Programming
Business Ethics

Phi 314

Wilmington University

Question Description

Choose anyone of them. Case 1-3

No plagiarism.

Only one reference allow.

Book: Ethics In Information Technol Reynolds Chapter: 1

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Licensed to: CengageBrain User Licensed to: CengageBrain User This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: CengageBrain User Ethics in Information Technology, Fourth Edition George W. Reynolds Publisher: Joe Sabatino Senior Acquisitions Editor: Charles McCormick, Jr. Senior Product Manager: Kate Mason Development Editor: Mary Pat Shaffer Editorial Assistant: Courtney Bavaro Marketing Director: Keri Witman Marketing Manager: Adam Marsh Senior Marketing Communications Manager: Libby Shipp Marketing Coordinator: Suellen Ruttkay Production Management and Composition: PreMediaGlobal © 2012 Course Technology, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act—without the prior written permission of the publisher. For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions. Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com. Media Editor: Chris Valentine Some of the product names and company names used in this book have been used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers and sellers. Senior Art Director: Stacy Jenkins Shirley Library of Congress Control Number: 2011938705 Manufacturing Planner: Julio Esperas ISBN-13: 978-1-111-53412-7 Cover Designer: Lou Ann Thesing ISBN-10: 1-111-53412-8 Rights Acquisition Specialist: John Hill Cover Credit: ©iStock Photo Instructor Edition: ISBN-13: 978-1-111-53413-4 ISBN-10: 1-111-53413-6 Course Technology 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Microsoft and the Office logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Course Technology, a part of Cengage Learning, is an independent entity from the Microsoft Corporation, and not affiliated with Microsoft in any manner. iPhone, iPad, and iPod are registered trademarks of Apple Inc. Course Technology, a part of Cengage Learning, reserves the right to revise this publication and make changes from time to time in its content without notice. Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local office at: www.cengage.com/global Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15 14 13 12 11 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: CengageBrain User CHAPTER 1 AN OVERVIEW OF ETHICS QUOTE Ethics are so annoying. I avoid them on principle. —Darby Conley, cartoonist, Get Fuzzy comic strip1 VIGNETTE HP CEO Forced Out; Lands on Feet at Oracle In early 2005, Mark Hurd was hired as the CEO of Hewlett-Packard Company (HP). Under Hurd’s leadership from 2005 to 2009, the HP share price more than doubled, while its revenue grew over 40 percent to $115 billion.2 This was accomplished by extreme cost-cutting measures, including the reduction of 50,000 jobs and the acquisition of several major technology firms, including Palm, 3Com, and Electronic Data Systems. In June 2010, an HP contractor accused Hurd of sexual harassment. The contractor’s work involved planning various HP-hosted CEO forums over the course of two years, and she often dined alone with Hurd following these events. She claimed that her work for HP stopped after she refused Hurd’s advances.3 During the ensuing investigation of the sexual harassment charge, HP found evidence of false expense reports covering payments made to the woman. While HP executives said that the sexual harassment charge could not be substantiated, they did find that Hurd had violated HP’s standards of business conduct. Michael Holston, HP executive vice president and general counsel, stated that Hurd’s actions “demonstrated a profound lack of judgment that seriously undermined his creditability and damaged his effectiveness in leading HP.”4 The board urged Hurd to resign from the company. Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: CengageBrain User Hurd, married with two children, denied making any advances toward the contractor and stated 2 that he never prepared his own expense reports. He refused to resign and instead offered to reimburse the company the disputed expense payments.5 After numerous discussions with members of the board, Hurd finally agreed to resign and to repay HP the disputed expense payments. He also settled the sexual harassment charges out of court, agreeing to pay the woman an undisclosed amount of his own money.6 Within a month of his resignation, computer technology giant Oracle announced that it had hired Mark Hurd as its new co-president. The hiring raised several issues as Hurd’s severance package of $40 million included a confidential nondisclosure agreement restricting what Hurd could tell future employers about HP plans and operations.7 HP filed a lawsuit asking the court to prevent Hurd from taking the job with Oracle, saying “HP is threatened with losing customers, technology, its competitive advantage, its trade secrets and goodwill in amounts which may be impossible to determine.”8 Hiring disputes are common among technology companies. However, in California (where both Oracle and HP are headquartered), courts have encouraged employee mobility and allowed people who change jobs to continue working in their area of expertise. Within a month, HP and Oracle settled the dispute and “reaffirmed their long-term strategic partnership.” Hurd agreed to “adhere to his obligations to protect HP’s confidential information while fulfilling his responsibilities at Oracle.” In addition, Hurd agreed to waive his right to over 345,000 restricted shares of HP stock valued at $13.6 million.9 Questions to Consider 1. Does the hiring of Mark Hurd raise any ethical concerns about Oracle’s business practices? 2. Should the fact that Mark Hurd left HP under disconcerting circumstances affect his future employment at other firms? Chapter 1 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: CengageBrain User LEARNING 3 OBJECTIVES As you read this chapter, consider the following questions: 1. What is ethics, and why is it important to act according to a code of ethics? 2. Why is business ethics becoming increasingly important? 3. What are organizations doing to improve their business ethics? 4. Why are organizations interested in fostering good business ethics? 5. What approach can you take to ensure ethical decision making? 6. What trends have increased the risk of using information technology in an unethical manner? WHAT IS ETHICS? Every society forms a set of rules that establishes the boundaries of generally accepted behavior. These rules are often expressed in statements about how people should behave, and the individual rules fit together to form the moral code by which a society lives. Unfortunately, the different rules often have contradictions, and people are sometimes uncertain about which rule to follow. For instance, if you witness a friend copy someone else’s answers while taking an exam, you might be caught in a conflict between loyalty to your friend and the value of telling the truth. Sometimes the rules do not seem to cover new situations, and an individual must determine how to apply existing rules or develop new ones. You may strongly support personal privacy, but do you think an organization should be prohibited from monitoring employees’ use of its email and Internet services? The term morality refers to social conventions about right and wrong that are so widely shared they become the basis for an established consensus. However, individual views of what is moral may vary by age, cultural group, ethnic background, religion, life experiences, education, and gender. There is widespread agreement on the immorality of murder, theft, and arson, but other behaviors that are accepted in one culture might be unacceptable in another. Even within the same society, people can have strong disagreements over important moral issues. In the United States, for example, issues such as abortion, stem cell research, the death penalty, and gun control are continuously debated, and people on both sides of these debates feel that their arguments are on solid moral ground. Definition of Ethics Ethics is a set of beliefs about right and wrong behavior within a society. Ethical behavior conforms to generally accepted norms—many of which are almost universal. However, although nearly everyone would agree that lying and cheating are unethical, opinions about what constitutes ethical behavior can vary dramatically. For example, attitudes toward software piracy—the practice of illegally making copies of software or enabling others to access software to which they are not entitled—range from strong opposition to acceptance of the practice as a standard approach to conducting business. In 2009, An Overview of Ethics Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: CengageBrain User 43 percent of all software in circulation worldwide was pirated—at a cost of over $51 billion (USD).10 The countries with the highest piracy rate were Georgia (95%), Zimbabwe (92%), Bangladesh (91%), Moldova (91%), and Armenia (90%). The lowest piracy rates were in the United States (20%), Japan (21%), Luxembourg (21%), and New Zealand (22%).11 As children grow, they learn complicated tasks—such as walking, talking, swimming, riding a bike, and writing the alphabet—that they perform out of habit for the rest of their lives. People also develop habits that make it easier to choose between what society considers good or bad. A virtue is a habit that inclines people to do what is acceptable, and a vice is a habit of unacceptable behavior. Fairness, generosity, and loyalty are examples of virtues, while vanity, greed, envy, and anger are considered vices. People’s virtues and vices help define their personal value system—the complex scheme of moral values by which they live. 4 The Importance of Integrity Your moral principles are statements of what you believe to be rules of right conduct. As a child, you may have been taught not to lie, cheat, or steal. As an adult facing more complex decisions, you often reflect on your principles when you consider what to do in different situations: Is it okay to lie to protect someone’s feelings? Should you intervene with a coworker who seems to have a chemical dependency problem? Is it acceptable to exaggerate your work experience on a résumé? Can you cut corners on a project to meet a tight deadline? A person who acts with integrity acts in accordance with a personal code of principles. One approach to acting with integrity—one of the cornerstones of ethical behavior—is to extend to all people the same respect and consideration that you expect to receive from others. Unfortunately, consistency can be difficult to achieve, particularly when you are in a situation that conflicts with your moral standards. For example, you might believe it is important to do as your employer requests while also believing that you should be fairly compensated for your work. Thus, if your employer insists that you do not report the overtime hours that you have worked due to budget constraints, a moral conflict arises. You can do as your employer requests or you can insist on being fairly compensated, but you cannot do both. In this situation, you may be forced to compromise one of your principles and act with an apparent lack of integrity. Another form of inconsistency emerges if you apply moral standards differently according to the situation or people involved. To be consistent and act with integrity, you must apply the same moral standards in all situations. For example, you might consider it morally acceptable to tell a little white lie to spare a friend some pain or embarrassment, but would you lie to a work colleague or customer about a business issue to avoid unpleasantness? Clearly, many ethical dilemmas are not as simple as right versus wrong but involve choices between right versus right. As an example, for some people it is “right” to protect the Alaskan wildlife from being spoiled and also “right” to find new sources of oil to maintain U.S. oil reserves, but how do they balance these two concerns? The Difference Between Morals, Ethics, and Laws Morals are one’s personal beliefs about right and wrong; the term ethics describes standards or codes of behavior expected of an individual by a group (nation, organization, profession) to which an individual belongs. For example, the ethics of the law profession demand that Chapter 1 Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: CengageBrain User defense attorneys defend an accused client to the best of their ability, even if they know that the client is guilty of the most heinous and morally objectionable crime one could imagine. Law is a system of rules that tells us what we can and cannot do. Laws are enforced by a set of institutions (the police, courts, law-making bodies). Legal acts are acts that conform to the law. Moral acts conform to what an individual believes to be the right thing to do. Laws can proclaim an act as legal, although many people may consider the act immoral—for example, abortion. The remainder of this chapter provides an introduction to ethics in the business world. It discusses the importance of ethics in business, outlines what businesses can do to improve their ethics, provides advice on creating an ethical work environment, and suggests a model for ethical decision making. The chapter concludes with a discussion of ethics as it relates to information technology (IT). 5 ETHICS IN THE BUSINESS WORLD Ethics has risen to the top of the business agenda because the risks associated with inappropriate behavior have increased, both in their likelihood and in their potential negative impact. In the past decade, we have watched the collapse and/or bailout of financial institutions such as Countrywide Financial, Lehman Brothers, and American International Group (AIG) due to unwise and unethical decision making regarding the approval of mortgages and lines of credit to unqualified individuals and organizations. We have also witnessed numerous corporate officers and senior managers sentenced to prison terms for their unethical behavior, including former investment broker Bernard Madoff, who bilked his clients out of an estimated $65 billion. Clearly, unethical behavior has led to serious negative consequences that have had a major global impact. Several trends have increased the likelihood of unethical behavior. First, for many organizations, greater globalization has created a much more complex work environment that spans diverse cultures and societies, making it more difficult to apply principles and codes of ethics consistently. For example, numerous U.S. companies have moved operations to developing countries, where employees work in conditions that would not be acceptable in most developed parts of the world. Second, in today’s difficult and uncertain economic climate, organizations are extremely challenged to maintain revenue and profits. Some organizations are sorely tempted to resort to unethical behavior to maintain profits. For example, in January 2009, the chairman of the India-based outsourcing firm Satyam Computer Services admitted he had overstated the company’s assets by more than $1 billion. The revelation represented India’s largest ever corporate scandal and caused the government to step in to protect the jobs of the company’s 53,000 employees.12 Employees, shareholders, and regulatory agencies are increasingly sensitive to violations of accounting standards, failures to disclose substantial changes in business conditions, nonconformance with required health and safety practices, and production of unsafe or substandard products. Such heightened vigilance raises the risk of financial loss for businesses that do not foster ethical practices or that run afoul of required standards. There is also a risk of criminal and civil lawsuits resulting in fines and/or incarceration for individuals. An Overview of Ethics Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, ...
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Final Answer

Here you go, kindly check it out and let me know in case of anything.

Running head: BUSINESS ETHICS

1

Business Ethics
Student’s Name
Affiliation

BUSINESS ETHICS

2

Business Ethics
How would Dell and AIT avoid falling out with each other?
AIT should have exercised due diligence at the time of purchase of the computers. By
sending its own team to check and test the computer units before agreeing to make the payment,
the company would have proceeded to make a purchase agreement aware of the condition of
goods they were purchasing. Similarly, if Dell Company was fully aware of the faulty capacitors,
replacing them would be cheaper than tainting the reputation of the company through such
unethical behavior. This becomes more significant considering dell was dealing with an
important customer. Once both parties ...

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UIUC

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