3 pages on the actual paper, and done in apa format. Prompt: The beginning should explain what schizophrenia is and all of its characteristics. We made a character that must be incorporated in the essay itself. She gave us 3 models to look at and compare my character to one of the models to see what they are most like. Basically diagnosing if my character does or does not have schizophrenia. There is a minimum of 2 references and one of them has to be our textbook which is Psychology in Action Tenth Edition by Karen Huffman. I have another reference that seems really helpful; URL:http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia/index.shtml
The models: Model A Hank is an 11-year-old African-American boy in the fifth grade. Hank was brought to the local clinic by his mother after his teacher recommended that he be evaluated for his excessive anxiety in the classroom setting. More specifically, Hank experienced frequent worry regarding his school performance, and often became distressed when presented with challenging academic tasks. Moreover, his teacher and parents reported significant distractibility and concentration difficulties, which his teacher attributed to anxiety about his academic performance. His teacher also reported that she was having difficulty managing Hank’s behavior in the classroom. Both Hank and his mother reported that he worried about his grades, particularly in the areas of English and language arts. Hank was receiving average grades overall (i.e., mostly B’s) although he was struggling somewhat in reading/language arts and, at the time of assessment, had a C grade in that area. He had significant difficulty with reading and language-based tasks. Specifically, Hank had to read material at least three times before he understood the content, and had trouble following class discussions in the English class because he had trouble deriving more abstract concepts and themes. These difficulties caused him significant anxiety regarding his academic performance. Hank and his mother noted that he often worried about upcoming exams and projects, particularly in the English class, and that he would ruminate about the possibility of failing. His mother observed that it was difficult for Hank to stop worrying when he was worried about school. Further, she said Hank frequently had difficulty completing his homework, and this was true for all assignments, not just reading and language arts. She explained that Hank rushed through his work, which resulted in frequent careless errors. In addition, she said Hank enjoyed math, but even when he was engaged in the subject, he washighly distractible and did not attend to small details. For example, Hank often failed to attend to themathematical sign in a problem and would add when subtraction was required, or vice versa. Hank often lost or misplaced items he needed to complete his work, such as his school books and worksheets, and frequently forgot to write down his homework assignments. Hank’s teacher observed similar difficulties in the classroom, and she frequently sent reports home indicating that he was highly distractible in class and had difficulty concentrating on his work for extended periods of time. Hank also spoke out of turn in the classroom, and was frequently reprimanded for interrupting. His mother explained these difficulties seemed to add to Hank’s overall anxiety. He worried about his school difficulties and made comments about being “stupid.” Hank engaged in similar behaviors at home. He had difficulty completing household chores and was often sidetracked after he started on a particular task. Both his parents and teachers indicated they frequently repeated their commands and instructions to Hank because he had difficulty listening and paying attention. Hank’s mother said she often became frustrated with his inattention, and that his failure to follow through with chores and other tasks led to conflict between them at times. However, she did not report any oppositional or defiant behavior from him.
Model B Bill made his first appointment at the mental-health center reluctantly. He was a 20 years old Hispanic man, single, and unemployed. His sister, Colleen, with whom he had been living for 18 months, had repeatedly encouraged him to seek professional help. She was concerned about his peculiar behavior and social isolation. He spent most of his time daydreaming, often talked to himself, and occasionally said things that made little sense. Bill acknowledged that he ought to keep more regular hours and assume more responsibility, but he insisted that he did not need psychological treatment. The appointment was finally made in an effort to please his sister and mollify her husband, who was worried about Bill’s influence on their three young children. During the first interview, Bill spoke quietly and frequently hesitated. The therapist noted that Bill occasionally blinked and shook his head as though he was trying to clear his thoughts or return his concentration to the topic at hand. When the therapist commented on this unusual twitch, Bill apologized politely but denied that it held any significance. He was friendly yet shy and clearly ill at ease. The discussion centered on Bill’s daily activities and his rather unsuccessful efforts to fit into the routine of Colleen’s family. Bill assured the therapist that his problems would be solved if he could stop daydreaming. He also expressed a desire to become better organized. Bill continued to be guarded throughout the early therapy sessions. After several weeks, he began to discuss his social contacts and mentioned a concern about sexual orientation. Despite his lack of close friends, Bill had had some limited and fleeting sexual experiences. These had been both heterosexual and homosexual in nature. He was worried about the possible meaning and consequences of his encounters with other males. This topic occupied the next several weeks of therapy. Bill’s “daydreaming” was also pursued in greater detail. It was a source of considerable concern to him, and it interfered significantly with his daily activities. This experience was difficult to define. At frequent, though irregular, intervals throughout the day, Bill found himself distracted by intrusive and repetitive thoughts. The thoughts were simple and most often alien to his own value system. For example, he might suddenly think to himself, “Damn God.” Recognizing the unacceptable nature of the thought, Bill then felt compelled to repeat a sequence of self-statements that he had designed to correct the initial intrusive thought. He called these thoughts and his corrective incantations “scruples.” These self-statements accounted for the observation that Bill frequently mumbled to himself. He also admitted that his unusual blinking and head shaking were associated with the experience of intrusive thoughts.
Model C Janice is a 35-year-old Caucasian female who was raised by her adoptive parents. Janice has been involved with her outpatient therapist for three years. She began seeing her because she was struggling with symptoms such as concentration difficulties, anxiety, and obsessional thinking. More significantly, within the year prior to working with a therapist, Janice said she began to experience paranoid and delusional thoughts that had become quite persistent. These difficulties started after she smoked marijuana. While experiencing the effects, Janice believed that her mind had gone “numb.” From that time on, she believed that the marijuana had permanently “warped” her mind. Moreover, she had experienced considerable distress and frustration over her inability to get others to agree that the marijuana had this effect on her. More recently, Janice had developed paranoid concerns that the police and FBI were out to get her (persecutory delusions). In addition, she had begun to feel that certain television shows had special importance to her, in that information embedded in these programs was directed especially to her to remind her that she was at risk for some sort of persecution by theauthorities (delusions of reference, that is, all events that occurred somehow “referred” to Janice). On a few occasions, Janice also heard voices in her head (auditory hallucinations). Although she could not make out what they were saying, she perceived the voices as angry and critical. Over the past several months, Janice’s symptoms had worsened to the point that they were interfering substantially with her attendance at work as a state office janitor. Because of these factors, and because Janice had not responded to outpatient treatment thus far, her outpatient therapist made the referral for hospital admission. Janice was often noncompliant with her medication due to side-effects. At the intake evaluation for her inpatient admission, Janice’s emotions were quite restricted. Although appearing very tense and anxious, Janice’s face was, for the most part, immobile throughout the intake. She engaged in very little eye contact with her doctors, and her body movements were quite constricted, with the exception of restless movements in her legs and the occasional rocking back andforth of her body as she sat in her chair. Her speech was very hesitant and deliberate, and she often responded to the interviewer’s questions with terse and empty replies. For instance, when the interviewer asked, “What difficulties are you having that you would like help for?” Janice replied, “I think it was the marijuana.” Prior to the outpatient therapist’s recommendation for hospital treatment, Janice had several jobs. Yet, she held his current position as a janitor in the state office for seven months, in part because this position allowed her to work alone for the most part and did not require extensive social interaction.
Female, 28 years old, Hispanic, Paraguayan, middle class, yes there is a family history of schizophrenia, outgoing, consistent, calm and kind, always smiling, healthy, sleep well, socially competent, forgetful, gos with the flow, clean and well groomed, and has coherent speech.