HBU Geography Of El Salvador Speaker Notes Question

User Generated

FznegUryc001

Humanities

Houston Baptist University

Description

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Daniel Esparza Professor Beverly Phillips Geo 200 05 September 2022 Part I: Current Global Region 1.) Current Region: West Coast Region 2.) 3.) The Western portion of the United States, this consists of California, Oregon, and Washington. Cities include Seattle. Los Angeles, Portland. The region is bordered by the Pacific Ocean. Citation Pbardocz. (2020, June 18). United States of America - highly detailed editable political map with labeling. stock vector - illustration of geography, contour: 187094144. Dreamstime. Retrieved September 5, 2022, from https://www.dreamstime.com/usphysimage187094144 4.) Los Angeles is known to have some of the best weather resulting in more expensive housing, food, gas, etc. Today, we see how expensive everything has become here with inflation. Oregon and Washington although on the west coast does have colder weather that a Californian may not be so used to. Portland weather is more of a wet and rainy sort of setting. Not your typical Southern California sunny weather. Known for its trendy and hip scene compared to the surfer and Hollywood scene of California. Washington on the other hand comes in with its cold temperatures with snow. California does have snow up in the Big Bear scene. Washington is not ideally cheap to live in either, but it is more a scenic backdrop environment. Washington is full of sports like California. Oregon is big on sports as well with teams like Oregon Ducks and Portland Trailblazers. Citations Portland Oregon Weather. (n.d.). Portland Neighborhood Guide. Retrieved September 5, 2022, from https://portlandneighborhood.com/portland-oregon-weather Moving to Washington State: 12 Things to Know. (n.d.). Www.apartmentlist.com. Retrieved September 5, 2022, from https://www.apartmentlist.com/renter-life/moving-towashington 5.) Humans and the environment have developed events in these places to enjoy the settings. Washington, According the article of “Moving to Washington State” mentions the putting together of art shows to demonstrate the culture and vibrant scene. As mentioned before, sports are a nice influence to the locations to bring people together. With the bordering Pacific Ocean, there is room for activities such as boating, fishing, surfing, etc. Citations Moving to Washington State: 12 Things to Know. (n.d.). Www.apartmentlist.com. Retrieved September 5, 2022, from https://www.apartmentlist.com/renter-life/moving-towashington Part II: New Global Region1.)Central America 2.) Citations Central America. (2021, June 9). FamilySearch Wiki. https://www.familysearch.org/en/wiki/Central_America 3.) This region of Central America which is just. South of my previous region is going to consist of countries such as El Salvador, Honduras, Belize, Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. This region consists more of a tropical type of weather versus sunny like California or snowy like Washington. 4.). These countries are all Spanish speaking countries. Much of the food in these countries are similar such as pupusas, but they all may have very slight differences. With foods such as beans, tortillas, corn are all common ingredients that are used in dishes. 5.)Humans and the environment have influenced the landscape and region with things such as the civil war that occurred in El Salvador. This created a violent and dangerous setting during this time. A majority of the Central American countries were involved with this including the president Ronald Regan at the time. Gang activity has caused the country to have a bad reputation and as of recent there have been more tourist ever since the country adopted the U.S dollar. It is a huge surf scene in beaches like El Tunco. Citations Central America. (2021, June 9). FamilySearch Wiki. https://www.familysearch.org/en/wiki/Central_America Part III: Similarities: Between the Western States in the United States and the countries in Central America, I believe they share similarities in activities in today’s date such as surfing. With the oceans containing hot weather and great temperatures. 2.) Differences in the two is the poverty as compared to the United States. There is a lot less opportunity in these Central American Countries which is why many of the people from these countries make an effort to migrate to the United States. 1 FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES Final Project: Speaking Notes Student Name Here GEO-200 Southern New Hampshire University FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 2 Moving to Norway Slide 1 - Moving to Norway Hello, I’m Student Name Here and thank you for joining me for today’s presentation. I’m excited to announce that in a few short weeks I will be moving to Norway, specifically the Western Norwegian Fjords area. While I know this will be a change from North American Core that I have grown to know and love, the move to Northern Europe will provide me opportunity to immerse myself in the culture, traditions and environment of Norway that I’m sure I will quickly adapt to. I wanted to take this opportunity to speak with all of you about the similarities and differences of the regions, and why this move is so important to me, both personally and professionally. Slide 2 - North American Core Region I thought it might be nice for us to start with what is familiar, and I’m sure you all recognize the areas of this map. Here we have what is known as the North American Core Region. You can see noted the cities of Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C. Did you also know that this region includes the areas as far west as St. Louis and as far north as Ottawa, Canada? In preparing for our talk today, I, personally, was surprised to learn that the only New England states included in this designated economic core region are Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The remaining states of New England are considered too economically undeveloped comparatively (Nijman, 2015). If you were to break this region down into geographic coordinates, you can see that it comprises the area from the eastern border of Massachusetts at 41.6929’, -69.9324’ west to St Louis, MO at 38.6174’, -90.1838, and north to south from Ottawa, Ontario at 45.3823’, 75.6688’ to Washington, D.C. at 38.8988, -77.0392 (Google, n.d.). As those coordinates can be FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 3 a little abstract unless you have a GPS or GIS map application on hand, more descriptively this region includes upper portions of Michigan and Wisconsin, marking the northern border of the Core region, with Iowa and Missouri as the western border, and Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia bordering the south. Areas once key to manufacturing, known as the Rust Belt, are also included: Detroit, Michigan, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, along with areas of farmland such as in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and many major metropolises: New York City, Toronto, and Philadelphia, leading the Core to be considered the economic center of North America. Slide 3 - The Lands of the North American Core So, our next couple of slides are going to be taking us through a few of the North American Core’s more notable features. I thought it would be helpful to remind us all why we love this area so much, both the lands and the people. Who knows, maybe by the end of this presentation I’ll have changed my mind and decide to stay! Wouldn’t you all love that? Okay, so, let’s take a closer look on some of the Core regions awesome physical features and topography. To begin with, our wonderful temperate climate. Hot, humid summers, and cold, snowy winters. Well, we all know how much I enjoy a good cold winter, so it shouldn’t surprise you I’m moving even further north to Norway. And just as I am here in Massachusetts, the move to the Norwegian Fjords will have me right on the coastline. I’d say one of the biggest climate differences is here, in Pennsylvania the Blue Ridge Mountains have a temperate rainforest (Gannon, 1998), won’t be finding one of those in Norway. But as I’m not a huge fan of rainy, wet forests I don’t think the loss will be greatly felt. Here in the North American Core, as you all are well aware, we do have quite the range in terrain. Coasts and waterways, mountains and valleys all make up the region’s topography. The waterways of this region, such as the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers and Lake Erie, are of particular FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 4 importance, as prior to reliable car travel, these features provided the means for economic development in the area (United States Geological Survey Water Resources, n.d.). This terrain and climate though does relate to our most significant natural hazards: weather extremes, climate change and fault lines. Thankfully the Eastern Fault line is currently quite inactive and little cause for concern (United States Geological Survey, Fault Lines, n.d.). I will be able to sleep easy once I’m off in Europe knowing that the chance I’ll hear you all succumbed to an earthquake is quite low. I already know you folks can all successfully weather even the harshest nor’easter. Slide 4 - Its People And now, to the wonderful people of the North American Core. I shall indeed miss you all. We really do have quite the interesting mix of folks in the region. As with all of the USA, we of course officially communicate in American English, but you can hear a wide range of languages and dialects spoken depending on where you live or are visiting. Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, German and even Dutch. I have to say, I’ve always enjoy sitting on public transit and just listening to the diversity of languages spoken in our region. Despite the range of languages though, sadly this region is well known for its continued racial segregation, especially in certain cities. Boston, MA and Detroit, MI to name a two. In Boston, a recent report said over 60% of Black and Hispanic residents would need to move in order to diversify the city (Tucker, 2019). In terms of religion, those of practicing faiths in the region subscribe, primarily, to a number of Christian denominations: Roman Catholic, Lutheran and Protestant being the top three (Pew Research Center, n.d.). Though you will find people practicing Judaism, Islam and Buddhism throughout. FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 5 Much of the region’s culture continues to have strong historical ties. This region does contain a number of the original colonies after all. I think looking to Pennsylvania to check out the diversity of cultures in this area is helpful. In Pennsylvania alone, we have a more bluecollar economy and culture in the Western third with history of Pittsburgh, for example, built on the steel mills. As you move east through the state you come to the rural, agriculture and raw materials economies and the cultural ties to hard work, the mines, and Amish cultural traditions of rejecting technology, and strong community. Today, sadly, the areas tied to a raw material economy in this region suffer from severe poverty, limited educational resources, and poor medical care. Then we move the state capital of Philadelphia, rich in history, culture, arts, and politics (Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance, 2004). These three distinct types of culture, economic dependence, and history pervade through the North American Core region. Speaking a bit more to the economy of the region, as mentioned raw materials have long played a role including agriculture and fossil fuels such as coal. But another key economic area has been the role of water ways in maritime trade. Without the coastal regions, and development of interior waterways and canals to effectively move people, goods and ideas, this entire region may never have developed to the level it is currently. These waterways are why this region is the most densely populated region in North America. For example, New York City houses over 27,000 people per square mile (Department of City Planning, 2015). While, overall this region contains more people than other similar sized areas of North America, it is not without more sparsely populated spaces or population decrease even in urban spaces. Detroit being a prime example. The city was just a few short decades ago the 5th most populous city in the USA, it is now only the 18th (Owens & Rossi-Hansberg, 2019). The economic downturn with the outsourcing of jobs in the auto industry is primarily to blame for Detroit’s struggles. In general, FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 6 rural areas throughout the region are, of course, more sparsely populated than urban environments. Slide 5 - Human – Environmental Impacts Of course, the North American Core isn’t all rainbows and roses. We have to keep this real after all. Being the most densely populated area of North America and one of the most developed isn’t without its down sides. So, now we get to talk about a few more depressing points: human – environmental impacts. Yes, we humans have for sure contributed to a number of significant changes to the landscape. Let’s begin with those very important waterways and coastlines. As I mentioned in the last slide, the coasts and interior rivers and great lakes of this region were key to its development and eventually becoming an economic force in North America. Without the rivers, lakes and ports, people and goods would not have so readily been able to move throughout the region. Of course, we humans are always wanting the mold the environment to make our lives easier, and improve our financial prospects, so it should surprise no one we humans have had significant impact on the water ecologies of the area. Let’s take a moment to consider the engineering feat that is the Erie Canal. The Erie Canal was a crucial feature to improving transit in the region, and increasing access (and population) of areas such as Michigan. Unfortunately, with increased use of the Hudson River, the canals locks and required dams, the ecosystem of the river was also changed. The canal makes for easier introduction of non-native invasive species, like zebra mussels and round gobies, to the region, which out compete native flora and fauna, causing the delicate ecosystems of the watershed to shift out of balance (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013). The Hudson Bay also experienced negative changes due to human impacts. In New York City, the once fertile oyster beds that filtered the Hudson Bay contributing significantly to the FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 7 health of the ecosystem, were destroyed both for food and because of the shipping industry. Now, initiatives, such as the Billion Oyster Project, are attempting to repopulate oysters to restore cleanliness and health to the area (Janis, et al., 2016). Thankfully, we humans can do so much to positively impact the environment when we put our minds to it! Pennsylvania is rich in coal, resulting in changes to the topography from coal strip mining, and damage to the areas watersheds from coal-mine drainage. Essentially removing mountain tops to gain access to coal deposits, strip mining is incredibly devastating to the ecology of the region. Not only do the risks of landslides increase, but freshwater streams are often destroyed or buried, forests are razed and burned releasing their stored carbon dioxide into the atmosphere contributing further to global warming, and entire ecosystems disappear (United States Census Bureau, 2019). Finally, another significant human influence on the Core region are the number of population dense cities in the region. With tens of thousands of people per square mile in each of these cities, the landscape must be changed to support sanitation, housing, transportation, and employment. In Boston, what was once a small peninsula with numerous bays and waterways, was systematically filled in to create made land for homes, business and other infrastructure. The topography of the city of Boston today would be unrecognizable to someone familiar with the land 200 years ago. Slide 6 - Northern Europe Region Now that we have covered the wonderful place I have called home for the past three and a half decades, you all get to learn a few fascinating details about where I’m moving to – Northern Europe! Aren’t you excited?! I know I am! As we did with the North American Core region, we’re going to go through a few slides all about Northern Europe; the who, what and where’s of FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 8 the land. Northern Europe is made up of the countries of Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The majority of the region is bordered by bodies of water: the Norwegian, Baltic and North Seas. Only Denmark, bordered in the south by Germany, and Finland, bordered to the east by Russia, have land-based boundaries outside the region (Nijman, 2015). The island of Iceland is completely surrounded by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, and is over 1400km from Norway, and the rest of the region. Ranging from 71’ N to 54.59’N latitude this region is known as the Nordic part of Europe, and portions of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Iceland are in the arctic circle (The World Factbook, 2018). While much of this region has few people, the areas of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark closest to western European core countries, are more densely populated and included in the European core as well. Denmark, Sweden and Finland are a part of the European Union, and the countries of Northern Europe provide much by way of primary, secondary and tertiary economies to surrounding regions. Slide 7 - The Lands of Northern Europe Much of Northern Europe is an isolated, remote region. The most northern reaches of the region, being near or part of the arctic, bring a frigid, often inhospitable climate, of ice, snow, and long winters. Areas of Norway though, where not to worry I will be living, experience more of a maritime climate with mild winters, cool summers, and plentiful precipitation (World Factbook, 2018). Other portions of the region find their climate influenced by the many mountain ranges found throughout, with colder winters, less precipitation, and warmer summers. A physiography of mountains, fjords, glaciers, and valleys make up the primary topography of Northern Europe. Iceland experiences the most natural hazards of all the countries of the region with seismic activity causing volcanoes and earthquakes. Some of these events, cause minor earthquakes in Norway across the water from Iceland, and tsunamis (Nadim, et al., 2008). FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 9 Remaining countries of the region have few natural hazards, primarily those related to mountainous terrain: landslides, avalanche, and floods. Slide 8 - Its People One of the things I am most looking forward about this move is getting to meet the people of Northern Europe. This region has a number of interesting characteristics with respect to cultural norms and languages. Nordic Europeans speak a variety of Germanic languages: Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic (World Factbook, 2018). Many of these languages are linguistically similar, to the degree that if you can speak, for example, Dutch, you can likely also communicate reasonably well with those who speak Norwegian and Swedish. In Norway, the indigenous language of Saami has also been listed as an official language of the country. I have been diligently studying my Norwegian language books and am already signed up for my first NSL class, I think it’s great the idea that if I can learn some Norwegian I might also understand some Dutch or Swedish too! The Finnish language differs in language family from the Germanic languages, so the country of Finland has two national languages: Finnish and Swedish, and many other indigenous languages can be found throughout the country. Within the Northern European region, many language dialects are accepted, and this has led to an important cultural feature where all dialects are considered equally valid, and any written word can be pronounced a myriad of ways. Another important cultural feature of the region is the Viking and Norse heritage (Nijman, 2015). Norse mythology, language, literature is still a part of Northern European culture. With my own familial Scandinavian heritage, I am looking forward to visiting historical sites and learning more about my Norse ancestry. Being a region of peninsulas and islands, as you can imagine, there is a strong maritime culture with tightly knit small fishing villages. Because of FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 10 the dependence on the natural world, and the beauty of the glaciers and fjords, the region also values the environment and the people work to preserve and protect it. Nearly all Northern Europeans are Evangelical Lutheran Christians, a religion that has had a large influence on the culture, encouraging a strong community approach to life (World Factbook, 2018). The population of the region is rather small, about 26 million people (World Factbook, 2018), with the majority of people being in the southern portions of region, and the northern areas being very sparsely populated. While the terrain and climates are challenging, this region as shown an incredibly robust economy. Exporting both primary and secondary commodities such as fish, timber, automobiles, electronics, glassware, and furniture (World Factbook, 2018) have made the countries of this region economically prosperous, leading to their inclusion as core economic regions in Europe. Slide 9 - Humans and The Environment Just as with the North American Core region we’ve already discussed, humans have had a significant environmental impact on the Nordic region. Much of the region is incredibly sensitive from an ecological standpoint, and, dating from the time of the Vikings, people have been modifying the landscape. In Iceland, for example, settlers brought flora and fauna to the island from mainland Europe. Domesticated livestock all but destroyed Iceland’s grasslands, and the island also experienced mass deforestation, soil erosion, and loss of wildlife (Harris, 2007). Commercial fishing has impacted the diversity and number of native fish populations in many of Sweden’s major lakes. Invasive species and overfishing have caused negative repercussions for wildlife in the region (Degerman, et al., 2001). Throughout the region, both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and habitats continue to experience changes due to human activities. The FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 11 timber industry plays a large part in the environmental risks to the region with land clearing causing loss of habitat, erosion and eutrophication (World Factbook, 2018). Slide 10 - Similarities and Differences As you can see here, the regions do have The North American Core region and the Northern European region do have a few notable similarities. Areas of Northern Europe, particularly those close to Eastern Europe, are considered part of the European economic core due to their development of secondary and tertiary economic resources. This aligns with the reason the areas included in the North American Core are considered the core of economic development in the North American continent. Other parts of Northern Europe, similar to areas of the North American core, provide raw materials for development and export. Both regions include areas of agriculture, timber, fishing, and fossil fuel resources. Though there are many cultural differences, these two regions are primarily white racially and the majority of the inhabitants who ascribe to a religious belief are of a Christian faith. Another interesting similarity is how both regions have areas that are population dense and areas that are more sparsely inhabited, both exhibit range of urban and rural development throughout. For both, human impacts have changed the regions’ landscape. In Iceland, human introduction of invasive species has triggered significant environmental changes, and in the North American Core humans are changing the mountainous landscape through coal and natural gas mining, for example. Finally, both regions have historically developed due to their positions relative to water. In Northern Europe, marine trade routes have been critical to the region’s development, and in the North American core, marine ports, and freshwater rivers and bodies of water were essential to its development and transfer of goods, people and ideas. FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 12 Culturally there are a number of distinct differences between the North American Core and Northern Europe regions. Northern Europe is largely culturally homogeneous. The majority of its inhabitants practice the same Evangelical Lutheran Christian religion, speak languages that while different allow for communication with those who speak other, similar, languages of the region, and have strong ties to their Viking and Norse heritage. In contrast, the North American Core is significantly more diverse. There are a wider range of religious practices, including Judaism, Islam, Catholicism, and Evangelical Lutheranism, and while the national language is English, there are distinct areas where other languages from around the globe are spoken, that can increase communication challenges. Economically, the North American Core has developed due to a wider range of resources, than the Northern European region. In the North American Core, more of the region’s landmass has been developed or changed from human influence. There is more widespread urban development, agriculture, mining, and factories than in Northern Europe. A major contrast is also the sheer difference in population densities between the two regions. The North American Core is one of the most densely populated areas in the US, while the Northern Europe Region is comprised of some of the least densely populated countries in Europe, with Iceland being the least densely populated area of the entire European continent (World Atlas, n.d.) Slide 11 - West Norwegian Fjords At this point I’ve hopefully piqued your curiosity as to where exactly I’m going in the Northern Europe region. I think it should surprise no one, based on my long-standing interest in Norway’s landscapes, that I’m headed to the West Norwegian Fjords area, specifically the UNESCO world heritage sites of Geirangerfjord and Naeroyfjord on Norway’s north-western coast. Found at FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 13 62.1167’ N and 12.1194’ E, these two fjords are north-east of the city of Bergen, Norway, and about 120km apart from each other (Centre, n.d.) Slide 12 - Significance to the Northern Europe Region Designated a world heritage site in 2005, Geirangerfjord and Naeroyfjord are two of the world’s most pristine fjords that represent an archetypical fjord structure. With their classical fjord shape of deep, steep rock walls that dive over 500 meters below the Norweigian sea and tower 1400 meters above, the Geirangerfjord and Naeroyfjord support diverse ecosystems of both marine and terrestrial life in their forests, glacial lakes, waterfalls, and mountains (Centre, n.d.). Due to their outstanding beauty, size, environmental and historical cultural value, the West Norwegian Fjords provide the region additional economic benefit by way of ecotourism. Slide 13 - Global Significance Beyond their sheer awesome beauty, Norwegian fjords, including the Geirangerfjord and Naeroyfjord, also provide an important role in reducing the impact of anthropogenic climate change. In 2015, researcher Richard Smith documented that in Northern European fjords the concentration of sedimental carbon is twice that of the ocean’s average. Serving as a massive carbon sink, the West Norwegian Fjords, absorb approximately 18 million tons of carbon in their deep chasms from surrounding glacial streams and rivers each year, benefiting not only the Northern European region but the entire planet. Slide 14 - Interactions Regionally and Abroad The natural landscapes of fjords draw visitors from around the globe to Norway. The Western Fjords, in particular, as there are the world heritage sites at Geirangerfjord and Naeroyfjord, draw cruise ships, tourists and outdoor enthusiasts. These two fjords are considered archetypical fjords with their steep, deep walls, sheer size, and lack of industrial development, FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 14 like the hydroelectric power plants of other are fjords, therefore they draw tens of thousands of visitors per year (Manzo, 2018). The travel industry plays a positive role in the Northern European’s economy overall but is not without determent to the ecosystems that attract attention. Cruise ships cause damage to the waters of the fjords, the sheer number of people hiking through the landscape damages flora and fauna, and historically significant villages and cultural landscapes are impacted by foreigners intruding on citizen’s way of life (Edger, Sandvik & Iversen, 2015). Scandinavian countries, including Norway, have become leaders in the field of sustainable tourism in recent years (Kurilova & Gareev, 2018), as the local communities attempt to balance the economic benefits of tourism in the Wester Fjords region, with the preservation needs of the region’s fragile ecosystems. Slide 15 - The Move to Norway With new regulations in place that will require all cruise ships in the world heritage sites of Geirangerfjord and Naeroyfjord to be emissions free by 2026 (Hermundsard, 2019), I will be relocating to the West Norwegian Fjords region to work as a consultant for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority assessing water quality of the glacial streams and marine waters of the fjords. With the need to keep the positive economic benefits of the cruise industry in the West Norwegian Fjords region, while also minimizing the negative environmental impacts so that these pristine areas can maintain their natural beauty and significance for generations to come, the Norwegian government has regulated that by 2026 all cruise ships entering the Geirangerfjord and Naeroyfjord must be emissions free in an effort to reduce the degree of water pollution in the fjords (Simonsen, Gossling & Walnum, 2019). As a field consultant for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority, I will be tasked with measuring water quality in the fjords and documenting findings (The Norwegian Government, n.d.) that will contribute to the FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 15 enforcement of new emissions free cruise ship regulations in the region. Drawing me this world heritage site is the desire to aid in the preservation of such awe-inspiring natural wonders, and to do my part in reducing the negative impacts of human activities on the environment. Emissions free cruise lines will strike a positive balance between preserving the natural resource and building continued awareness for its need for protection for visitors and the tourism industry as a whole. Slide 16 - Conclusion I am really looking forward to my new position with the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the opportunity to be a part of ensuring the natural beauty of the fjords are preserved, and enjoyed, for many futures to come. In addition to the new job, which I anticipate will bring many new experiences and challenges, I am also looking forward to exploring the fjords themselves, the surrounding towns and villages, and meeting many new people. The weather shouldn’t be too different than the climate I’m used to here in Massachusetts, but I will of course be packing my warm winter gear and asking the locals for advice on how to best approach the maritime climate of the coast. I think the largest obstacle I’ll be facing is learning the Norwegian language. Most of you know languages are not much my forte and are probably shaking your heads at the idea of my attempting to learn a Germanic tongue. Well, thankfully at least for the first few months, I will have access to an interpreter, and I’ve been assured that many of my co-workers speak some degree of English so I won’t be completely without means to communicate as a study and practice in the language courses I’ll be taking. Overall though what I’ll enjoy most about my time in Norway is the culture of environmental conservation and knowing that the country as a unit takes such seriously and is working towards ensuring a FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 16 sustainable future for its citizens. I want to thank all of you for your positive support, and well wishes on my move to the far-off lands of Norway. Slides 17 thru 21 - References Centre, U. N. E. S. C. O. W. H. (n.d.). West Norwegian Fjords – Geirangerfjord and Nærøyfjord. Retrieved from https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1195/ Department of City Planning (2015). Population – New York City Population. Retrieved from: https://www1.nyc.gov/site/planning/planning-level/nyc-population/population-facts.page Degerman, E., Hammar, J., Nyberg, P., & Svärdson, G. (2001, December). Human impact on the fish diversity in the four largest lakes of Sweden. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11878026 Enger, A., Sandvik, K., & Iversen, E. K. (2015). Developing scenarios for the Norwegian travel industry 2025. Journal of Tourism Futures, 1(1), 6–18. doi: 10.1108/jtf-12-2014-0018 Gannon, Robert (1998). In a Pennsylvania Rainforest. Penn State News. Retrieved from: https://news.psu.edu/story/141546/1998/05/01/research/pennsylvania-rainforest Google (n.d.). Map of North American Core Region. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/maps Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance (2014). 2014 Portfolio. Retrieved from: https://www.philaculture.org/sites/default/files/2014_portfolio_spreads_0.pdf Harris, Richard (December 2007). Viking Farms Tell Cautionary Climate Tale. National Public Radio. Retrieved from: https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16835101 Hermundsard, H. (2019, February 25). Norway challenges the cruise industry to operate emission free - DNV GL. Retrieved from https://www.dnvgl.com/expert-story/maritimeimpact/Norway-challenges-the-cruise-industry-to-operate-emission-free.html FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 17 Janis, Samuel P., Birney, Lauren B., Newton, Robert (2016). Billion Oyster Project: Linking Public School Teaching and learning to the Biological Restoration of New York Harbor Using Innovative Applications of Environmental and Digital Technologies. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications, v10:1 pp. 1-14. Kurilova, Elena V., Gareev, Roman R. (2018). Innovative Development Models of the Hospitality and Tourism Sphere in Scandinavian Countries in Conditions of New Economy. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, v.240. pp: 792-796. Manzo, G. G. (2018). Economic Impact 2018 Norway. World Travel and Tourism Council. Retrieved from: https://www.nhoreiseliv.no/contentassets/c5f3c5015f7840e1bb0184f88b5a3be3/turismen s-betydning-for-norge.pdf Nadim, Farrokh, Pederson, Stig A. S., Schmidt-Thome, Philipp, Sigmundsson, Freysteinn, Engdahl, Mats (2008). Natural Hazards in Nordic Countries. Episodes, v.31:1, pp: 176184. Nijman, Jan, et al. (2015). World Today: Concepts and Regions in Geography. Wiley. Owens III, Raymond and Rossi-Hansberg, Estaban (2019). Rethinking Detroit. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~erossi/RD_App.pdf Pew Research Center (n.d.) Religious Landscape Study. Retrieved from: https://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/ Simonsen, M., Gössling, S., & Walnum, H. J. (2019). Cruise ship emissions in Norwegian waters: A geographical analysis. Journal of Transport Geography, 78, 87–97. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.05.014 FINAL PROJECT: SPEAKING NOTES 18 Smith, R. W., Bianchi, T. S., Allison, M., Savage, C., & Galy, V. (2015). High rates of organic carbon burial in fjord sediments globally. Nature Geoscience, 8(6), 450–453. doi: 10.1038/ngeo2421 The Norwegian Government – and government agencies. Retrieved from: http://folk.uio.no/kristori/prosus/susnordic/norway/national_authorities/government/index .html Tucker, Riley (2019). Examining Racial Segregation in Boston at Different Geographic Scales. Boston Area Research Initiative. Retrieved from: https://www.northeastern.edu/csshresearch/bostonarearesearchinitiative/2019/02/08/exam ining-racial-segregation-in-boston-at-different-geographic-scales/ United States Census Bureau (2019). Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/en.html United States Geological Survey (n.d.). Water Resources. Retrieved from: https://www.usgs.gov/mission-areas/water-resources United States Geological Survey (n.d.). Where are the fault lines in the Eastern United States (east of the rocky mountains)? Retrieved from: https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/where-arefault-lines-eastern-united-states-east-rocky-mountains?qt-news_science_products=0#qtnews_science_products US Fish and Wildlife Service (2003). The Erie Canal and Introduced Species. Retrieved from: https://www.fws.gov/midwest/fisheries/library/fact-eriecanintro.pdf World Atlas (n.d.). European Countries by Population Density. Retrieved from: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/european-countries-by-population-density.html (2018, February 1). The World Factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/ GEO 200 Milestone One Worksheet Guidelines and Rubric Student Name Here Part I: Current Global Region 1. Identify Your Current Region: Core of North America 2. Map of Current Global Region: Provide a map of your current region. In the box below you may provide a link to your map, insert an image, or make note that you are submitting an additional file with this worksheet. Include a citation to give credit to the resource from which you are obtaining your image. Note: The box will expand to accommodate your image. 1 2 3. Location of Current Global Region: Discuss where your current region is located, addressing the absolute and relative location of the region. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. The North American Core region comprises the area from the eastern border of Massachusetts at 41.6929’, -69.9324’ west to St Louis, MO at 38.6174’, -90.1838, and north to south from Ottawa, Ontario at 45.3823’, -75.6688’ to Washington, D.C. at 38.8988, -77.0392 (Google, n.d.). While this area includes Boston, MA and Ottawa, Ontario, it excludes the New England states of New Hampshire, Vermont and Maine, due to their lack of economic development compared to other areas included in the core region (Nijman, 2015). The upper portions of Michigan and Wisconsin mark the northern border of the Core region, with Iowa and Missouri as the western border, and Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia bordering the south. This region includes areas once key to manufacturing, known as the Rust Belt, including Detroit, Michigan, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, areas of farmland such as in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and many major metropolises, including: New York City, Toronto, and Philadelphia, leading the Core to be considered the economic center of North America. Nijman, Jan, et al. (2015). World Today: Concepts and Regions in Geography. Wiley. Google (n.d.). Map of North American Core Region. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/maps 4. Characteristics of Current Global Region: Explain what key sociocultural (human) and physical characteristics define this as a region. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. Running a few degrees north and south of 40’ latitude, areas of the Core region are primarily represented by a climate of hot, humid summers, and cold, harsh winters. While areas of the Atlantic coast from Washington, D.C. up to Boston, MA, experience more pleasant summers due to coastal breezes, the Blue Ridge portion of the Appalachian Mountains running through Pennsylvania is a temperate rainforest, causing that area of the Core Region to experience near constant summer rainfall (Gannon, 1998). Due to climate change, the Core has experienced increasing severe weather events. Coastal areas are now coping with rising sea water levels, frequent flooding, and more intense hurricanes. Western areas, of this region, are reporting higher rates of tornado activity, higher summer rainfalls, leading to soil erosion and flooding, and drier winters. These weather events comprise the majority of natural hazards in the region. The East Coast Fault line does run through this region, but, generally, causes little cause for concern due to its long history of minor events, or inactivity (USGS, Fault Lines, n.d.). The Core benefits greatly from its landscape of rivers, such as the Ohio River and Allegheny River, and large bodies of water, such as Lake Erie, that are included in, or border, it (USGS, Water Resources, n.d.). Prior to the advent of highways, or car travel, these water ways gave the Core region means for its economic advancement. With rivers to efficiently transport goods, and raw materials, across the country, and seaports to then ship goods internationally, water was a key means for the development of the Core as a notable region of North America. The North American core region, due to its history as a region of ports, travel, and commerce is one with a range of people, languages and cultures. For example, while the official language of the entire region is English, you can still, today, find areas where Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, German, and a Dutch are all spoken. The region is culturally diverse as well. In Pennsylvania, for example, you have in that one state the blue collar city of Pittsburgh with its history of steel mills, in the central more rural portion of the state you have a strong Amish culture with agriculture, rejection of technology, and can find horse and buggy travel competing with car traffic, and in the eastern part of the state you have urban 3 Philadelphia a city rich in history at the time of the revolution and a modern urban cultural center of arts, music and of course politics (Greater Philadelphia…2014). The range of urban, historic, agriculture and blue and white collar cultures found in Pennsylvania are a good representation of the range of cultural influences found throughout the Core region. While the region is predominantly Christian in religious practice, with Lutheran, Catholic, Protestant represented, you can find a range of non-Christian religious affiliations such as Judaism, Islam and Buddhism (Pew Research…n.d.) Racially, the region is white, and has a number of racially segregated cities including Boston and Detroit. Boston today is still considered one of the most racially segregated cities of the region with distinct areas of people of African American, Italians, Asian, and Middle American descent (Tucker, 2019). As this region includes both urban, agricultural and mechanical areas, it is one of the most densely populated regions of North America. In New York City, the most densely populated city in the US, there are 27,000 people per square mile (Dept. City Planning, 2015). Comparatively though, Detroit is one of the regions least populated cities and one that has seen a sharp drop in population density in the past 70 years, moving from the country’s 5th most densely populated city down to 18th (Owens, Rossi-Hansberg, 2019). The region has seen similar increasing disparities when it comes to economic development as well. In areas that historically have built economies on secondary and tertiary goods as opposed to raw or primary materials, such as Boston, New York City, and Washington, D.C., continue to experience positive economic development and influx of goods, ideas and people. Unfortunately for areas in the region that depended on raw goods such as the steel refineries, coal mines, and factory economies, their cities and people have suffered losses. Detroit, with its dependence on the automobile industry has seen such a downturn when the factories outsourced to cheaper labor in other counties and people were suddenly unemployed when the factories closed (Owens, Rossi-Hansberg, 2019). Those areas today continue to struggle economically in the core region and suffer the continued loss of people, goods and ideas. Department of City Planning (2015). Population – New York City Population. Retrieved from: https://www1.nyc.gov/site/planning/planninglevel/nyc-population/population-facts.page Gannon, Robert (1998). In a Pennsylvania Rainforest. Penn State News. Retrieved from: https://news.psu.edu/story/141546/1998/05/01/research/pennsylvania-rainforest Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance (2014). 2014 Portfolio. Retrieved from: https://www.philaculture.org/sites/default/files/2014_portfolio_spreads_0.pdf Owens III, Raymond and Rossi-Hansberg, Estaban (2019). Rethinking Detroit. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~erossi/RD_App.pdf Pew Research Center (n.d.) Religious Landscape Study. Retrieved from: https://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/ Tucker, Riley (2019). Examining Racial Segregation in Boston at Different Geographic Scales. Boston Area Research Initiative. Retrieved from: https://www.northeastern.edu/csshresearch/bostonarearesearchinitiative/2019/02/08/examining-racial-segregation-in-boston-at-different-geographicscales/ 4 United States Geological Survey (n.d.). Water Resources. Retrieved from: https://www.usgs.gov/mission-areas/water-resources United States Geological Survey (n.d.). Where are the fault lines in the Eastern United States (east of the rocky mountains)? Retrieved from: https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/where-are-fault-lines-eastern-united-states-east-rocky-mountains?qt-news_science_products=0#qt-news_science_products 5. Interactions of Current Global Region: How have humans and the environment interacted to produce observable landscapes in your current region? Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. The Core region’s landscape has been notably influenced by human development and infrastructure. Pennsylvania is rich in coal, resulting in changes to the topography from coal strip mining, and damage to the areas watersheds from coal-mine drainage. Essentially removing mountain tops to gain access to coal deposits, strip mining is incredibly devastating to the ecology of the region. Not only do the risks of landslides increase, but freshwater streams are often destroyed or buried, forests are razed and burned releasing their stored carbon dioxide into the atmosphere contributing further to global warming, and entire ecosystems disappear (US Census…2019). The Erie Canal that runs along the Hudson River of New York, also distinctly changed the landscape. By facilitating the westward migration of both goods and people, the Erie Canal led to increased populations in Michigan, and beyond. With increased use of the Hudson River, the canals locks and required dams, the ecosystem of the river was also changed. The canal makes for easier introduction of non-native invasive species, like zebra mussels and round gobies, to the region, which out compete native flora and fauna, causing the delicate ecosystems of the watershed to shift out of balance (Erie Canal…2013). Finally, another significant human influence on the Core region are the number of population dense cities in the region. With tens of thousands of people per square mile in each of these cities, the landscape must be changed to support sanitation, housing, transportation, and employment. In New York City, the once fertile oyster beds that filtered the Hudson Bay contributing significantly to the health of the ecosystem, were destroyed both for food and because of the shipping industry. Now, initiatives, such as the Billion Oyster Project, are attempting to repopulate oysters to restore cleanliness and health to the area (Janis, Birney…2016). In Boston, what was once a small peninsula with numerous bays and waterways, was systematically filled in to create made land for homes, business and other infrastructure. The topography of the city of Boston today would be unrecognizable to someone familiar with the land 200 years ago. Janis, Samuel P., Birney, Lauren B., Newton, Robert (2016). Billion Oyster Project: Linking Public School Teaching and learning to the Biological Restoration of New York Harbor Using Innovative Applications of Environmental and Digital Technologies. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications, v10:1 pp. 1-14. The Erie Canal and Introduced Species (2003). US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved from: https://www.fws.gov/midwest/fisheries/library/facteriecanintro.pdf United States Census Bureau (2019). Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/en.html 5 Part II: New Global Region 1. Identify Your New Global Region: Northern (Nordic) Europe 2. Map of New Global Region: Provide a map of the new region you will be moving to. In the box below, you may provide a link to your map, insert an image, or make note that you are submitting an additional file with this worksheet. Include a citation to give credit to the resource from which you are obtaining your image. Note: The box will expand to accommodate your image. 6 7 3. Location of New Global Region: Discuss where the new region is located, addressing the absolute and relative location of the region you will be moving to. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. Northern Europe contains the countries of: Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland. The majority of the region is bordered by bodies of water: the Norwegian, Baltic and North Seas. Only Denmark, bordered in the south by Germany, and Finland, bordered to the east by Russia, have land-based boundaries outside the region (Nijman, 2015). The island of Iceland is completely surrounded by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, and is over 1400 km from Norway, and the rest of the region. Ranging from 71’ N to 54.59’N latitude this region is known as the Nordic part of Europe, and portions of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Iceland are in the arctic circle (World Factbook, 2018). While much of this region has few people, the areas of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark closest to western European core countries, are more densely populated and included in the European core as well. Denmark, Sweden and Finland are a part of the European Union, and the countries Northern Europe provide much by way of primary, secondary and tertiary economies to surrounding regions. (2018, February 1). The World Factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/ Google (n.d.). Map of Northern (Nordic) Europe Region. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/maps Nijman, Jan, et al. (2015). World Today: Concepts and Regions in Geography. Wiley. 4. Characteristics of New Global Region: Explain what key sociocultural (human) and physical characteristics define this as a region. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. Much of Northern Europe is an isolated, remote region. The most northern reaches of the region, being near or part of the arctic, bring a frigid, often inhospitable climate, of ice, snow, and long winters. Areas of Norway though, for example, experience more of a maritime climate with mild winters, cool summers, and plentiful precipitation (World Factbook, 2018). Other portions of the region find their climate influenced by the many mountain ranges found throughout, with colder winters, less precipitation, and warmer summers. A physiography of mountains, fjords, glaciers, and valleys make up the primary topography of Northern Europe. Iceland experiences the most natural hazards of all the countries of the region with seismic activity causing volcanoes and earthquakes. Some of these events, cause minor earthquakes in Norway across the water from Iceland, and tsunamis (Nadim, Pederson..2008). Remaining countries of the region have few natural hazards, primarily those related to mountainous terrain: landslides, avalanche, and floods. Nordic Europeans speak a variety of Germanic languages: Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic (World Factbook, 2018). Many of these languages are linguistically similar, to the degree that if you can speak, for example, Dutch, you can likely also communicate reasonably well with those who speak Norwegian and Swedish. In Norway, the indigenous language of Saami has also been listed as an official language of the country. The Finnish language differs in language family from the Germanic languages, so the country of Finland has two national languages: Finnish and Swedish, and many other indigenous languages can be found throughout the country. Within the Northern European region, many language dialects are accepted, and this has led to an important cultural feature where all dialects are considered equally valid, and any written word can be pronounced a myriad of ways. Another important cultural feature of the region is the Viking and Norse heritage (Nijman, 2015). Norse mythology, language, literature is still a part of Northern European culture. Nearly all Northern Europeans are Evangelical Lutheran Christians, a religion that has had a 8 large influence on the culture, encouraging a strong community approach to life (World Factbook, 2018). The population of the region is rather small, about 26 million people (World Factbook, 2018), with the majority of people being in the southern portions of region, and the northern areas being very sparsely populated. While the terrain and climates are challenging, this region as shown an incredibly robust economy. Exporting both primary and secondary commodities such as fish, timber, automobiles, electronics, glassware, and furniture (World Factbook, 2018) have made the countries of this region economically prosperous, leading to their inclusion as core economic regions in Europe. (2018, February 1). The World Factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/ Nadim, Farrokh, Pederson, Stig A. S., Schmidt-Thome, Philipp, Sigmundsson, Freysteinn, Engdahl, Mats (2008). Natural Hazards in Nordic Countries. Episodes, v.31:1, pp: 176-184. Nijman, Jan, et al. (2015). World Today: Concepts and Regions in Geography. Wiley. 5. Interactions of New Global Region: How have humans and the environment interacted to produce observable landscapes in the new region you will be moving to? Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. Humans have had a large environmental impact on the Nordic region. Much of the region is incredibly sensitive from an ecological standpoint, and, dating from the time of the Vikings, people have been modifying the landscape. In Iceland, for example, settlers brought flora and fauna to the island from mainland Europe. Domesticated livestock all but destroyed Iceland’s grasslands, and the island also experienced mass deforestation, soil erosion, and loss of wildlife (Harris, 2007). Commercial fishing has impacted the diversity and number of native fish populations in many of Sweden’s major lakes. Invasive species and overfishing have caused negative repercussions for wildlife in the region (Degerman, Hammar…2001). Throughout the region, both land based and marine ecosystems and habitats continue to experience changes and assault due to human activities. The timber industry plays a large part in the environmental risks to the region with land clearing causing loss of habitat, erosion and eutrophication (World Factbook, 2018). (2018, February 1). The World Factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/ Degerman, E., Hammar, J., Nyberg, P., & Svärdson, G. (2001, December). Human impact on the fish diversity in the four largest lakes of Sweden. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11878026 Harris, Richard (December 2007). Viking Farms Tell Cautionary Climate Tale. National Public Radio. Retrieved from: https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16835101 9 Part III: Comparison of Similarities and Differences 1. Similarities: Based on the physical and sociocultural (human) characteristics you have described, what are the major similarities between your current and new region? The North American Core region and the Northern European region have a few notable similarities. Areas of Northern Europe, particularly those close to Eastern Europe, are considered part of the European economic core due to their development of secondary and tertiary economic resources. This aligns with the reason the areas included in the North American Core are considered the core of economic development in the North American continent. Other parts of Northern Europe, similar to areas of the North American core, provide raw materials for development and export. Both regions include areas of agriculture, timber, fishing, and fossil fuel resources. Though there are many cultural differences, these two regions are primarily white racially and the majority of the inhabitants who ascribe to a religious belief are of a Christian faith. Another interesting similarity is how both regions have areas that are population dense and areas that are more sparsely inhabited, both exhibit range of urban and rural development throughout. For both, human impacts have changed the regions landscape. In Iceland, human introduction of invasive species has triggered significant environmental changes, and in the North American Core humans are changing the mountainous landscape through coal and natural gas mining for example. Finally, both regions have historically developed due to their positions relative to water. In Northern Europe, marine trade routes have been critical to the region’s development, and in the North American core, marine ports, and freshwater rivers and bodies of water were essential to its development and transfer of goods, people and ideas. 2. Differences: Based on the physical and sociocultural (human) characteristics you have described, what are the major differences between your current and new region? Culturally there are a number of distinct differences between the North American Core and Northern Europe regions. Northern Europe is largely culturally homogeneous. The majority of its inhabitants practice the same Evangelical Lutheran Christian religion, speak languages that while different allow for communication with those who speak other, similar, languages of the region, and have strong ties to their Viking and Norse heritage. In contrast, the North American Core is significantly more diverse. There are a wider range of religious practices, including Judaism, Islam, Catholicism, and Evangelical Lutheranism, and while the national language is English, there are distinct areas where other languages from around the globe are spoken, that can increase communication challenges. Economically, the North American Core has developed due to a wider range of resources, than the Northern European region. In the North American Core, more of the region’s landmass has been developed or changed from human influence. There is more widespread urban development, agriculture, mining, and factories than in Northern Europe. A major contrast is also the sheer difference in population densities between the two regions. The North American Core is one of the most densely populated areas in the US, while the Northern Europe Region is comprised of some of the least densely populated countries in Europe, with Iceland being the least densely populated area of the entire European continent (World Atlas, n.d.) World Atlas (n.d.). European Countries by Population Density. Retrieved from: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/european-countries-bypopulation-density.html 10 GEO 200 Milestone Two Worksheet Guidelines and Rubric Overview: To complete this milestone activity, you will continue to imagine that you are relocating from your current location to a new region of the globe, but now you will narrow your focus to a particular city or area of a country within the new region that you have selected. See the Final Project Guidelines and Rubric document for detailed information about this scenario. These responses will be basis for the speaker notes that you will use while you present your final presentation. You will also submit a draft of your final project presentation slides, including resources on the last slide, in this milestone. Prompt: For this assignment, complete the following steps: A 1. Review the Milestone Two Rubric at the end of this worksheet. 2. Download this document and complete the worksheet below, addressing questions related to the location, region significance, global significance, interactions, and movement of your new city or area within your new region. 3. For your draft of the final project presentation slides, you should include a slide (or slides) that address each element of the final project presentation requirements and include a draft transcript of your speaker notes. It is important that your presentation and speaker notes are organized in such a manner that between the two, it is clear to your instructor that you have sufficiently covered each element required for the final project. Your last presentation slide should be a reference list of at least five sources that support your final project using current APA style guidelines. Remember that this assignment will include, in addition to the Worksheet, your draft PowerPoint (or Prezi) file, a draft Word File with the Speaker Notes that aligned with each other (notes are clearly labeled per slide in bold font). Tip: Consider copying your speaker notes into your presentation where appropriate, so that you can view the interplay between any images, bullets, or titles you are using and cue yourself to the speaker notes, which are the core of how you are graded. Do not forget to include the speaker notes you have from Milestone One, upon which you received feedback from your instructor. 4. Once you have completed the worksheet, upload your saved worksheet file along with a draft of your final project speaker notes, and presentation slides, then submit this milestone assignment. Note: Refer to your module resources and the Themes of Geography resource, as well as additional resources you identify, for information to help you answer the questions below. Remember that you will need to have at least five sources in current APA style for your citations and references list in the final project submission. Note that each question of your worksheet has you track your citations. This is so you will not need to go back and figure out where you grabbed a resource from when you submit your final slides. You will be able to use these worksheets to copy and paste your citation list into your last slide. In some instances, you may have used the same resource more than once, which is why your list may be as small as five resources. Before starting this activity, review the following documents, Milestone Two Speaker Notes Student Example, GEO 200 Milestone Two Worksheet Student Example, and Milestone Two Slides Student Example within the Student Example Folder. 1 Part I: Location In this section you will narrow your focus to a particular city or area of a country within your region and describe its location, regional significance, and global significance. 1. Identify a city or area of a country within your new region: 2. Location: Describe the absolute and relative location of your city or area within your new region. Support your description with current examples in 2 to 3 sentences. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. Optional: Include a map to illustrate your written description. Note: The box will expand to accommodate your image. 3. Regional Significance: What is the geographic significance of the area of your country or city’s location within the region? Your 2- to 3-sentence response should be based on the application of geographic concepts to your region as needed. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines. 4. Global Significance: What is the geographic significance of this area of your country or city’s location globally? You should base your input on the application of geographic concepts to your region. Write 2 to 3 sentences. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. 2 Part II: Connectivity In this section, discuss connections between your new region and other world regions, as well as connections between your new region and you personally. 1. Interactions: How does your city or area of a country within your new global region interact regionally and globally with other regions? In other words, describe how your region interacts with others, both within the country and abroad. In your response you could consider economic, cultural, and physical interactions. Your response should be based on the application of geographic concepts of your region, and should be 5 to 6 sentences in length. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. 2. Movement: What connects you personally to this new location, causing you to relocate? For instance, are there any current geopolitical, environmental, cultural, or economic events or issues that connect you to your new region? Support your statement with current global or regional examples and make sure to reference the reason you are relocating in 5 to 6 sentences. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed. Guidelines for Submission: Your detailed response to each question in the worksheet should be written in complete sentences and in your own words. (You may paraphrase information from the learning resources, but do not directly quote or copy and paste text.) Be sure to include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines. Once you have completed the worksheet, upload and submit your saved worksheet file, along with a draft of your final project presentation slides, to finish this milestone assignment. 3 4 Milestone Two Rubric Critical Elements Location Attempted With Minimal or No Functional Issues (100%) Describes the absolute and relative location of a city or area and supports description with current examples Regional Significance Explains the geographic significance of a city or area within the region Global Significance Discusses the geographic significance of a city or area’s location globally Interactions Describes how a city or area interacts with others regionally and globally Movement Explains a connection to the new location that causes the relocation Presentation Slides Submits draft of final project presentation slides that are aligned with speaker notes Articulation of Response Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization Attempted With Key Functional Issues (75%) Describes the absolute and relative location of a city or area and supports description with current examples, but description lacks detail or clarity Explains the geographic significance of a city or area within the new region, but explanation lacks detail or clarity Discusses the geographic significance of a city or area’s location globally, but discussion lacks detail or clarity Describes how a city or area interacts with others regionally and globally, but description lacks detail or clarity Explains a connection to the new location that causes the relocation, but explanation lacks detail or clarity Submits draft of final project presentation slides, but slides lack the sufficient detail or organization to illustrate alignment with speaker notes Submission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideas 5 Was Not Evident in Submission (0%) Value Does not describe the absolute and relative location of a city or area 15 Does not explain the geographic significance of a city or area within the new region Does not discuss the geographic significance of a city or area’s location globally Does not describe how a city or area interacts with others regionally and globally Does not explain a connection to the new location 15 Does not submit draft of final project presentation slides 10 Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas Total 5 15 20 20 100%
Purchase answer to see full attachment
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Explanation & Answer

View attached explanation and answer. Let me know if you have any questions.

GEO 200 Milestone Two Worksheet Guidelines and Rubric

1

Part I: Location
1. Identify a city or area of a country within
your new region:

Central America region

2. Location: Describe the absolute and relative location of your city or area within your new region. Support your description with current
examples in 2 to 3 sentences. Include citations for your resources using APA style guidelines as needed.
Optional: Include a map to illustrate your written description.
Note: The box will expand to accommodate your image.
Central America which is just. South of my previous region is going to consist of countries such as, El Salvador 13.7942° N, and a longitude of
88.8965° W., Honduras 14° 4' N, 87° 12' W, Belize, Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama (Lat.Long, 2022). This region
consists more of a tropical type of weather versus sunny like California or snowy like Washington. The Core region is bordered by upper
Michigan and Wisconsin to the Central America, Iowa and Missouri to the west, and Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia to the south.
Numerous significant cities, like Miami, Jacksonville, and Philadelphia, are situated in this region, which makes it the economic center of the
South and East. This region also encompasses once-important Rust Belt industrial centers, such as Detroit and Pittsburgh.
3. Regional Significance: What is the geographic significance of the area of your country or city’s location within the region? Your 2- to 3sentence response should be based on the application of geographic concepts to your region as needed. Include citations for your resources
using APA style guidelines.
Each of the five major U.S. regions has different characteristics. Because of its rich history, vibrant culture, and year-round nice climate, the
Central America is a popular tourist destination. The Central America is known for Disney World, the blues, and some delectable food. Join us as
we discover the Central America 's numerous hidden treasures. Central America Asia is unique in that it mixes highlands and lowlands, two quite
diverse landforms. In addition to coastal states, the Central America has hilly, mountainous, plateaux, and valley states. The Central America has
coasts on both the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. The Mississippi River is the most famous river in Central America America (the second longest
river in the area) (Lat.Long, 2022). Any element of the environment that may be harvested, cleaned, and eventually turned into items that can be
sold or used to benefit the local economy is considered a natural resource. Rice, cotton, citrus, sugar cane, tobacco, and peanuts are plentiful in
Southern states due to the region's excellent climate and long growing season. The Appalachians provide coal and other minerals to the Central
America , while the Gulf Coast supplies oil and natural gas.

2

4. Global Significance: What is the geographic significance of this area of your country or city’s location globally? You should base your input
on the application of geographic concepts to your region. Write 2 to 3 sentences. Include citations for your resources using APA style
guidelines as needed.

3

A few degrees to the Central America and south of 40 degrees latitude comprise the Core region, which is characterized by hot and humid
summers and cold and brutal winters. While the Atlantic coast from Washington, DC, to Boston, Central America enjoys more pleasant summers
due to coastal breezes, the Blue Ridge region of the Appalachians running through Pennsylvania is a temperate rainforest, therefore that region has
near-continuous summer rainfall (Gannon, 1998). Since global warming has raised average temperatures, severe weather has occurred more often
in the Core. As a direct result of the rising sea level, floods and storms are becoming more frequent and violent in coastal regions. In the west of
this region, where the average annual precipitation is also increasing, soil erosion and flooding are occurring more often during the summer
months, but they are considerably less severe in the winter. These meteorological occurrences are the leading cause of natural hazards in the region
(Lat.Long, 2022). Despite the fact that the East Coast Fault runs through the area, most residents are confident in the region's continuous lack of
risk since it has been so long since the last significant earthquake. Rivers such as the Ohio and Allegheny, as well as significant bodies of water
such as Lake Erie, which are part of or border the Core, provide a range of advantages (USGS, Water Resources, n.d.). Due to these rivers, the
Core area was able to prosper economically prior to the widespread availability of vehicles. The Core's rise to prominence as Central America was
assisted by the region's access to water infrastructure, such as rivers for the efficient transit of commodities and raw materials throughout the
country and seaports for the subsequent export of goods to global markets.
Central America is home to a fairly cosmopolitan population as a result of its long history as a shipping center. Despite the fact that English is the
most often spoken language...


Anonymous
Just the thing I needed, saved me a lot of time.

Studypool
4.7
Indeed
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4

Similar Content

Related Tags