Direct manipulation is closely associated with interfaces that use windows, icons, menus, and a pointing device as these almost always incorporate direct manipulation to at least
some degree. However, direct manipulation should not be confused with
these other terms, as it does not imply the use of windows or even
graphical output. For example, direct manipulation concepts can be
applied to interfaces for blind or vision-impaired users, using a
combination of tactile and sonic devices and software.