Sustainable Consumer Behavior

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Business Finance

University of Dammam

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Module 2 & 3 Assignment-I: Topic selection & research questions (draft) (60 points) A topic of research should be chosen. It can be either a research paper or a startup concept. Once the topic is finalized, the draft research questions (based on which objectives of the study will be formed) must be developed (not more than three). Each selection must be discussed in detail with logic and rationale. Reasons for the topic should be discussed first followed by discussion on selection of each of the research questions. Answers 1 Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-1 RESEARCH FOUNDATIONS & FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1 Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-2 Learning Objectives Understand . . . How business research and data analyticscomplement each other. The language of professional researchers. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-3 Business Planning DrivesBusiness Research Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-4 Changes in Businessthat Influence Research Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-5 Computing Power and Speed Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-6 Where Business Collects Information Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-7 Types of Business Intelligence Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-8 Research vs. Analytics Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-9 Stages in the Business Research Process Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-10 The Scientific Method Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-11 Language of Research Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-12 Language of Research Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-13 Variable: The Property Studied Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-14 Types of Variables Expected to affect theindependent variable Expected to be affected bythe independent variable Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-15 Synonyms forIndependent and Dependent Variable Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-16 Types of Variables(cont.) Might affect the IV-DVrelationship. A second independentvariable; significant affect onIV-DV relationship May affect IV-DV relationshipbut can’t be observed. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-17 Relationships Among Variable Types Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-18 Moderating Variables (MV) The introduction of a four-day week(IV)will lead tohigher productivity(DV),especially among youngerworkers(MV) The switch to commission from a salary compensationsystem(IV)will lead to increased sales(DV)per worker,especially more experienced workers(MV). The loss of mining jobs(IV)leads to acceptance ofhigher-risk behaviors to earn a familysupporting income(DV)–particularly among those with a limited education(MV). Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-19 Relationships Among Variable Types Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-20 Intervening Variables (IVV) The switch to a commission compensationsystem(IV)will lead to higher sales(DV)byincreasing overall compensation(IVV). A promotion campaign(IV)will increase savingsactivity(DV),especially when free prizes areoffered(MV),but chiefly among smaller savers(EV-control).The results come from enhancingthe motivation to save(IVV). Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-21 Relationships Among Variable Types Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-22 Extraneous Variables (EV) With new customers(EV-control),a switch tocommission from a salary compensation system(IV)will lead to increased sales productivity(DV)perworker, especially among younger workers(MV). Among residents with less than a high schooleducation(EV-control),the loss of jobs(IV)leads tohigh-risk behaviors(DV),especially due to theproximity a high violence neighborhood(MV). Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-23 Hypotheses Brand Manager Jones (case) has a higher-than-average achievement motivation (variable). Brand managers in Company Z (cases) have ahigher-than-average achievement motivation(variable). Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-24 Hypothesis Formats Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-25 Types of Hypotheses The life expectancy of airplanemodel 707 exceeds 16 years. People who eat dessert weighmore than those who don’t. An increase in price causessales to decrease. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-26 The Role of Hypotheses Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-27 Reasoning and Hypotheses = Inductions are an inferential leap from the evidence presented. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-28 Reasoning and Hypotheses Deductions are only as good as the premises on which they are based. = REGISTERED Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-29 Apply Deductive Reasoning Develop yourown conclusionsconcerning whatwill happen next. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-30 Inductive Reasoning Why didn’t sales increase during ourpromotional event? Regional retailers did not have sufficient stockto fill customer requests during thepromotional period A strike by employees prevented stock fromarriving in time for promotion to be effective A hurricane closed retail outlets in the regionfor 10 days during the promotion Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-31 Why Didn’t Sales Increase? Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-32 Deductive Reasoning Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-33 Checklist for a Strong Hypothesis Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-34 Theory Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-35 Theory Example: Product Life Cycle Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-36 Model within Research Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-37 Example: PLC Model Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-38 Key Terms Chapter 2 THE RESEARCH PROCESS: AN OVERVIEW Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-1 Learning Objectives Understand …  The standards of good research.  What is happening within each stage of the research process.  Research process pitfalls and their solutions.  Ethical issues at each stage in the process. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-2 Actions that Deliver Effective Research Clearly defined purpose Detailed research process Thoroughly planned design High ethical standards Adequate analysis Limitations revealed Unambiguous presentation Insights justified Conclusions justified Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-3 1. The purpose of the business research • The problem should be clearly defined and sharply delineated in terms as unambiguous as possible. • The statement of the research problem should include its scope, its limitations, and the precise meanings of all words and terms significant to the research. 6 Copyright © 2018 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-6 2. Research process detailed • The research procedures used should be described in sufficient detail: This includes the steps to acquire participants, informed consent, sampling methods and representativeness, and data gathering procedures. 7 Copyright © 2018 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-7 Research design thoroughly planned • Research design can be considered as the structure of research. (it is a plan of the proposed research work). • The procedural design of the research should be clearly described and carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. 8 Copyright © 2018 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-8 4. High ethical standards applied. • Ethical issues in research reflect important moral concerns about the practice of responsible behavior in society. 9 Copyright © 2018 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-9 5. Limitations frankly revealed • The researcher should report, with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate their effect on the findings. • There are very few perfect research designs. Some of the imperfections may have little effect on the validity and reliability of the data; others may invalidate them entirely. 10 Copyright © 2018 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-10 6. Adequate analysis for decision maker’s needs • The methods of analysis used should be appropriate. • The data should be classified in ways that assist the researcher in reaching pertinent conclusions and clearly reveal the findings that have led to those conclusions. 11 Copyright © 2018 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-11 7. Findings presented unambiguously • Presentation of data should be comprehensive, reasonably interpreted, easily understood by the decision maker, and organized so that the decision maker can readily locate critical findings. 12 Copyright © 2018 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-12 8. Conclusions justified • Conclusions should be limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis. • Good researchers always specify the conditions under which their conclusions seem to be valid. 13 Copyright © 2018 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-13 9. Researcher’s experience reflected • Greater confidence in the research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research, and is a person of integrity. • For this reason the research report should contain information about the qualifications of the researcher. 14 Copyright © 2018 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-14 Research Process Stage 1: Clarify the Research Question Stage 2: Design the Research Stage 3: Collect & Prepare the Data Stage 4: Analyze & Interpret the Data Stage 5: Report Insights & Recommendations Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-15 Research Process Stage 1: Clarify the Research Question Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-16 Research Process Stage 2: Design the Research Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-17 Stage 2: Design the Research Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-18 Stage 2: Design the Research Research Design The Research Project Sampling Design Instrument Development & Pilot Testing Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-19 Research Process Stage 3: Collect & Prepare the Data Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-20 Stage 3: Data Collection, Preparation, Examination Collect the data Deal with data errors/omissions Reduce data to manageable size Develop summaries Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-21 Data Characteristics Abstractness Verifiability Elusiveness Closeness Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-22 Data Types Primary Secondary •Data the research collects to address the specific problem at hand. Data that are originally collected to address a problem other than the one which require the manager’s attention at the moment. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-24 Data Levels & Characteristics Nominal Classification Ordinal Order Interval Equal distance Ratio Natural Origin Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-25 Research Process Stage 4: Analyze & Interpret the Data Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-26 Steps in Data Analysis and Interpretation Refine Preliminary Analysis Plan Look for Patterns Apply Statistical Techniques Support or Refute Hypotheses Develop Insights & Recommendations Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-27 Research Process Stage 5: Report Insights & Recommendations Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-28 Factors that Influence Perspective Method Research Report Content Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Audience 1-29 Research Project Time Frame Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-30 Research Project Time Frame Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-31 Research Process Pitfalls to Avoid Ill-defined Management Problem Unresearchable Questions Manager’s Hidden Agendas Researcher Inexperience Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-32 Research Process Problems to Avoid Overembracing Data Analytics Favored-Technique Syndrome Researcher Inexperience Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-33 Ethical Issues in Research Process Deception Bias Privacy Respect Notice Security Choice Access Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-34 Research Process Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-35 Key Terms • Case • Ordinal data • Census • Primary data • Dashboard • Ratio data • Data • Recommendations • Data analysis • Research design • Findings • Research process • Insights • Research question(s) • Interval data • Sample • Key Performance Indicator • Secondary Data • Management dilemma • Target population • Nominal data Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-36 18% overall match eat deal. mies, nsumers g a s in the n Submission Assignment I topic RES.docx Comments Feedback to Learner 9/30/22 9:13 PM I invite you to review the topic and the questions and submit a new attempt considering my comments: Cover page should not be changed. The topic and the research questions deal with economy, international politics,...war!!!...that are not within the field of management. In addition, the study context involves international context and foreign countries! The questions are broad and involve different concerns within the international context. You just included "consumer behavior" in the title whereas in research questions you discussed different concerns. Absence of references. Absence of references in your discussion. The absence of references in your discussion is a weakness, since all arguments and premises are presented without any foundation or support. Indicating the references at the end of the paper is not sufficient, you should indicate the source of each idea and opinion. Please to focus on a new topic that involves management questions. The research objective should be clear and links between variables should be specified, you need also to consider the feasibility of the empirical study, the measurement of the variables and the availability of data that will be analysed. The discussion of the topic selection should be supported by academic references not personal opinions that are not founded! I suggest the topic of sustainable consumer behavior for example....
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Literature Review
Thesis: With the progress of the hostile climate implications, consumers prioritize organizations
with optimal environmental, social, and governance scores since they foster environmental
conservation and rehabilitation during production.
1. Introduction


Background in sustainable consumer behavior



Thesis

2. Correlation Between Organizational Competitiveness and Sustainable Consumer
Behavior
i.

ii.

iii.

Effective integration


Informed decision-making



continuity of sustainable operations

Pursuit for economic growth


environmental actions



millennials in the contemporary markets

Consumer pressure


Green consumption



Organization efficiency and increased productivity

3. Social influence and strategic relevance
i.

ii.

Competitiveness in global trade


Influencing consumers’ purchase intention



Simplifying entry and limiting market failure

Environmental consciousness

iii.



Aligning business commitments with the trends



Promoting green consumerism

Pro-environmental behavior


Being a “green” organization



Ethical desirability among stakeholders


Sustainable Consumer Behavior
Thesis: Some significant changes in consumer needs include the association of environmental
responsibility and the adoption of green strategies with desirable corporate operations.
1. Introduction


Background of sustainable consumer behavior



Thesis

2. Reasons for selection


Benefits of eco-friendly strategies



Highlighting the organization’s responsibilities

3. Research questions
Question 1
Question 2
4. Rationale
Question 1


Relationship between environmental responsibility and a competitive advantage

Question 2


Social influence and consumption’s pro-environmental behavior


1

Sustainable Consumer Behavior

Name
Institution
Course
Instructor
Date

2
Sustainable Consumer Behavior
Sustainable consumer behavior explains the new consumer requirements that focus on the
organization’s environmental responsibility. Millennials are increasingly constituting the
majority of consumers in contemporary markets. This generational change accounts for the
changes in consumer requirements and needs and their perceptions of organizations. Some
significant changes in consumer needs include the association of environmental responsibility
and the adoption of green strategies with desirable corporate operations. In this view, this paper
will include a justification for selecting sustainable consumer behavior and a detailed rationale of
three research questions concerning the topic.
Reasons for Selection
Sustainable consumer behavior is vital since it enables organizations to understand better
consumers’ sustainability perspectives’ influence on consumer behavior, mainly purchase
intention. Successful organizations exploit eco-friendly business strategies which conserve the
environment and its natural resources, influencing their brand positivity and perception among
consumers (Paço et al., 2021). In this light, sustainable consumer behavior highlights how
consumers influence an organization’s sustainable business operations and the responsibility of
organizations to satisfy the relevant stakeholder needs. Furthermore, the topic is essential since it
provides insights into how sustainable consumer behavior influence organizational performance
(Paço et al., 2021).
Research Questions
1. What is the relationship between sustainable consumer behavior and organizational
competitiveness?

3
2. How do organization leaders generate and benefit from social influence due to awareness
of sustainable consumer behavior?
Rationale
What is the relationship between sustainable consumer behavior and organizational
competitiveness?
This research question is essential since it will allow the study to assess sustainable
consumer behavior and organizational competitiveness. It will focus the study on how consumers
prioritize sustainable business operations, putting pressure on organizations to achieve their
environmental responsibility and confer a competitive advantage (Trudel, 2019). The research
question will foster how successful organizations use environmental responsibility to appeal to
consumers. This research question will also provide prerequisite insights concerning how
organizations capitalize on the relationship between sustainable consumer behavior and
competitiveness, focusing on social influence.
How do organization leaders generate and benefit from social influence due to awareness of
sustainable consumer behavior?
This question will deepen insights into how commitment to understanding sustainable
consumer behavior trends enables organizational leaders strategically influence the society it
serves. Organizations have a social responsibility to conserve the environment and society.
Therefore, this question will facilitate research into what constitutes acceptable behavior among
organizations and how consumption’s pro-environmental behavior necessitates adopting green
strategies to generate a beneficial social influence (Trudel, 2019). Social influence confers a

4
competitive advantage. Thus, this question will facilitate appreciation of the strategic benefits of
social desirability.

5
References
Paço, A., Leal Filho, W., Ávila, L. V., & Dennis, K. (2021). Fostering sustainable consumer
behavior regarding clothing: Assessing trends on purchases, recycling and disposal.
Textile Research Journal, 91(3-4), 373-384. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040517520944524
Trudel, R. (2019). Sustainable consumer behavior. Consumer psychology review, 2(1), 85-96.
https://doi.org/10.1002/arcp.1045


1

Literature Review

Name
Institution
Course
Instructor
Date

2
Literature Review
With the progress of the hostile climate implications, consumers prioritize organizations
with optimal environmental, social, and governance scores since they foster environmental
conservation and rehabilitation during production. This literature review will focus...


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