to add the label “ginger root” under the positive control label. Carefully rub an area in the positive control quadrant with the fresh surface of the ginger root (which is known to contain amylase). Ensure a good application by firmly pressing the exposed surface of the root onto the paper towel. Let the area rest. Set-up a negative control for this experiment in the “negative control” quadrant. Use your knowledge of the scientific method and experimental controls to establish this component. Identify your negative control in Table 1. Note: What result would you expect if amylase was not present when tested with IKI solution? Use the permanent marker to label the bottom two quadrants with the name of the two food items you chose to test for amylase. Carefully, but firmly, rub the fresh/exposed area of the food items on the paper towel in their designated quadrants back and forth 10 - 15 times. Allow the areas to dry for at least five minutes. While you wait, provide a saliva sample by spitting into the center of the paper towel labeled “saliva” that you prepared with starch in Step 5. Spread the saliva out by gently rubbing the halves of the paper towel together. After your food samples and controls have rested for at least five minutes, test them with IKI solution. Note: Use caution when spraying the IKI solution. Hold the IKI spray bottle 25 - 30 cm away from the paper towel, and mist the IKI solution over each quadrant. Allow the IKI solution to dry. Observe where and what color develops, and consider what these results indicate. Record your results in Table 1. Take a picture of your results. Include a note with your name and date on an index card in the picture. Insert picture here. Table 1: Substance vs. Starch Presence Substance Resulting Color Presence of Starch? Positive Control: Ginger Root Negative Control: Student Must Select Food Product: Food Product: Saliva: Experiment 2: Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity Figure 4: Catalase catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Yeast cells contain catalase, an enzyme which helps convert hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This enzyme is very significant as hydrogen peroxide can be toxic to cells if allowed to accumulate. The effect of catalase can be seen when yeast is combined with hydrogen peroxide (Catalase: 2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2). In this experiment, you will examine the effects of temperature on enzyme (catalase) activity based on the amount of oxygen produced. Note, be sure to remain observant for effervescence when analyzing your results. Materials (2) 250 mL Beakers 3 Balloons 30 mL 3% Hydrogen Peroxide, H2O2 Measuring Spoon Permanent Marker Ruler 20 cm String 3 Test Tubes (Glass) Test Tube Rack Thermometer Yeast Packet *Hot Water Bath *Sheet of Paper *Stopwatch *You Must Provide Procedure Use a permanent marker to label test tubes 1, 2, and 3. Place them in the test tube rack. Fill each tube with 9 mL hydrogen peroxide. Then, keep Test Tube 2 in the test tube rack, but transfer the two additional test tubes to two separate 250 mL beakers. Find one of the balloons, and the piece of string. Wrap the string around the uninflated balloon and measure the length of the string with the ruler. Record the measurement in Table 2. Create a hot water bath by performing the following steps: Determine if you will use a stovetop or microwave to heat the water. Use the 100 mL graduated cylinder to measure and pour approximately 200 mL of water into a small pot or microwave-safe bowl (you will have to measure this volume in two separate allocations). If using a stovetop, obtain a small pot and proceed to Step 4c. If using a microwave, obtain a microwavesafe bowl and proceed to Step 4e. If using a stove, place a small pot on the stove and turn the stove on to a medium heat setting. Carefully monitor the water in the pot until it comes to a soft boil (approximately 100 °C). Use the thermometer provided in your lab kit to verify the water temperature. Turn the stove off when the water begins to boil. Immediately proceed to Step 5. CAUTION: Be sure to turn the stove off after creating the hot water bath. Monitor the heating water at all times, and never handle a hot pan without appropriate pot holders. If using a microwave, place the microwave-safe bowl in the microwave and heat the water in 30 second increments until the temperature of the water is approximately °C. Use the thermometer provided in your lab kit to verify the water temperature. Wait approximately one minute before proceeding to Step 5. Place Tube 1 in the refrigerator. Leave Tube 2 at room temperature, and place Tube 3 in the hot water bath. Important Note: The water should be at approximately 85 °C when you place Tube 3 in it. Verify the temperature with the thermometer to ensure the water is not too hot! Temperatures which exceed approximately 85 °C may denature the enzymes. Let the tubes sit for 15 minutes in their respective condition. During the 15 minutes, prepare three balloons by using a sheet of paper to create a funnel by wrapping a sheet of paper into a cone shape with an opening at the point of the cone. Place the point of the funnel into the mouth of the balloon. One at a time, funnel ¼ tsp. of yeast into each of the three balloons. Make sure all the yeast gets settled to the bulb of the balloon and not caught in the neck. Be sure not spill yeast while handling the balloons. After 15 minutes, use the thermometer to record the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide in Test Tube 2 in Table 2. Remove the thermometer after a reading has been recorded and set it aside. Carefully stretch the neck of the balloon to help ensure it does not rip when stretched over the opening of the test tube. Remember, there is yeast inside of the balloons. Attach the neck of a balloon you prepared in Step 7 to the top of Tube 2 (the room temperature test tube) making sure to not let the yeast spill into the test tube yet (Figure 5). Once the neck of the balloon is securely attached to the test tube lift the balloon so that is in a vertical position in line with the test tube and allow the yeast to drop from the bulb and enter the test tube. Tap or rub the sides of the balloon together to ensure all the yeast enters the test tube. The balloon should remain attached to the test tube. Figure 5: The neck of the balloon is stretched around the opening of the test tube, but the yeast is still resting in the bulb of the balloon. Note: To ensure the balloon does not pop off of the test tube during the reaction, ensure the neck of the balloon extends a least two centimeters down the neck of the test tube. As quickly and carefully as possible remove Tube 1 (cold) from the refrigerator and repeat Steps 8 - 10 with Tube 1 using a balloon you prepared in Step 7. As quickly and carefully as possible remove Tube 3 (hot) from the hot water bath and repeat Steps 8 - 10 with Tube 3 using a balloon you prepared in Step 7. Swirl each tube to mix the yeast and hydrogen peroxide. Observe the test tubes for at least two minutes. Wrap the string around the center of each balloon to measure the circumference. Measure the length of string with a ruler. Record your measurements in Table 2. Take a picture of your results. Include a note with your name and date on an index card in the picture. Insert picture here. Table 2: Balloon Circumference vs. Temperature Tube Temperature (°C) Uninflated Balloon Circumference (cm) Final Balloon Circumference (cm) Difference in Balloon Circumference (cm) 1 - (Cold) 2 - (RT) 3 - (Hot)

Tutor Answer

PlasmaB
School: UCLA

Hello, thank you so much. Looking forward to working with you again. All the best
Hey buddy. Have a look it is sorted now,thank you for the opportunity to work with you.

Running Head: APPLIED LAB PROJECT

The Effect of low pH on Enzyme Activity
Student’s Name
Institution of Affiliation
Course
Date

APPLIED LAB PROJECTS

Experiment: how low PH impacts on the Enzyme Activity
Introduction
catalase enzyme
Enzymes can be said to be the catalysts for any biochemical reactions. In an appropriate
environment, they serve to increase the rate of reactions of the in biochemical reactions.
Several factors do affect and thus influence the activities of the enzymes. Such factors include
PH, temperature, the substrate excetra. We shall look at how pH affects the activities of the
enzymes in this experiment.
To demonstrate how the pH influences the activities of the enzymes, we simply add an acid to a
base, that is, in form of food, in a reaction mixture. Further still, we can demonstrate this through
having the enzyme and the food stuff react directly apps we observe and record the reaction in
question (Talaro, K. P., et al., 2017)

Objective
Demonstrating how low pH influ...

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