Employee Motivation Discussion

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Please see the attached PowerPoint that goes with this chapter. This is a discussion post, not a paper so it only needs to be about 2 paragraphs max.

In this assignment, you need to:

(1) Find an example of how companies motivate their employees and describe on the discussion board. This can be from your own work experience, the experience of someone you know, or something you found on the internet.

(2) Explain the approach and how it relates to one or more of the theories.

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Industrial & Organizational Psychology Chapter 8 The Motivation to Work 1 Module 8.1: An Introduction to Motivation • Central position of motivation in psychology • Motivation concerns conditions responsible for variations in intensity, quality, & direction of ongoing behavior 2 Brief History of Motivation Theory in I-O Psychology • First theories anchored motivation in notions of instincts (Freud) • “Instinct” gradually replaced by terms like need, motive, & drive (Maslow) • Behaviorist approach (Skinner) • Field theory (Lewin)  Group dynamics 3 Metaphors For Motivation • Person as machine – People’s behaviors & actions are reflexive & involuntary, performed without conscious awareness – Pushed by internal needs – Pulled by environmental stimuli 4 Metaphors For Motivation (cont’d) • Person as judge – Individual seeks information about extent person & others perceived as responsible for positive & negative events – Hypothesizes about foundation for events & actions of others • Person as intentional – Develops goals & plans 5 Motivational Metaphors 6 Meaning & Importance of Motivation in the Workplace • Motivation & performance Situational (Motivation x Ability) – Constraints = PERFORMANCE 7 8 Motivation & Work-Life Balance • Investigates whether satisfaction one experiences at work is affected by satisfaction one experiences in nonwork & vice versa 9 Motivation & Attitudes • Attitudes – Relatively stable feelings or beliefs directed toward specific persons, groups, ideas, or jobs – Attitudes include job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job involvement, which are covered in more detail in Chapter 9 10 Motivation & Personality • Consistent relationships exist between personality characteristics & performance motivation • Neuroticism negatively related to performance motivation • Conscientiousness positively related to performance motivation 11 Module 8.2: Motivational Theories – Classic Approaches • Person-as-machine theories – Maslow’s need theory • Internal mechanical theory • All humans have basic set of needs that express themselves over life span of individual as internal “pushes” or drives 12 Levels in Maslow’s Need Theory • Self-actualization (Highest Level) - Desire to develop capabilities to the fullest, or to become everything one is capable of becoming • Esteem needs - Being respected for accomplishments or capabilities • Love/Social/Belongingness needs - Desire to be accepted by others • Security needs - Need to produce a secure, safe environment • Physiological needs (Lowest Level) - Basic needs: food & water 13 Maslow’s Need Theory • Employer needs to know at what need level individual worker is operating • Group of workers may all be functioning at different need levels • Fits person-as-machine metaphor 14 Variations on Maslow’s Theory • Two-factor theory (Herzberg, 1966) – 2 basic needs, not 5 – Needs are independent (not hierarchical) – 1) Hygiene needs • Maslow’s physical & security needs – 2) Motivator needs • Maslow’s social, esteem, & self-actualization needs 15 Variations on Maslow’s Theory (cont'd) • ERG theory (Alderfer, 1972) – 3 basic needs, not 2 or 5 – Levels: • Existence (E) • Relatedness (R) • Growth (G) – Has not garnered much support 16 Reinforcement Theory: An External Mechanical theory • Behavior depends on 3 elements: stimulus, response, & reward • Contingent reward – Reward depends on response • Intermittent & continuous rewards – Intermittent rewards produce higher performance levels 17 Person-as-Scientist Models • Vroom’s VIE theory – Valence: Strength of person’s preference for particular outcome. – Instrumentality: Perceived relationship between performance & attainment of a certain outcome. – Expectancy: Perceived relationship between effort and performance. 18 Scientist Models (cont'd) • Dissonance theory – Suggests that tension exists when individuals hold incompatible thoughts – Assumes that individuals always seek some sense of “balance” & will direct their behavior toward seeking & maintaining that balance 19 Scientist Models: Equity Theory • Equity Theory: Individuals look at world in terms of comparative inputs & outcomes • Compare their inputs & outcomes to those of “comparison others” Figure 8.1 Mathematical Description of Equity Theory 20 Module 8.3: Modern Approaches to Work Motivation • Person-as-Intentional Approach – Goal-setting theory • Notion of goal as a motivational force • Distinction between goal acceptance & goal commitment 21 Figure 8.2: Diagram of Goal Theory 22 Goal-Setting Theory (cont'd) • Feedback loop important between knowledge of results & intermediate stages • Control theory – Based on principle of feedback loop – Assumes individuals compare a standard to an actual outcome & adjust their behavior to bring outcome into agreement with a standard 23 Relationships Among Needs, Motives, Goals, & Performance 24 Self-Efficacy in Modern Motivation Theory • Self-Efficacy is a belief in one’s capacity to perform a specific task or reach a specific goal – Developed & increased by: • Mastery experiences • Modeling • Social persuasion • Physiological states 25 Common Themes in Modern Approaches to Motivation • Intention plays key role in motivated behavior • Concept of feedback critical in considering anything but the simplest act at one point in time • Theory should include element of person-as-scientist • Theory should include concept of self-assessment • Some non-cognitive element in the “ultimate” motivation theory 26 Module 8.4: Practical Issues in Motivation • Motivation can be measured • Motivational trait questionnaire (MTQ) – Measures 6 aspects of “general” motivation • Desire to learn • Mastery • Other referenced goals • Competitiveness • Worry • Emotionality 27 Table 8.3: Dimensions and Sample Items from Motivational Trait Questionnaire 28 Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivation • Hofstede’s cultural theory – Cultures differ on 5 dimensions • Collectivism/individualism • Uncertainty avoidance • Masculinity/femininity • Power dimensions • Long-term vs. short-term orientation – Application to MTQ 29 Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivation (cont'd) • Types of motivational practices employed by managers across all cultures – – – – Differential distribution of rewards Participation in goal setting & decision making Design & redesign of jobs & organizations Quality improvement 30 Generational Differences & Work Motivation • Generation – Defined by group members who share birth years & significant life events – e.g., Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, Generation Yers 31 Generational Differences (cont'd) • Generation Xers vs. Baby Boomers -- Initial Research indicates that: – Younger employees appear to be more “me” oriented – Today’s workers value “pride in work” less than workers of 1974 – Work is less important now than 25 years ago – Work becomes less idealized as workers age 32 Motivational Interventions • Contingent rewards • Job Enrichment (Tied to 5 job characteristics) • Skill variety • Task identity • Task significance • Autonomy • Task feedback 33 Motivational Interventions (cont'd) • Productivity Measurement & Enhancement System (ProMES) – Utilizes goal setting, rewards, & feedback to increase motivation & performance – Evidence shows significant gains in productivity following use of ProMES 34 ProMES Steps for Implementation 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Forming a design team Identifying objectives Identifying indicators Defining contingencies Designing the feedback system Giving & responding to feedback Monitoring the system 35
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Running Head: MOTIVATION

Motivation in the Workplace

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The company I previously worked for used incentives to motivate their employees. At the
end of every week, the company evaluated employee performance and employees who
consistently reached set goals were rewarded with two tickets to the movies. These per...

Really great stuff, couldn't ask for more.