Humanities
HY1110 Columbia Southern Unit 2 Salem Witch Trials American History Essay

HY1110

Columbia Southern University

Question Description

Please beware that this is a 3 page paper that has to be cited with the CSU articles I am providing you and also has to be written in APA style as well. I have attached the Unit 2 study guide and have provided 2 sources also that or from the CSU Library that must be cited and used to help you write the essay. Also, MUST pass the CSU checker for Plagiarism. Thank you and just make sure you read all the materiel I have provided you.



Unit II Scholarly Activity

After reading the lecture and required readings for this unit, use the knowledge you have learned to write a three page essay on one of the topics below:

 Bacon’s revolt on Jamestown, Va.;

 The Pueblo Revolt; and

 Salem witch trials

In order to support your discussion, you will need to select at least one outside source from the CSU Library. Your essay must address, but are not limited to, the following items listed below:

 Introduce the event. This may include what happened, the reason, setting, location, timeline, outcome, and casualties.

 Describe how characteristics of the region of Colonial America impacted your chosen conflict.

 Discuss the American ideals or philosophies that may have caused this event to occur. How have these ideals and philosophies changed to the way we live today?

 Discuss your perspective on the event, including, but not limited to, what was inevitable or avoidable, and what was beneficial or costly.

Again, be sure to review the required reading about what to look for in a scholarly resource, and if you have trouble locating an article, contact a librarian to assist you. Your assignment, which should be three pages total, will not be accepted if your source(s) are not available in CSU’s Online Library, and the article you choose must be completely cited and referenced.

Source:
Early American Studies, An Interdisciplinary Journal. Summer2017, Vol. 15 Issue 3, p442-473. 32p.



Unformatted Attachment Preview

UNIT II STUDY GUIDE 1600-1760 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 3. Describe the characteristics of the divided regions of Colonial America. 8. Discuss the evolution of American philosophies or ideals. Reading Assignment Click here for the Unit II Journal Assignment reading. Chaney, T., Cohen, K., & Cotton, L. P. (2012). The Virginia Company of London. Retrieved from http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-virginia-company-of-london.htm Poe, E. (1849, April 21). Eldorado. Retrieved from http://www.online-literature.com/poe/577/ Virtual Jamestown. (n.d.). John Rolfe (1585-1622). Retrieved from http://www.virtualjamestown.org/jrolfe.html The articles cited in the unit lesson are required reading. You may be tested on your knowledge and understanding of that material as well as the information presented in the unit lesson. Unit Lesson Pre-1600 colonization of the Americas, in short, would be at first inspired by a desire to find quicker trade routes to the distant orient, but would unexpectedly lead to the uncovering of a world that was new to the European mind. Exploration of the land mass in the western Atlantic, dominated by the Spanish, included explorers, navigators, and conquistadores searching to fulfill the temptations of God, gold, and glory. A brief recap (set to a familiar TV sea shanty) follows: The 1500’s tell the tales That stem from one historic ship It began with Ferdinand and Isabelle And the financing of a trip Columbus was fearless with a plan His navigation was true and sure The goal was a new trading route To the lucrative Asian shore The lucrative Asian shore Each month at sea was increasingly tough His crew was cross and blue But luck would spot virgin land one day In 1492 In 1492 Indian lands, the crew was sure of this Exploration would prove futile There was no trade He had missed his mark HY 1110, American History I 1 Back in Spain, he was dismayed His find a farce He would again sail the seas Dying on an American isle UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title A legacy though was cast that day Like God’s golden, glorious chime A brand new world with the best of things An adventure sure to find Ponce de Leon, de Soto, too Vespucci undercut the rest, Cortés & Pizarro, with disease Spain’s claim proved the best Explorers, navigators, conquistadores in search of luxury Religion was carried with them To convert the primitives they seek Millions died, much society was lost History records some as vile The impact of each explorer’s step marked another Spanish mile Exploration was not without reason. Europe was fracturing on the grounds of new beliefs challenging the often oppressive Catholic Church. What started as the publishing of a series of complaints on the door of Wittenberg in 1517 by devout follower Martin Luther would soon spiral into what is today known as the Protestant Reformation. Following Luther’s lead, other (and generally more dissatisfied) Protestant leaders such as Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin, whose followers were called Huguenots, would emerge to spread their doctrines across Europe and inspire migration to the new world for a chance at worship without oppression. Lastly, Spain’s dominance in the Americas would not be exclusive to one area. The series of voyages had successfully charted a North, South, and Mesoamerica region, and even discovered a successful (though very dangerous) passage around the locked continents to once again begin the attempt to circumnavigate the globe and find new trading routes to the Orient. Colonization Attempts Spain’s successes with establishing religion, free lands, and riches in the Americas would not go unnoticed, and soon others would join the claim. England (1576) was among the first in the claiming of American lands, but with much less initial success than anticipated, including the fate of the ill-fated first Roanoke colony (1585). Despite early troubles, myth and legend would continue to inspire English and French exploration for their crowns. Englishman Sir Walter Raleigh, for example, would embark on his own deliberate attempt to search for myth to claim the spoils. For Raleigh, his passion would be the legendary City of Gold, El Dorado, which was thought to exist somewhere in South America’s vast jungles. The legend that had first famously gained the interest of noted Spanish trailblazer Francisco de Orellana, who coined the name “Amazon River,” failed to bear fruit in the West. As a result, Raleigh’s expedition for the lost city would take to the East, but that also would come up empty. Interestingly, his larger passion—staking England’s claim to the riches of South America—would eventually be a factor in his execution, as he endangered more than himself raising British colors in Spanish-controlled seas. This infamous search, though, would also inspire future artistic masters to make this tale an allegory for other such desperate attempts at riches. These artists included poet Edgar Allan Poe, whose description of the Gold Rush and desperation of the miner provides a keen, supernatural take on the human’s determined psyche: HY 1110, American History I 2 Eldorado Gaily bedight, A gallant knight, In sunshine and in shadow, Had journeyed long, Singing a song, In search of Eldorado. UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title But he grew old This knight so bold And o'er his heart a shadow Fell as he found No spot of ground That looked like Eldorado. And, as his strength Failed him at length, He met a pilgrim shadow "Shadow," said he, "Where can it be This land of Eldorado?" "Over the mountains Of the Moon, Down the Valley of the Shadow, Ride, boldly ride," The shade replied "If you seek for Eldorado!" – Edgar Allan Poe (1849) Today, El Dorado remains a favorite story and a real-life magnet for those searching for American treasures. Although the only “proof” is far from convincing, essentially on a par with Plato’s descriptions of the lost city of Atlantis, this does not deter the explorers still trying to make their name, fortune, or influence in the world. Permanent Settlement Entering the seventeenth century, the American continents, North, South, and Mesoamerica, were feeling the initial effects of European influence. Though the “discovery” of North America by European sailors could have been considered a mistake, since it resulted from their intended search for trade routes, these lands quickly became prizes in and of themselves. As Europe’s population continued to grow, its materials, resources, and opportunities continued to shrink. Also, as European populations became more accepting and knowledgeable of the New World, those who felt the oppressions of the Old World discovered for themselves the opportunity that this new land opened for them. In America, new periods of opportunity and oppression would emerge in the form of frontier conflicts, but these also occurred within the European settlements themselves. Progressing into this unit, it is imperative to focus on the changing experiences, expectations, and roles among all those invested in the English colonies, including women, labor groups, and Native Americans. To adequately cover this change, our focus will, from this point on, remain on North America, with brief jaunts to the south as prudent. During this era, the “known” North America could be separated into a few major regions of note (examples can be seen in the Suggested Readings). The East Coast, ranging from what is now Savannah, Georgia, to Nova Scotia, and roughly as far west as the Appalachian Mountain range, would become known as English Colonial America. This was due to the large number of primarily English speaking areas to emerge, even though not all were strictly under the jurisdiction of the crown. In addition, much of what is now modern Canada would accept English influence, especially with trade options. To the west, following the Mississippi and its tributaries to the north, stretching from modern New Orleans, Louisiana, to the Acadian provinces, would be the French Crescent. This was mostly made up of a series of HY 1110, American History I 3 French missions, hunters, foragers, and trappers who engaged in civilized andUNIT mutually beneficial trade with x STUDY GUIDE the Native Americans of those regions. Here, groups such as the Huguenots found Title a region where they could freely practice their beliefs, but they did this with respect to the neighboring tribes, as forcing European ideals often led to negative results. Further out west would be large sections of understood frontier territory. The area was dominated by Native Americans, and there was little European presence. Those who dared try to establish a residence were often on their own and at the mercy of neighboring tribes. Lastly, sticking primarily to the south and west were Spanish claims, including modern Florida, much of Texas, and the greater American Southwest and Pacific Coast. Though loosely enforced, compared to the colonized East, these were heavily protected territories thought to hold vast riches for those who could find them. Early attempts at colonization were shaky at best. As previously introduced to the ill-fated Roanoke colony, and despite the mysterious circumstances therein, the English would again attempt to colonize America’s Atlantic Coast. This time, however, the colonies would be closely tied to the crown’s economic interests. While the English would initially travel to the familiar Chesapeake shores, this would come with the support of private investors, most notably the Virginia Company, who would not trust the colony to its fate again. To read this article, click the link below: Chaney, T., Cohen, K., & Cotton, L. P. (2012). The Virginia Company of London. Retrieved from http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-virginia-company-of-london.htm Though the experience for these particular investors would ultimately prove unsuccessful, this renewed interest would help to ensure these colonies’ success by drawing the interest of the crown. This caused North America to develop stronger imperial potential than even what the Spanish had found in South America and Mesoamerica. English Colonial America The English colonies, not including much of modern Canada, are generally divided into four regions based on commonalities in religion, population, economics, and general culture. We will look at a few of those elements here. New England America’s northernmost colonies, often referred to as New England due to the similarity of their climate and strong settlements to their ancient namesake, urbanized quicker than other regions. The term is still used today to describe the cluster of small states. The population of this region, which would retain an overwhelmingly English ancestry, included the colonies of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. With the common heritage, so too came a strong effort to ensure the success of religious communities. Most notable were the Puritans, who were among the earliest settlers of this region. The Puritans were sometimes criticized for acting overzealously, especially compared to more southern regions, but they would dominate the religion of this region. Their main disagreement was with the Catholics, whose traditional views and authority from the Vatican had also been previously driven from the English mainland. Soon, however, religious tolerance would be legally enforced, but only in an effort to ensure safety and opportunities of the masses, not to restrict the religious freedoms that so many colonists came to the New World demanding. A decree from the crown called for religious tolerance and an end to the aggressive reactions. Still, the strong Puritan, and growing Quaker, populations of these vastly important colonial regions would leave an indelible mark on the culture of the American law and endear reverence to a Protestant core. The familiar conditions and seasons of the New England region provided a sense of comfort for the colonists. The seasonal change was unlike the rich agricultural regions further south, and there was less chance of contracting an unknown disease, such as malaria. In the same way, because these colonies had few Spring and Summer months, produce was greatly limited compared to their southern counterparts. Still, there were important crops such as gourds and corn, and other trades supplemented the economy—notably fishing, HY 1110, American History I 4 whaling, and shipping. This region was perhaps so popular because its climate was xso very similar to UNIT STUDY GUIDE England, where the majority of its population originated. Title With this, the city also allowed for the allocation of new professions, such as clothiers, doctors, and dealers of other such luxuries. Because of population growth, however, farmable land was at a premium. Soon, families did not have the resources to provide an inheritance for all offspring, and quickly the measure of a family’s status became more about accumulated wealth than standing in the community. This atmosphere of free enterprise and entrepreneurism, of course, would only expand interests in American commerce. It would eventually sow seeds of growing contempt, however, when new regulations, such as the practice of mercantilism and individual acts levied by the crown, would regulate, threaten, or even steal from these profits. Mid-Atlantic The region immediately south of New England, incorporating the colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, was commonly known as the Middle Colonies or Mid-Atlantic. It, too, would benefit from the great population growth, but unlike New England, its populations would come largely from other prominent European nations, such as the Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland, and Germany. New England was among the most pure in one heritage, the Mid-Atlantic was just the opposite; this more temperate region would host a wide collection of creeds, races, and religions. This more multicultural collection would be the setting for a drastically different type of inclusive society. The overwhelming motivation for movement to this region of America was opportunity, and some would seek religious or political freedoms that were unavailable in their locations of origin. These travelers were commonly considered middle class, or had limited opportunities available for those not in the upper class, but could pay their way to America. Many new cultures emerged in this region, and as part of that, distinctive religions including the first American synagogue in New York City and a strong Catholic community that would be instrumental in the founding of the southern border colony, Maryland. This region best exemplified the idea of the “melting pot” of cultures that would become a prominent nationalistic theme in the nineteenth century. Economically, there was a wider range of produce able to grow in this climate, and from it would come many items that would be desired in great quantity in Europe. This set the stage for careful trade laws and moneymaking opportunities for the crown. Though much more common further south, some migrants were forcibly exposed to years of extreme labor to pay off their debts. In this region, these laborers were called redemptioners; their services would be returned in a generally livable climate and for less time than some of their southern servant brethren. Part of the reason for this limited use of servants was simply the lack of need. The Mid-Atlantic region was too cold for many of the cash crops that allowed plantations to be successful in the South, and generally agricultural families were large enough to handle the yearly crop yield on their own. The advantage to having servants, and less often, slaves, was that the cost would be significantly less than hiring free help, but for the typical large family, that too was unnecessary. Even in the cities, families would commonly grow to a large size, which was helpful in ensuring that the father could pass on his trait, shop, or profession, and sometimes even gain extra income working in factories or shipping plants. Also significant to consider is the role of status and “superiority” complexes of the time. Many families did not welcome association with those outside of their social class, either from fear of community pressure or because of misguided expectations of aggressive/impulsive behaviors by “less civilized” parts of society. The success of family farms would help to feed these early colonies, much in the same way as the Mid-West has/does today for the full United States. Some who did not fit in, or who did not adhere to social expectations, would try their luck outside of society. Regions to the unincorporated west can be called Backcountry; though officially under colonial legislation, those areas would have little or no political, religious, or government oversight, which was appealing to some. This Mid-Atlantic region, too, would have a very specific relationship with philosophy and religion. Whereas New England was often very specified and cut off, parts of the Mid-Atlantic welcomed a much greater level of diversity. Especially in the colonies of Pennsylvania and New York, there was a heavy Dutch and German HY 1110, American History I 5 influence. Today, the influence that religious freedom in America provided then can xstill be seen in UNIT STUDY GUIDE communities such as the Amish and Mennonite, but the larger presence was that Titleof the Quakers (Shakers), who greatly influenced the shaping of the early U.S. government through political leadership and social teachings. Like the Puritans, though, they too are commonly misunderstood for overzealous practice. The Quaker codes, including teachings of citizenship, behaviors, and social qualities, made them natural leaders and diligent professionals. South Atlantic Coast and Caribbean The remaining colonies, from Maryland and south, are generally collectively known as “the South,” but within this region, there is still great geographical and cultural distinction that has led to further division. Generally the most common terms are “the Chesapeake,” in reference to the Chesapeake Bay region, or upper South, which included Maryland, Virginia, and parts of North Carolina. The remaining colonies are often known as the lower South, or “Plantation South,” for the common use of the rich farmlands. These were generally the least populated regions of Colonial America. In addition to the mainland colonies, this plantation atmosphere would carry directly into major Caribbean islands, including the modern nations of Haiti, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic, which were hotbeds for sugarcane. The main difference between these two southern regions is what the climate allowed the planters to grow. The Chesapeake had a mild climate that was too hot for European farms, but perfect for one of their most desired imports: tobacco. Generally there was a high (in comparison) population rate in this region, in addition to large planter families. There was also a thriving slave population. Chesapeake The ideal tobacco growing conditions of Maryland and Virginia would become the first national jewel, highlighted by the semi-inland port city of Jamestown. Success would not come easy to Jamestown, as the climate and poor management doomed wave after wave of misguided settlers. Arguably the greatest success only came from the unlikely hospitality of the neighboring Algonquians, who received only aggression in return for their aid. In 1624, after three lackluster contracts with the Virginia Company, James I would finally confiscate the Jamestown settlement and put it directly under the direction of the crown’s rule as a royal colony. The one major success of the Jamestown settlement would be the almost unexpected 1612 discover ...
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Final Answer

Hi! Please find attached.

Running Head: SALEM WITCH TRIALS

1

Salem Witch Trials
Institutional Afflation
Student Name
Date

SALEM WITCH TRIALS

2
Introduction

Salem witch trials happened in Salem Village, Massachusetts. This was a group of
young girls accused some local women of bewitching them. The first to get sick were two
girls, the 9-year-old Elizabeth (Betty) Parris who was the daughter of Reverend Samuel
Parris a minister of Salem Village and his niece 11 year –old Abigail Williams. The two girls
started to have convulsions which included violent contortions and uncontrollable outbursts
of screaming (Le Beau, 2016). When their conditions worsened, the village doctor, William
Griggs was called in who diagnosed them with bewitchment. After these two cases, other
similar cases were reported where victims were young girls from the village (Harvey &
Rivett, 2017). The girls were hysterical and they claimed to be possessed demons. The
diagnosis of the village doctor brought forth an outcry in the village which led to the setting
up of a special court to handle the situation. This special court of Oyer and Terminer was to
hear and decide on the accusations.

Outcome and Casualties

The trials began in spring 1692 which led to the hanging of eighteen people and
imprisonment of more than 150 people including children (Carr, et al, 2016). This court
which was presided over by Chief Justice William Stoughton relied mostly on the
confessions of the affected girls...

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