Justice through the prism of Realism and Liberalism

Anonymous

Question Description

The essay

Each student is to choose one of the topics below for a written essay (within first two weeks of classes). The paper is to present briefly the basic aims of this policy to describe its evolution and to touch upon the contemporary challenges faced by it. It should have 3100 words-no more, no less- and have a form of a scholarly paper, with proper referencing and bibliography. For guidance, see, ‘IR Essay Writing Standard’ and Thesis Manual available on student resources (zasoby) under access code: course1.

Paper topic:

  • Examine the idea of justice through the prism of Realism and Liberalism in international relations.

Title page:

The title page should meet the criteria set up in the IRES Essay Writing Standards 2.1 at p.3. as well as Appendix A. on p. 7.

Editing Rules:

  • Margins: 2,5 cm
  • Font: Times New Roman 12
  • Space: 1,5 space between verses
  • Single quotation marks for quotations; italics for book/periodical titles
  • Insert page numbers and staple your paper (but do not use plastic folders to insert your paper; you may use plastic covers if you like)

Plagiarism: Use quotations if needed, but never copy without indicating the source (quotation marks and reference); otherwise, this will be treated as plagiarism. ‘Bad paraphrasing’ will not excuse you. Papers with no references will be rejected. Fore referencing see 2.4 atp.4 of the IRES Essay Writing Standards

Marking scheme: ¼ for background knowledge; ¼ for clarity & consistency in presentation of your argument; 1/4 for fluency of expression (English) and ¼ for editing

Re-sit: A student who fails a paper (mark below 35%) writes a new paper on another topic from this list.

NOTE: A paper with sentences that make no sense will not be accepted; hence, no software for rewording.

Tutor Answer

Tutor_StefanD
School: UCLA

Kindly find the attached complete work. Thank you

1
Justice in Realism and Liberalism

Name
Course
Professor
25th October 2017

2
Justice in Realism and Liberalism
Justice in Realism and Liberalism
Liberalism and realism are two theories that present different perspectives on world peace and
international relations. The idea of justice in both is presented in different ways. In the theory of
realism, it is stated that if people live without a power to rule over them, they will consequently find
themselves in a state of war, not only within a country but between countries. It also states that each
country seeks to achieve power by ruling over others even if it means the use of anarchy. This then
shows that in order for there to be justice in international relations, there is need for enactment of
bodies that govern international relations and ensure that justice is practiced in order to ensure that
one country does not overlook the interests, rights and justice of the other country while pursuing its
own goals and seeking to achieve more power. This shows that in realism, even with a body to govern a
country, each person thinks mostly about themselves and seeks to achieve their own goals even if this
means practicing injustice. This then means that as much as there are political bodies in form of
governments put in place in each country worldwide, there is need for international bodies to guide the
relations between countries internationally to avoid the situation of every man for himself which might
cause war between various countries across the globe.
Realism presents the ideology of the lack of existence of injustice. This is presumably because
there is need for a governing body to enact laws of the country it governs. These laws then define what
is just and what is not and it also puts in place stipulations on the course of action to be taken on any
given person who practices injustice by violating the laws put in place. ‘War comes in when there is no
enactment of a common power. ‘(Behr 2010)It is in war that fraud, violence and the use of force are
common. This serves as the basis for international bodies such as the International Criminal Court to
govern international relations. This is to ensure that all governing bodies I the world act in justice since
there is a higher body that the monitoring their actions and ready to intervene and persecute those who
practice injustice. A good example of this ideology is during the post-election violence that ensued in
Kenya in 2007. The International Criminal Court through its prosecutor Bensuuda intervened by
investigating the cartels involved in causing the post-election violence either by encouraging their tribe
to fight against other tribes or by actually supplying materials to be used in the war. Violence and war in
realism result from the perception by realists that, the most important source of power is military
strength. The use of the military, whether it is the national military or other militia groups formed by
realists seeking to achieve their own interests is what results to war, violence, fraud and the use of

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Justice in Realism and Liberalism
force. This affects international relations because realists act in anarchy which means the absence of
laws and a world government.
However, not all realists ignore the existence of justice and ethical standards. This is because
realism is of two forms. There is classical realism and extreme realism. In classical realism, there is
emphasizes the concept of national interest, it is not the Machiavellian doctrine ‘that anything is
justified by reason of state’ (Boucher 1998). Classical realists acknowledge the existence of judgment for
ones actions while extreme realists have no beliefs in moral judgment or ethics.
Thomas Hobbes likens this to state of nature because in nature there are no laws. The constant
wars between countries in the world since time immemorial occur as a result of realism and realist
ideologies. This is because realists live in a world of conflict whereby the rights of another person do not
matter since it is every man for himself and each state for itself and the ones with the most power end
up winning. Realism presents a notion that the interests of the state are what matter most rather than
human rights. This explains why realism is coupled with injustices and since for realists there is no such
thing as injustice due to a state of anarchy, human rights are continuously violated. As stated previously,
there is need for international bodies to instill order in international relations between countries.
However, in realism, higher authority to instill order does not exist but rather anarchy and state
sovereignty.’ State sovereignty in this case means that the interest of the state are put first before
anything else, including the interests of other states.’(Bell 2008) State interests for realists are gaining
more power and control over other states. As mentioned, in realism there is no higher governing body
to monitor how different states relate with each other and conduct their activities. As a result, for
justice to occur in a state of realism, each country has to rely on self-help. Self-help in this case means
that a country should be in a position to defend itself from another country which seeks to achieve its
own sovereignty by violating the interests of the other country. Self-help in this case means that the
threatened country should be in a position to fight against the invading state by use of force and power.
This is mostly done through the military. This thus explains the state of war between various countries
such as World War 1 and World War 2 whereby each state relied on its own ability to defend itself from
the attacks by other countries.
As a result, international relations in the prism of realism are defined by a constant state of war
in the world as each country is only concerned about its own interests. In realism, different countries
can also join forces to be in a position to defend their interests against a common threatening state. The
joining of forces puts the given counties in a better position to defend themselves and be able to protect

4
Justice in Realism and Liberalism
their own interests, maintain their rule and power over the given jurisdiction within which they reign.
Justice as shown in this case does not exist hence there is no accountability needed for how states
conduct themselves. This is because for realist, obtaining and maintaining power is the only mechanism
for survival in a state of anarchy or lack of a governing body. However, in a realist state or state of
anarchy, cooperation is difficult to obtain from other nations since as described in the realist theory;
human beings are generally selfish and are only concerned about their own interests. This then limits
the option of cooperation to states facing a common threat to be able to increase their self-help by
joining forces to fight the threatening country. However, loyalty coupled with reliability of the
cooperating states should be carefully examined to avoid betrayal sine as mentioned, realism is a theory
whereby each state seeks to achieve and defend its own interests while violating the interests of other
countries.
Politics in international relations is also inevitable. In a realist theory, international politics only
mean that a state should not agree to be governed by any international body so as to be in a position to
fight other states without being answerable to any given body. It also means that the political governing
body in any country should empower is own military to be able to attack other countries to achieve its
interests and sovereignty and use this same military to defend itself from any country that seeks to
increase its power by conquering the given country or state. Politics and realism in international
relations are not concerned about justice or acting in a manner that is fair to their countries. Instead,
politics in international relations only seek to achieve more power by invading oth...

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Review

Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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