An argument is said to be deductive if its conclusion is claimed to necessarily follow from its premises. That is, if it is claimed that since the premises are true or acceptable, the conclusion must also be true or acceptable, then the argument is deductive. We can also define deduction by saying that in a deductive argument, the logical relation between the premises and the conclusion is claimed to be 100% supporting.
Notice that as long as the supporting relation between the premises and the conclusion is claimed to be a matter of logical necessity, the argument is treated as deductive. It is up to us to scrutinize carefully whether the conclusion indeed necessarily follows from the premises. The following are examples of deductive arguments:
|Workers would lose job security if more jobs go overseas.|
|More jobs would go overseas if globalization continues.|
Inductive arguments are more modest when it comes to the inferential claim. It claims only that its conclusion probably follows from its premises. That is, the inferential claim is that since the premises are true or acceptable, the conclusion is likely to be true or acceptable. Put differently, the logical relation between the premises and the conclusion is claimed to be less than 100% supporting.
As with deduction, the inferential claim in an inductive argument should be examined to see if the premises indeed makes the conclusion more likely to be true or acceptable. Here are some examples of induction:
|The windows are broken.|
|There are footprints with mud on the floor.|
|Some jewels and electronics are missin|
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