You are a surgeon in a major hospital. A important person come in the Emergency room and it appears she will die unless she receives a heart transplant within the next hour. As fate would have it, a few rooms down the hall a young homeless woman has a heart that would be a perfect match. The homeless women has late-stage pancreatic cancer and will probably die within six months. What should you do?
I would abide by Kantian perspective which calls for fairness and justice. In this case, it is fair and just that a homeless woman has the same right to live as an important person. Just because someone is important , he/she should not have preferential treatment over a homeless person. Although it is utilitarian to provide homeless person's heart to the important person to extend important person's life, it is not ethical and morally not the right thing to do.
According to Kantian perspective all actions should be based on the principle of fairness and justice. Utilitarian principle goes by actions based on practicality of an approach or practical value of an action. For example, in this case, to save an important person's life is practical because the society may benefit if this important person is kept alive.