Week 8 Discussion Question

User Generated



Illinois Institute of Technology


Read chapter 7 OF THE TEXTBOOK and make an open ended question based off of reading chapter 7.

Chapter 7 - Training and Development

After coming up with an open ended question, write a description of what's your logic behind it.

Make sure the question is OPEN ENDED!




Second PART: reply to 2 people, it should be 150+ words for each. Reply to these two discussion posts. They both have different question they have answered. Reply if you agree with there decription for the question and/or your thoughts.


Should general organization training be replaced with team training?

When an employee joins an organization, they have to go through a general training. For example, for software engineering position, the employee is taught about different technologies that the organization uses, basic everyday workflow, etc.

Those trainings are very important to give the new hire an overview of the work culture and basic tasks in the company. But a lot of the time, when the employee officially joins a team, they will receive another training from the team about team specific workflow, tasks, technologies, which can be completely different from the general organizational training. This seems like the general training is a waste of time and resource if a what the team needs are different from the organization.

In that situation, should the company keeps the general training? Or remove it and replace with training from the team that the new hire joins? 

Source: https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/different-types-of-workplace-training 


Have you ever been required to participate in training that did not do what the your place of employment, boss, school, thought it would?

I worked at a large corporation over the summer and every Monday I had to complete online training that took about 30 minutes. My job duties required me to be outside helping customers, down stocking, spotting people using lift machines etcetera. One of my coworkers expressed how the training we are required to do isn't really all that beneficial. It just seemed like something the company was doing just to say that they do it. She expressed how we are expected to be out doing our actual job duties, but instead we become sidetracked to perform work training that doesn't seem like it transfers over. I felt like the learned more about how to be the "best customer service employee" by actually working-not by watching videos...

Source: https://hbr.org/2019/10/where-companies-go-wrong-with-learning-and-development 

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WORK IN ST THE 21 CENTURY AN INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL A PSYCHOLOGY FOURTH EDITION FRANK J. LANDY Late Professor Emeritus, Penn State University JEFFREY M. CONTE San Diego State University This page is intentionally left blank A Sampling of Websites Related to I-O Psychology and the Workplace SOCIETY FOR INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (SIOP): Website for SIOP, Division 14 of the American Psychological Association. http://www.siop.org/ SOCIETY FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (SHRM): SHRM is the world’s largest association devoted to human resource management. http://www.shrm.org O*NET: OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORK: The O*NET database includes information on knowledge, skills, abilities, work activities, and interests associated with many different occupations. http://online.onetcenter.org/ EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS HOMEPAGE: Website that provides material on performance appraisal and 360 feedback. http://www.hr-software.net/EmploymentStatistics HUMAN-RESOURCES GUIDE: Website that provides a great deal of information on selection, interviewing, and other staffing techniques. http://www.hr-guide.com/ EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION: Website that provides information on federal laws prohibiting employment discrimination and updates on recent employment discrimination cases. http://www.eeoc.gov AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (ASTD): Society focused on the latest developments in training and development. http://www.astd.org NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH): NIOSH is the Federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related disease and injury. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html AMERICAN MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (AMA): AMA is the world’s leading membership-based management development and training organization. http://www.amanet.org/index.htm THE DILBERT ZONE: Provides a less serious view on work. http://www.unitedmedia.com/comics/dilbert/ Social Media Websites Related to I-O Psychology SIOP TWITTER ACCOUNT: http://twitter.com/sioptweets SIOP FACEBOOK PAGE: http://www.facebook.com/siop.org SIOP EXCHANGE/BLOG & GOOGLE NEWS FEED: http://siopexchange.typepad.com WORKPLACE PSYCHOLOGY BLOG BY STEVE NGUYEN: http://workplacepsychology.net/ BLOG ON TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION, & TRAINING BY DR. RICHARD LANDERS: http://neoacademic.com/ I-O AT WORK: WEBSITE/BLOG ON SCIENCE BEHIND HR: http://www.ioatwork.com/ Work in the 21st Century Dedicated to the memory of Frank J. Landy and his many contributions to the science, practice, and teaching of industrial and organizational psychology WORK IN ST THE 21 CENTURY AN INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL A PSYCHOLOGY FOURTH EDITION FRANK J. LANDY Late Professor Emeritus, Penn State University JEFFREY M. CONTE San Diego State University VICE PRESIDENT AND EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER SENIOR ACQUISITIONS EDITOR ASSISTANT EDITOR SENIOR MARKETING MANAGER SENIOR CONTENT MANAGER SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR DESIGN DIRECTOR COVER DESIGN PHOTO EDITOR PRODUCTION SERVICES COVER AND PART OPENER PHOTO CREDIT “COLOURED FILES IN A PILE” “SOLAR PANELS IN A POWER PLANT” Jay O’Callaghan Robert Johnston Brittany Cheetham Margaret Barrett Lucille Buonocore Anna Melhorn Harry Nolan Tom Nery Sheena Goldstein Suzanne Ingrao/ Ingrao Associates Echo/Getty Images, Inc © mark wragg/iStockphoto © Shelley Dennis/iStockphoto This book was set in 10/12 Minion by Aptara, Inc., and printed and bound by Quad Graphics/Versailles. This book is printed on acid-free paper. ⬁ Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of knowledge and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Our company is built on a foundation of principles that include responsibility to the communities we serve and where we live and work. In 2008, we launched a Corporate Citizenship Initiative, a global effort to address the environmental, social, economic, and ethical challenges we face in our business. Among the issues we are addressing are carbon impact, paper specifications and procurement, ethical conduct within our business and among our vendors, and community and charitable support. For more information, please visit our website: www.wiley.com/go/citizenship. Copyright © 2013, 2010, 2007, 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, website www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, website www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their courses during the next academic year. These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred to a third party. Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley. Return instructions and a free-of-charge return shipping label are available at www.wiley.com/go/returnlabel. If you have chosen to adopt this textbook for use in your course, please accept this book as your complimentary desk copy. Outside of the United States, please contact your local representative. 978-1-118-29120-7 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 About the Authors Frank J. Landy (1942–2010) was Professor Emeritus of Industrial Psychology at Penn State University, where he taught for 26 years. In addition to serving at Penn State, he was a visiting lecturer or researcher at Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, Stockholm University, Gothenburg University, Cluj-Napoca University (Romania), Griffeths University (Australia), and Ljubljana University (Slovenia). He received his PhD in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from Bowling Green State University. Throughout the course of his academic career, Frank published over 70 journal articles, more than 20 book chapters, and 15 books. He served as president of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and was involved in the development of the Civil Rights Act of 1991, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. In addition to his academic work, Frank had a successful consulting career, working with organizations in the United States and abroad. He testified as an expert witness in numerous state and federal employment discrimination cases that had significant implications for the organizations involved. In his private life, Frank was a true 21stcentury Renaissance man. He traveled widely and lived abroad when possible. He spoke foreign languages and was highly interested in global events. Frank was an avid runner, completing over 60 marathons. He loved to fly fish and ski. Frank played and collected guitars and was a great lover of music. And when the mood struck him, he acted in community theater. Of all of his pursuits, writing brought him the most enjoyment. Jeffrey M. Conte is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at San Diego State University. He received his BA in Psychology and Biology from the University of Virginia and his PhD in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from Penn State University. He teaches approximately 800 students each year in I-O psychology and personality psychology courses. He has conducted research on a variety of topics, including personnel selection, personality predictors of job performance, time management, polychronicity and multitasking, the measurement of emotional intelligence, and the factors associated with health and stress in the workplace. Jeff also has interests in cross-cultural research and has conducted research in organizations across the United States as well as in Canada and France. Jeff’s research has been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. His research has been published in a variety of I-O psychology and management journals, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Human Performance, Journal of Business and Psychology, Personality and Individual Differences, Journal of Managerial Psychology, and Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Jeff has worked with a variety of organizations, dealing with such issues as human resource selection, test construction/validation, work attitudes, performance appraisal, job-related stress, compensation systems, downsizing, and organizational factors related to safety. He has also performed job analyses, conducted statistical analyses, and contributed to written briefs and reports in a variety of employment discrimination court cases. His research and practice have included a wide variety of occupations, including lawyers, engineers, managers, firefighters, police officers, and public transportation drivers. In his spare time, Jeff enjoys running, soccer, tennis, and other outdoor sports. Jeff lives in San Diego with his wife, Michelle, and daughters, Caroline and Colleen. v vi Contents Brief Contents Preface xx PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? 2 Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychology 3 49 PART 2 INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY 3 4 5 6 7 Individual Differences and Assessment Job Analysis and Performance Performance Measurement Staffing Decisions Training and Development 87 155 197 241 275 PART 3 ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 The Motivation to Work Attitudes, Emotions, and Work Stress and Worker Well-Being Fairness and Diversity in the Workplace Leadership Teams in Organizations The Organization of Work Behavior Glossary References Name Index Subject Index vi 317 355 395 441 473 517 547 G-1 R-1 I-1 I-16 Contents Preface xx PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? Module 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology The Importance of Work in People’s Lives The Concept of “Good Work” Authenticity: A Trend of Interest to I-O Psychologists How Does I-O Psychology Contribute to Society? What Is I-O Psychology? Evidence-Based I-O Psychology SIOP as a Resource How This Course Can Help You The Importance of Understanding the Younger Worker Module 1.2 The Past, Present, and Future of I-O Psychology The Past: A Brief History of I-O Psychology 1876–1930 1930–1964 The Present: The Demographics of I-O Psychologists Pathways to a Career in I-O Psychology: A Curious Mixture What We Call Ourselves The Future: The Challenges to I-O Psychology in the 21st Century A Personal View of the Future: Preparing for a Career in I-O Psychology Education and Training Getting into a Graduate Program Module 1.3 Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in I-O Psychology The Multicultural Nature of Life in the 21st Century Cross-National Issues in the Workplace Why Should Multiculturalism Be Important to You? Why Is Multiculturalism Important for I-O Psychology? Some Theories of Cultural Influence Hofstede’s Theory Some Thoughts on Theories of Cultural Influence Module 1.4 The Organization of This Book Themes Parts 3 4 4 5 7 7 7 11 12 12 14 17 17 18 20 23 24 25 25 26 26 27 29 29 31 33 33 35 35 39 41 41 42 vii viii Contents Resources Case Study 1.1 2 Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychology Module 2.1 Science What Is Science? The Role of Science in Society Why Do I-O Psychologists Engage in Research? Module 2.2 Research Research Design Methods of Data Collection Qualitative and Quantitative Research The Importance of Context in Interpreting Research Generalizability and Control in Research Generalizability Case Study 2.1 Control Ethical Behavior in I-O Psychology Module 2.3 Data Analysis Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics Statistical Significance The Concept of Statistical Power Correlation and Regression The Concept of Correlation The Correlation Coefficient Multiple Correlation Correlation and Causation Meta-Analysis Micro-, Macro-, and Meso-Research Module 2.4 Interpretation Reliability Test–Retest Reliability Equivalent Forms Reliability Internal Consistency Inter-Rater Reliability Validity Criterion-Related Validity Content-Related Validity Construct-Related Validity Validity and the Law: A Mixed Blessing 42 45 49 50 50 51 52 54 54 56 56 57 58 58 59 60 60 63 63 63 65 65 66 66 67 67 69 69 71 72 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 78 80 81 83 Contents PART 2 INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY 3 Individual Differences and Assessment Module 3.1 An Introduction to Individual Differences Some Background Differential Psychology, Psychometrics, and I-O Psychology Identifying Individual Differences Varieties of Individual Differences Module 3.2 Human Attributes ABILITIES Cognitive Abilities Intelligence as “g” Is “g” Important at Work? Is “g” as Important in Other Countries as It Is in the United States? Can Your Level of “g” Change? Specific Cognitive Abilities beyond “g” Physical, Sensory, and Psychomotor Abilities Physical Abilities Sensory Abilities Psychomotor Abilities Personality and Work Behavior The Big Five and Other Models of Personality Case Study 3.1 Implications of Broad Personality Models ADDITIONAL ATTRIBUTES Skills Knowledge Competencies Emotional Intelligence Module 3.3 Foundations of Assessment The Past and the Present of Testing What Is a Test? What Is the Meaning of a Test Score? What Is a Test Battery? Where to Find Tests Administrative Test Categories Speed versus Power Tests Group versus Individual Tests Paper-and-Pencil versus Performance Tests Testing and Culture International Assessment Practices Module 3.4 Assessment Procedures Assessment Content versus Process Assessment Procedures: Content 87 88 88 89 90 91 93 93 93 93 94 95 95 96 98 98 99 100 101 101 102 104 106 106 106 108 108 111 111 113 113 114 115 115 115 116 116 117 118 120 120 120 ix x Contents Cognitive Ability Tests Knowledge Tests Tests of Physical Abilities Psychomotor Abilities Personality Practical Issues Associated with Personality Measures Integrity Testing Emotional Intelligence Individual Assessment Interviews Interview Content Interview Process Assessment Centers Work Samples and Situational Tests Work Sample Tests Situational Judgment Tests 120 123 123 124 125 125 129 130 131 132 132 134 135 138 138 139 Module 3.5 Special Topics in Assessment 143 143 144 146 146 Incremental Validity Biographical Data Grades and Letters of Recommendation Minimum Qualifications Controversial Assessment Practices: Graphology and the Polygraph Drug and Alcohol Testing Computer-Based and Internet Assessment Unproctored Internet Testing Who Is a Candidate? Computer Adaptive Testing 4 Job Analysis and Performance Module 4.1 A Basic Model of Performance Campbell’s Model of Job Performance Typical versus Maximum Performance Criterion Deficiency and Contamination Module 4.2 Extensions of the Basic Performance Model Task Performance versus Organizational Citizenship Behavior Causes and Correlates of OCB The Dark Side of Performance: Counterproductive Work Behaviors Causes of and Treatments for CWB OCB and CWB: Two Ends of the Same Continuum? Adaptive Performance A Brief Recap A Comprehensive Framework for Considering Performance: The “Great Eight” The Case of Expert Performance Types of Performance Measures 147 148 149 151 151 152 155 156 156 160 161 163 163 165 166 168 170 170 172 173 174 174 Contents Module 4.3 Job Analysis: Fundamental Properties and Practices The Uses of Job Analysis Information Types of Job Analysis How Job Analysis Is Done Module 4.4 Job Analysis: Newer Developments Electronic Performance Monitoring as Part of a Job Analysis Cognitive Task Analysis Personality-Based Job Analysis A Summary of the Job Analysis Process Computer-Based Job Analysis O*NET Competency Modeling Module 4.5 Job Evaluation and the Law Job Evaluation The Concept of Comparable Worth Job Analysis and Employment Litigation 5 Performance Measurement Module 5.1 Basic Concepts in Performance Measurement Uses for Performance Information Relationships among Performance Measures Hands-On Performance Measures Electronic Performance Monitoring Performance Management Module 5.2 Performance Rating—Substance Close-Up on a Rating System Theories of Performance Rating Focus on Performance Ratings Overall Performance Ratings Trait Ratings Task-Based Ratings Critical Incidents Methods OCB and Adaptive Performance Ratings Structural Characteristics of a Performance Rating Scale Rating Formats Graphic Rating Scales Checklists Behavioral Rating Employee Comparison Methods A New Variation on the Paired Comparison Method: CARS Concluding Thoughts on Performance Rating Formats Module 5.3 Performance Rating—Process Rating Sources Supervisors 176 176 179 181 183 183 184 185 187 187 187 189 192 192 193 194 197 198 198 199 199 200 203 205 205 207 207 207 208 209 209 210 210 212 212 212 213 215 216 216 219 219 219 xi xii Contents Peers Self-Ratings Subordinate Ratings Customer and Supplier Ratings 360-Degree Systems Rating Distortions Central Tendency Error Leniency/Severity Error Halo Error Rater Training Administrative Training Psychometric Training Frame-of-Reference Training The Reliability and Validity of Ratings Reliability Validity 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 224 225 225 225 Module 5.4 The Social and Legal Context of Performance Evaluation 227 227 229 230 230 231 233 234 237 The Motivation to Rate Goal Conflict Performance Feedback “Destructive” Criticism 360-Degree Feedback Performance Evaluation and Culture Performance Evaluation and the Law Performance Evaluation and Protected Groups 6 Staffing Decisions Module 6.1 Conceptual Issues in Staffing An Introduction to the Staffing Process The Impact of Staffing Practices on Firm Performance Stakeholders in the Staffing Process Line Managers Co-Workers Applicants Staffing from the International Perspective Module 6.2 Evaluation of Staffing Outcomes Validity Selection Ratios Prediction Errors and Cut Scores Establishing Cut Scores Utility Fairness Module 6.3 Practical Issues in Staffing A Staffing Model Comprehensive Selection Systems Compensatory Selection Systems 241 242 242 243 245 245 245 246 247 249 249 250 251 252 253 254 256 256 256 256 Contents Combining Information Statistical versus Clinical Decision Making The Hurdle System of Combining Scores Combining Scores by Regression (The Compensatory Approach) Score Banding Subgroup Norming Deselection Number of Decisions to Be Made Large Staffing Projects Small Staffing Projects 21st-Century Staffing 257 257 258 259 260 261 261 262 262 263 264 Module 6.4 Legal Issues in Staffing Decisions 267 267 268 269 269 269 271 Charges of Employment Discrimination Employment Discrimination Outside of the United States Theories of Discrimination Intentional Discrimination or Adverse Treatment Unintentional Discrimination or Adverse Impact Case Study 6.1 7 Training and Development Module 7.1 Foundations of Training and Learning Training, Learning, and Performance Training Needs Analysis The Learning Process in Training Trainee Characteristics Learning and Motivational Theories Applied to Training Principles of Learning Learning Organizations Module 7.2 Content and Methods of Training Training Methods On-Site Training Methods Off-Site Training Methods Distance Learning and Computer-Based Training Training “Critical Thinking” Transfer of Training Module 7.3 Evaluating Training Programs Training Evaluation Training Criteria Utility Analysis Training Evaluation Designs Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in Training Module 7.4 Specialized Training Programs Management and Leadership Development Assessment Centers 360-Degree Feedback 275 276 277 278 281 281 283 285 287 290 290 290 292 293 294 295 298 298 299 300 300 302 304 304 304 305 xiii xiv Contents Coaching Informal Training Sexual Harassment Awareness Training Ethics Training Cross-Cultural Training 306 307 308 309 310 PART 3 ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 8 The Motivation to Work Module 8.1 An Introduction to Motivation The Central Position of Motivation in Psychology A Brief History of Motivation Theory in I-O Psychology Metaphors for Motivation Person as Machine Person as Scientist The Meaning and Importance of Motivation in the Workplace Motivation and Performance Motivation and Work–Life Balance Motivation and Personality Module 8.2 Motivational Theories—Classic Approaches Person-as-Machine Theories An Internal Mechanical Theory: Maslow’s Need Theory An External Mechanical Theory: Reinforcement Theory Person-as-Scientist Theories Vroom’s VIE Theory Equity Theory Module 8.3 Modern Approaches to Work Motivation Person-as-Intentional Approaches Goal-Setting Theory Control Theories and the Concept of Self-Regulation The Concept of Self-Efficacy in Modern Motivation Theory Action Theory Common Themes in Modern Approaches A New Motivational Topic: The Entrepreneur Module 8.4 Practical Issues in Motivation Can Motivation Be Measured? Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivation Generational Differences and Work Motivation Motivational Interventions Contingent Rewards Job Enrichment ProMES 317 318 318 319 320 320 321 322 322 323 324 326 326 326 328 329 330 331 334 334 334 338 339 340 341 342 346 346 347 349 351 351 352 353 Contents 9 Attitudes, Emotions, and Work Module 9.1 Work Attitudes The Experience of Emotion at Work Job Satisfaction: Some History The Early Period of Job Satisfaction Research Antecedents and Consequences of Job Satisfaction The Measurement of Job Satisfaction Overall versus Facet Satisfaction Satisfaction Questionnaires The Concept of Commitment Forms of Commitment Organizational Identification Employee Engagement Module 9.2 Moods, Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior Is Everybody Happy? Does It Matter If They Are? The Concept of “Resigned” Work Satisfaction Satisfaction versus Mood versus Emotion Dispositions and Affectivity The Time Course of Emotional Experience Genetics and Job Satisfaction The Concept of Core Self-Evaluations Withdrawal Behaviors Module 9.3 Special Topics Related to Attitudes and Emotions Job Loss Telecommuting Work–Family Balance Psychological Contracts Work-Related Attitudes and Emotions from the CrossCultural Perspective 355 356 356 357 357 359 361 363 363 365 365 367 370 372 372 372 374 376 377 379 379 382 384 384 386 388 390 391 10 Stress and Worker Well-Being 395 Module 10.1 The Problem of Stress 396 396 398 399 399 400 404 404 405 407 408 408 409 Studying Workplace Stress What Is a Stressor? Common Stressors at Work Physical/Task Stressors Psychological Stressors Consequences of Stress Behavioral Consequences of Stress Psychological Consequences of Stress Physiological Consequences of Stress Work Schedules Shift Work Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules xv xvi Contents Module 10.2 Theories of Stress Demand–Control Model Person–Environment Fit Model Individual Differences in Resistance to Stress The Type A Behavior Pattern Module 10.3 Reducing and Managing Stress Primary Prevention Strategies Work and Job Design Cognitive Restructuring Secondary Prevention Strategies Stress Management Training Relaxation and Biofeedback Techniques Social Support Tertiary Prevention Strategies Summary of Stress Intervention Strategies Future Work Trends and Challenges to Stress and Stress Management Module 10.4 Violence at Work Stress and Workplace Violence Levels of Violence The Experiential Sequence of Violence The “Typical” Violent Worker Theories of Workplace Violence Frustration–Aggression Hypothesis The “Justice” Hypothesis A Special Type of Violence: Bullying What Can We Conclude about Workplace Violence? 11 Fairness and Diversity in the Workplace Module 11.1 Fairness The Concept of Justice Justice, Fairness, and Trust Approaches to Organizational Justice Distributive Justice Procedural Justice Interactional Justice Deontic Justice Justice versus Injustice Module 11.2 The Practical Implications of Justice Perceptions Performance Evaluation Applicant Perceptions of Selection Procedures A Special Case of Applicant Reactions: Stereotype Threat 413 413 414 415 416 421 422 422 423 423 424 424 425 426 426 427 429 430 431 432 432 433 433 434 436 439 441 442 442 444 445 446 447 449 451 451 453 454 455 457 Contents The Special Case of Affirmative Action Culture and Affirmative Action Programs 459 462 Module 11.3 Diversity 464 464 465 467 468 471 What Does Diversity Mean? The Dynamics of Diversity Group and Multicultural Diversity Managing Diversity from the Organizational Perspective Leadership and Diversity 12 Leadership Module 12.1 The Concept of Leadership Some Conceptual Distinctions Leader Emergence versus Leadership Effectiveness Leader Emergence The Problem of Defining Leadership Outcomes Negative Leadership Outcomes: The Destructive Leader Leader versus Manager or Supervisor The Blending of Managerial and Leadership Roles Leader Development versus Leadership Development The Motivation to Lead Module 12.2 Traditional Theories of Leadership The “Great Man” Theories The Trait Approach The Power Approach to Leadership The Behavioral Approach The Ohio State University Studies The University of Michigan Studies The Contingency Approach The Consequences of Participation: The Vroom–Yetton Model Module 12.3 New Approaches to Leadership Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Transformational Leadership Authentic Leadership The Charismatic Leader Module 12.4 Emerging Topics and Challenges in Leadership Research Leadership in a Changing Workplace Male and Female Leaders: Are They Different? The Demographics of Leadership The Leadership Styles of Men and Women Personality and Leadership 473 474 474 475 475 476 477 478 479 481 482 485 485 486 486 487 487 489 490 491 494 494 496 499 500 503 503 505 505 507 509 xvii xviii Contents Cross-Cultural Studies of Leadership Leadership in a Diverse Environment Guidelines for Effective Leadership 511 514 515 13 Teams in Organizations 517 Module 13.1 Types of Teams 518 519 519 520 521 521 523 Groups and Teams: Definitions Types of Teams Quality Circles Project Teams Production Teams Virtual Teams Module 13.2 Input-Process-Output Model of Team Effectiveness Team Inputs Organizational Context Team Task Team Composition Team Diversity Team Processes Norms Communication and Coordination Cohesion Decision Making Team Outputs Module 13.3 Special Issues in Teams Team Appraisal and Feedback ProMES Team Roles Team Development Team Training Cultural Issues in Teams 14 The Organization of Work Behavior Module 14.1 The Conceptual and Theoretical Foundations of Organizations Organizations and People Organization as Integration Theories of Organization Classic Organizational Theory Human Relations Theory Contingency Theories Systems Theory Conclusions about Theories of Organization 527 528 528 528 528 531 532 532 533 533 535 536 539 539 540 541 542 544 545 547 548 548 551 552 552 554 555 559 561 Contents Module 14.2 Some Social Dynamics of Organizations Climate and Culture A Brief History of Climate and Culture Organizational Climate and Culture from the Multicultural Perspective When Cultures Clash An Application of Culture and Climate: Safety Socialization and the Concept of Person–Organization (P–O) and Person–Job (P–J) Fit Organizational Socialization Positive Consequences of Socialization Socialization and National Culture Models of Socialization and Person–Organization Fit Module 14.3 Organizational Development and Change Organizational Change Episodic Change Continuous Change Resistance to Change Examples of Large-Scale Organizational Change Initiatives Total Quality Management (TQM) Six Sigma Systems Lean Production Manufacturing Emerging Commonalities among Organizational Interventions Glossary References Name Index Subject Index 563 563 564 565 566 567 570 570 573 574 575 580 580 581 582 584 585 585 586 587 588 G-1 R-1 I-1 I-16 xix Preface In the first three editions of this book, we pursued the premise that the world of work in the 21st century was very different from what it had been as recently as 15 years earlier. That premise is even more relevant today and worth repeating. Today’s workplace is technological and multicultural. Work is often accomplished by teams rather than by single individuals. In any given company or department, there is greater diversity in terms of demographic characteristics, interests, and styles than in past decades. Although mental and physical abilities remain important attributes for predicting job success, other attributes such as personality, interpersonal skills, and emotional intelligence are receiving increased attention. A satisfying life is increasingly defined as striking a balance between work and non-work. In addition, the psychological stability of work may be at an all-time low. Mergers, acquisitions, downsizing, outsourcing, the challenges to financial and housing markets, and rapidly changing technologies have all made the idea of lifelong employment at one company, or even in one occupation, an elusive dream. This text ties together all of these themes in a way that explores the rich and intriguing nature of the modern workplace. An important thing to keep in mind in studying I-O psychology is that work is complex and cannot be reduced to a set of equations or principles. In the real world, all of the components of work, the work environment, and, most importantly, the people who populate the workplace interact in complicated ways. For example, in considering organizational and individual effectiveness, we cannot think of hiring strategies in a vacuum. Hiring is preceded by recruiting and screening. It is followed by training and socialization. Once the individual joins the organization, there are issues of satisfaction, performance, rewards, and motivation. The way the organization is designed, both psychologically and physically, can limit or enhance productive efforts and worker emotions. This textbook necessarily treats these topics one at a time, but no topic covered in the text can really stand alone. In the real world, the topics are related, and we will show these relationships in the text. Objectives for the Fourth Edition The first three editions of this text were warmly received by both instructors and students, not only in the United States but internationally as well. The objectives for this fourth edition are to retain the accessibility of the first three editions, incorporate the latest research findings, and provide organizational applications of the principles of I-O psychology. Accessibility A continuing goal of this book is to package information in a way that makes it accessible to students and instructors. The fourth edition retains the 14-chapter format, which we believe provides a comfortable way to present the substance of I-O psychology. We have also retained the four-color design, which brings I-O psychology to life, especially with the use of color photographs. The art program also engages students with New Yorker and Dilbert cartoons, carefully chosen to emphasize the point at hand. Although recent I-O research provides a wealth of new material to explore, the book’s length has been reduced in this fourth edition by omitting, or streamlining the discussion of, less current material. xx Preface Cutting Edge Topics and Research As has been the custom in earlier editions, this edition provides the most important citations for topics rather than all relevant citations. When the first edition was published, it had the most current coverage of the field of I-O in any available text. That remained true of the second and third editions, and it is now true of the fourth edition as well. This edition presents many new topics, including social networking sites (e.g., Facebook) and the workplace, I-O psychologists’ role in sustainable and environmentally conscious organizations, employee engagement, genetics and entrepreneurship, SIOP’s new status as a consultative nongovernmental organization (NGO) to the United Nations, and evidence-based I-O psychology. There is expanded coverage of many topics, including international and cross-cultural issues, competency modeling, core self-evaluations, legal issues, entrepreneurial motivation, authentic leadership, personality-based job analysis, emotional intelligence, bullying, leader stereotypes, emotional labor, procedural justice in performance evaluations, and telecommuting. Applying I-O Psychology Principles Industrial-organizational psychology is a dynamic field with many applications to real-life experiences. Throughout the text, you will find applications of I-O principles ranging from popular television shows like The Apprentice to timely examples like the Wal-Mart gender discrimination lawsuit and the growing use of technology in training and in teams. Structure of the Book: Parts, Chapters, and Modules Because the field of industrial and organizational psychology is so broad, the text is broken into three parts. Part I, “Fundamentals,” addresses the basics of the field by examining what I-O psychologists do and where they do it, as well as the methods we use to accomplish research and application. Part II, “Industrial Psychology,” considers topics in personnel psychology such as individual differences, assessment, job performance, job analysis, performance evaluation, staffing, and training. Part III, “Organizational Psychology,” examines organizational topics such as motivation, work attitudes, stress and workplace health, fairness, leadership, work teams, and organizational design. Within each chapter, concepts and topics have been further divided into stand-alone modules, which offer a great deal of flexibility for learning and instruction. A module consists of material that is relatively homogeneous within a particular chapter. As examples, one module might deal with the historical development of a concept, the second with modern approaches, the third with applications of the concept, and the fourth with related concepts. Some chapters have as few as three modules, whereas others have four or five modules, depending on how much material is covered by the chapter. Each module ends with a summary of the main points and a list of glossary terms. Every module can be considered valuable in one way or another. Nevertheless, covering every module may not be compatible with every course syllabus. Thus, each module has been designed as a stand-alone unit, permitting the instructor to cover or skip any particular module. As an example, an instructor might cover the first three modules in a chapter but choose to skip the final module on “Specialized Topics.” This modular approach gives instructors maximum flexibility. In addition to covering or deleting a module within a chapter, or changing the order of modules within a chapter, an instructor can assign modules across chapters, in essence creating a new “chapter.” For example, an instructor might assign a module on statistics from Chapter 2, a module on job analysis from Chapter 4, and a module on assessment from Chapter 3 to create a “validity” chapter. Although we believe that the modules within a chapter complement one another, instructors might prefer a different order of modules. xxi xxii Preface As you read through the book, you will notice that a given topic may appear in several different chapters. That is not a mistake or oversight. The fact is that some topics have relevance in many different chapters, and to mention them only once presents too simplistic a view of work dynamics. As an example, competencies are higher-order forms of ability, personality, interests, and attitudes. Competency modeling is an enhanced form of job analysis. Competencies can be learned, and there are both leader competencies and team competencies. This means that you will see the term “competency” in several chapters. Even though you will see the term often, it will be treated from a different perspective each time it appears. You will see similar treatments of issues related to work/family balance. This balance is important in the attitudes that an individual holds toward work and organizations. Balance is also important in addressing work stress and work design. So “balance” will appear in multiple chapters. We hope that this method of treatment provides a richer understanding of the effects of work on people and people on work. Supplements for Students and Instructors Work in the 21st Century offers several supplements to enhance learning processes and teaching activities. The supplements are available on the text’s website: www.wiley.com/ college/landy Website for Instructors The instructor side of the Work in the 21st Century website contains all the material instructors need for course design, and it is a convenient way to access the Instructor’s Manual, Test Bank, PowerPoint slides, Internet resources for each chapter, and supplementary material. Instructor’s Manual The Instructor’s Manual includes learning objectives, chapter outlines, glossary terms, and suggestions for class discussions and activities. PowerPoint Slides This package of 30–50 slides per chapter includes lecture outlines in addition to figures and tables from the text. The slides can be used as is or customized to match your course design and goals. Test Bank This array of 30–50 multiple-choice items per chapter covers all the important concepts with factual and applied questions as well as questions of a more conceptual nature to facilitate critical thinking. Website for Students The student side of the Work in the 21st Century website at www.wiley.com/college/landy contains the Student Study Guide and Workbook as well as links to a variety of Internet resources for further exploration. Preface Student Study Guide and Workbook Available on the student side of the website, this study guide is a valuable tool for maximizing students’ understanding of material and preparation for exams. The guide was developed in close conjunction with the textbook and facilitates the instructor’s course design by providing students with the same learning objectives, chapter outlines, and glossary terms as the Instructor’s Manual. In addition, it includes practice exam questions and exercises for each chapter. The workbook exercises, based on organizational issues that I-O psychologists are often asked to study and resolve, promote active learning, critical thinking, and practical applications of the ideas and concepts discussed in class and in the textbook. Acknowledgments Throughout our work on all four editions of this book, many colleagues have been kind enough to send us their work in particular areas or to provide helpful suggestions for particular topics. These colleagues include Patti Ambrose, Bruce Avolio, Zeynep Aycan, Talya Bauer, Laura Borgogni, Wally Borman, André Büssing, Dan Cable, Paula Caligiuri, Gian Vittorio Caprara, Gary Carter, Wayne Cascio, Diane Catanzaro, Donna Chrobot-Mason, Jan Cleveland, Cary Cooper, Filip de Fruyt, Peter Dorfman, Fritz Drasgow, Dov Eden, Miriam Erez, Jim Farr, Harold Goldstein, Irv Goldstein, Randy Gordon, Mark Griffin, Art Gutman, Richard Hackman, Lee Hakel, Michael Harris, Dave Harrison, Chris Hartel, Beryl Hesketh, Scott Highhouse, David Hofmann, Geert Hofstede, Ann Howard, Susan Jackson, Dick Jeanneret, Ruth Kanfer, Jerry Kehoe, Rich Klimoski, Laura Koppes, Steve Kozlowski, Filip Lievens, David Lubinski, Dianne Maranto, John Mathieu, Jack Mayer, Terry Mitchell, Susan Mohammed, David Morris, Nigel Nicholson, Rupande Padaki, Sharon Parker, Elizabeth Poposki, Bob Pritchard, Anat Rafaeli, Doug Reynolds, Tracey Rizzuto, Ivan Roberston, Robert Roe, Paul Sackett, Wilmar Schaufeli, Gary Schmidt, Heinz Schuler, Graham Seager, Norbert Semmer, Peter Smith, Karen Smola, Dirk Steiner, Robert Tett, Paul Thayer, Kecia Thomas, Susan Vanhemmel, Peter Warr, Dieter Zapf, and Shelly Zedeck. In addition, several colleagues went well out of their way to help us by providing reviews of draft material, suggestions for additional research, and contacts with researchers whose excellent work might have gone unnoticed. These colleagues include Robert Baron, Dave Bartram, Stuart Carr, David Day, Michelle Dean, Michael Frese, Bob Guion, Rick Jacobs, Tim Judge, Kurt Kraiger, David Kravitz, Kevin Murphy, Neal Schmitt, Ben Schneider, Rolf van Dick, Bernie Weiner, Howard Weiss, and Bob Wood. Several colleagues at Landy Litigation Support Group (LLSG) and San Diego State University (SDSU) provided substantive and logistic support throughout multiple editions of work on this book. At LLSG, these include Kylie Harper, Barb Nett, Erik Olson, and Angie Rosenbaum. At SDSU, many colleagues within and outside the psychology department helped to provide a supportive environment in which to work. In particular, Mark Ehrhart, Kate Hattrup, Lisa Kath, Jorg Matt, Scott Roesch, and Emilio Ulloa represent a wonderful group of applied psychologists at SDSU. Lauren Ostroski, Gina Sadler, and Jacob Seybert provided outstanding support in identifying relevant research updates. Thanks are also due to those who accepted Wiley’s invitation to review the previous edition of this book. These reviewers include Michele Baranczyk (Kutztown University), Tara Behrend (George Washington University), Margaret Beier (Rice University), Jeremy Beus (Texas A&M University), John Binning (Illinois State University), Greg Loviscky (Penn State University), Russell Matthews (Louisiana State University), and Mitchell Sherman (University of Wisconsin–Stout). xxiii xxiv Preface Our editorial team at Wiley was led by acquisitions editor Robert Johnston and assistant editor Brittany Cheetham, both of whom provided expert guidance through all of the critical steps in developing this fourth edition. We are also grateful for the assistance and support of our previous executive editor, Chris Cardone, who brought us to Blackwell Publishing before it merged with Wiley. We are very fortunate to have had the help and guidance of freelance development editor Elsa Peterson on multiple editions of this book. Elsa is a spectacular editor and a good friend who enhances everything she touches. Senior production editor Anna Melhorn oversaw the transformation of the manuscript into the book, and production editor Suzanne Ingrao did a fantastic job of seeing the book through the copyediting and proofing stages. Photo editor Sheena Goldstein was very helpful in identifying relevant photos that highlighted concepts in the text. Margaret Barrett and Patrick Flatley have taken charge of bringing the text to the attention of our target audience of instructors and students. We express our heartfelt thanks to these individuals and the many other members of our Wiley team. A Note from Jeff Conte Frank Landy’s influence on me and on this book is immeasurable. He was my advisor, mentor, textbook co-author, advocate, and friend. I feel very fortunate to have worked so closely with Frank on this textbook for over a decade. During the course of our work on the book, we had many interesting discussions and debates about I-O psychology, work, life, and work/life balance. We worked very hard on this book, but we also had a lot of fun, including many belly laughs that were often brought on by an outrageous but accurate remark by Frank. I miss him greatly, and I know many others in the field do, too. Frank’s knowledge and ideas about I-O psychology live on in this book and in his many other publications. In addition, I’d like to highlight two sources that show Frank’s personality and zest for life. First, the April 2010 issue of The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist (http://www.siop.org/tip/april10/toc.aspx) is dedicated to Frank and includes several fond and funny stories about him. Second, Frank’s autobiography (http://www. siop.org/Presidents/landy.aspx), written as part of his responsibilities after having served as president of SIOP, provides an engaging and entertaining view of a series of developmental episodes in Frank’s career and life. I would like to thank Kylie Harper, Frank’s wife, for writing Frank’s updated author bio. I also thank Rick Jacobs, a friend and mentor who has greatly influenced my thinking about I-O psychology and who has been very supportive throughout my career. I greatly appreciate the support and encouragement that I have received over the years from my parents (Anne and Tom) and siblings (T. J., Scott, and Deanna). I would also like to thank Paula Caligiuri and Kat Ringenbach for their support throughout the four editions of this book. I am very thankful to Kevin and Mary Dean, who have helped in so many ways with our home and family life over the past few years. Most importantly, I would like to thank my wife, Michelle Dean, and my daughters, Caroline and Colleen, for their support while I was working on this book and for the wonderful diversions they provided when I was taking breaks. I welcome and appreciate comments and suggestions about the book from instructors and students alike. I look forward to receiving feedback about the book and improving future editions based on this feedback. Jeff Conte jeff.conte@mail.sdsu.edu Fundamentals 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? 2 Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychology 3 49 Echo/Getty Images, Inc. I This page is intentionally left blank 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? Module 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology 4 A Personal View of the Future: Preparing for a Career in I-O Psychology 26 The Importance of Work in People’s Lives 4 Education and Training 26 Getting into a Graduate Program 27 How Does I-O Psychology Contribute to Society? 7 What Is I-O Psychology? 7 Evidence-Based I-O Psychology 11 SIOP as a Resource 12 How This Course Can Help You 12 The Importance of Understanding the Younger Worker 14 Module 1.2 The Past, Present, and Future of I-O Psychology 17 The Past: A Brief History of I-O Psychology 17 1876–1930 1930–1964 18 20 The Present: The Demographics of I-O Psychologists 23 Pathways to a Career in I-O Psychology: A Curious Mixture 24 What We Call Ourselves 25 The Future: The Challenges to I-O Psychology in the 21st Century 25 Module 1.3 Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in I-O Psychology 29 The Multicultural Nature of Life in the 21st Century 29 Cross-National Issues in the Workplace 31 Why Should Multiculturalism Be Important to You? 33 Why Is Multiculturalism Important for I-O Psychology? 33 Some Theories of Cultural Influence 35 Hofstede’s Theory 35 Some Thoughts on Theories of Cultural Influence 39 Module 1.4 The Organization of This Book 41 Themes Parts 41 42 Resources 42 Case Study 1.1 45 © Shelley Dennis/iStockphoto The Concept of “Good Work” 5 Authenticity: A Trend of Interest to I-O Psychologists 7 MODULE 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology The Importance of Work in People’s Lives Most adults devote the majority of their waking weekday (and often weekends as well!) to work. High school and college students, too, find themselves using a great deal of their discretionary hours in part-time jobs, particularly during the summer months. For many, this is a greater devotion of time and energy than to any other single waking human activity. For this reason alone, we can assume that work is important to people. Then there is the fact that most people need to earn money, and they do so by working. But the experience of work goes well beyond the simple exchange of time for money. Work is easy to describe to others and, as a result, has been the subject of many good nonpsychological books about the experience of work. For example, a book called Gig (Bowe, Bowe, & Streeter, 2000) presented interviews with workers describing their jobs. It is easy to find the best and the worst work experiences in those interviews. Consider the two workers quoted in Box 1.1: a bus driver in Los Angeles who describes her work as a good experience and a flagger on state highways in Kentucky who describes it in less favorable terms. Although these interviews are at the lower rungs on the job ladder, they tell us as much about the meaning of work as interviews with CEOs, engineers, and midlevel managers. In spite of ambivalent feelings about their jobs, most people would keep working even if they had the opportunity to stop. The National Research Council, in a book about the changing nature of work (NRC, 1999), adds support to this observation. When asked the question “If you were to get enough money to live as comfortably as you would like for the rest of your life, would you continue to work or would you stop working?” the percentage of people reporting that they would continue working has averaged approximately 70 percent since at least 1973. This is dramatic evidence of the centrality of work as a noneconomic experience. This is strong testimony to the meaning of work—not a particular job, but the experience of working—in defining who we are. The importance of work is further confirmed by talking to people who are about to lose or who have lost their jobs. As we will see, work is a defining characteristic of the way people gauge their value to society, their family, and themselves. 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology BOX 1.1 INTERVIEWS FROM GIG: AMERICANS TALK ABOUT THEIR JOBS AT THE TURN OF THE MILLENNIUM (BOWE ET AL., 2000) I’m a “bus operator.” They don’t like calling us bus drivers, they like to call us “bus operators.” I have no idea what the difference is. “You’re not bus drivers, you’re bus operators.” Okay, no problem. . . . The route I prefer—everybody thinks I’m nuts— is the 81. . . . Let’s face it, the 81, basically we pick up the poor people. The 81 is basically what they consider the low-class passengers. But for being low class, they pay. And they don’t give me any hassles. And they always say, “Hi, how are you?” Or “Good afternoon,” or “Good morning.” . . . Of course, the biggest thing is learning about how to deal with so many different types of people. You deal with different nationalities. Different kinds of everything. You gotta know the rules. In this part of town, they treat me good, maybe because they see me as the same nationality. But, like, when I go to South Central, umm, it’s okay for them to treat me like garbage, but I can’t go around and treat them like garbage. That’s the way it is. And then like when I go into San Marino or Beverly Hills, I get treated different and I have to treat them different, because hey, I’m nothing compared to what they are. You learn to read and you have to adjust yourself to whatever area you’re driving in. Because each area is different and people act different. And every day is something new. Fortunately, for me, I enjoy that aspect. Most of the time, I love these people. They make the job for me. (pp. 151–153) a piece of shit you are for holding people up. A town’ll call in and want a pothole fixed, but they don’t want to stop and wait while you actually do the work. So it’s just really—it’s aggravating that you’re tryin’ to do your job yet you’re gettin’ bitched at for doin’ it. . . . [And] after you do let traffic go and you’re standin’ off to the side of the road letting ‘em go by, they’ll swerve over like they’re goin’ to hit you. Just to be mean, I guess. But that’s not the worst. The worst is to be the back flagger, the one who works behind all the equipment as they go up the road blacktopping. Because when they lay the blacktop, it’s just incredibly hot, so you’re standin’ on this fresh laid blacktop that’s, I think, three hundred degrees. . . . But, you know, I kind of like it. Because it’s a challenge. I feel like I’ve accomplished something just standing out there, just making it through each day. Because I guess when I first started working, I was the first girl that worked here. . . . I was actually the first girl to ever work on the road crew. (pp. 139–140) SOURCE: Bowe, J., Bowe, M., & Streeter, S. (2000). Gig: Americans talk about their jobs at the turn of the millennium. Copyright © 2000, 2001 by John Bowe, Marisa Bowe, and Sabin Streeter. Used by permission of Crown Publishers, a division of Random House, Inc. and Levine, Plotkin & Menin, LLC. Any third party use of this material, outside of this publication, is prohibited. Interested parties must apply directly to Random House, Inc. and Levine, Plotkin & Menin, LLC for permission. ****** Flagging’s miserable. Your feet hurt, your back aches, and constantly all day long you’re told what The Concept of “Good Work” Gardner (2002) notes that psychology has often ignored how workers actually “conceptualize their daily experiences—the goals and concerns they bring to the workplace.” He goes on to characterize what he calls “good work” (Gardner, Csikszentmihalyi, & Damon, 2001). Good work is work that “exhibits a high level of expertise, and it entails regular concern with the implications and applications of an individual’s work for the wider world” (Gardner, 2002, p. B7). These concepts have been turned into an extensive endeavor, called the “GoodWork Project,” which is directed toward identifying and, if possible, creating good work. As the project leaders point out, good work is tougher to do than it might seem. “Pressure to keep costs low and profits high, to do more in less time, and to fulfill numerous life roles, including that of a parent, a spouse, a friend, 5 Chapter 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? (a student!!), a worker, can all make cutting corners tempting” (www.goodworkproject.org). This “corner cutting” leads to what the researchers call “compromised” work: work that is not illegal or unethical, but that still undermines the core values of a trade or a profession—the lawyer who creates opportunities for billing extra hours, the plumber who uses inferior, cheaper materials for a repair. Martin Luther King, Jr., captured the essence of good work eloquently: “If a man is called to be a street sweeper, he should sweep streets even as Michelangelo painted, Beethoven composed music, or Shakespeare wrote poetry. He should sweep streets so well that all heaven and American I-O psychologist David Morris screened applicants in Iraq for several years. earth will pause to say, ‘Here lived a great street sweeper who did his job well’” (King, 1956). Consider the role of an I-O psychologist who worked in Iraq to hire and train the new Iraqi police force. David Morris is an I-O psychologist who had been helping cities and states in the United States select police officers until September 2004. He decided to trade “his comfortable house in Alexandria, Virginia for a bunk bed in the converted office of Baghdad’s former police training facility” (Dingfelder, 2005, p. 34). Every day, Morris and his staff of 15 administered various tests to up to 300 candidates for possible hire. He and his staff could have earned as much if not more screening applicants for the Philadelphia, or Atlanta, or Dallas police force. But instead, they did such screening in Baghdad to help with the restoration of civil order to Iraq. This is good work as well. The interesting aspect of “good” and “bad” work is that the individual worker and the employer together have the power to define good work or to transform good work into bad and vice versa. A disreputable accounting firm can cheat and mislead clients and the public, thus engaging in bad work; that same firm and its employees could be doing good work if they are helping people to manage their money and protect their retirement plans. Good work is not simply the province of politicians or soldiers or relief workers. Gardner describes the depressing consequences of settling for “bad” work: © Photo courtesy of David Morris 6 We resign ourselves to our fate. It is difficult to quit one’s job, let alone one’s whole profession, and few in midlife . . . have the fortitude to do so. As a result, . . . few feel in a position where they can perform good work. (Gardner, 2002, p. B7) The study of work by I-O psychologists and students (you!) is potentially “good work” because it enables you to develop and use skills, and to use them for the benefit of someone other than simply yourself. I-O psychologists have also broadened their focus of study to consider the experience of work. Since the mid-1990s there has been a rapid and substantial increase in I-O research related to the feelings that workers bring to and take from the workplace. In addition, there has been a dramatic increase in research directed toward work–life balance issues. Thus, I-O psychology has recognized that the “experience” of work is more complex than simply tasks and productivity and accidents. You will see the results of this research in Chapter 9. 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology Authenticity: A Trend of Interest to I-O Psychologists I-O psychology often incorporates cultural shifts and changes. In the past few years, “authenticity”—referring to that which is real, genuine, not artificial—has become a popular concept in America. You will see references to “authentic” coffee, music, clothing and furniture lines, foods, and so forth. The attraction of authenticity may also be reflected in some popular TV reality shows such as American Idol, Ice Road Truckers, and The Deadliest Catch, as well as some less dramatic shows dealing with changing families or embarking on a new diet to lose weight. A popular book (Gilmore & Pine, 2007) argues that, in a world where virtual reality is becoming increasingly prevalent, authenticity is “what consumers really want.” In I-O psychology, we might extend the definition of authenticity to a more philosophical level: “an emotionally appropriate, significant, purposive, and responsible mode of human life” (McKean, 2005, p. 106). Viewing authenticity in that way, we can see authenticity reflected in the search for “good work” and inspirational leadership. In fact, the term “authentic leadership,” which had not appeared in the literature before 2002, has now appeared over 50 times since then. We will cover this form of leadership in Chapter 12. In various chapters, we will take note of what appears to be the search for authenticity in work and organizations. How Does I-O Psychology Contribute to Society? What Is I-O Psychology? Throughout this book we will use the term I-O psychology as a synonym for industrial and organizational psychology. The simplest definition of industrial and organizational psychology is “the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting.” In everday conversation, I-O psychologists are often referred to as work psychologists. Don’t be fooled, however, by the phrase “work setting.” The domain of I-O psychology stretches well beyond the physical boundaries of the workplace because many of the factors that influence work behavior are not always found in the work setting. These factors include things like family responsibilities, cultural influences, employment-related legislation, and non-work events (reflect, for example, on how the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, changed the working life of most people). Even more significant is the influence of personality on work behavior. Whereas an individual’s personality may actually influence work behavior, his or her personality is often influenced by events that occurred before he or she began full-time employment. In addition, I-O psychologists are concerned about the effect of work on non-work behaviors. Spouses and children are well aware of the effect of a “bad day at work” on home life. I-O psychology concentrates on the reciprocal impact of work on life and life on work. We can also think of I-O psychology as a combination of knowledge and skills that can be applied in a wide diversity of settings rather than just in the arena of traditional work. The example of David Morris helping to select the Iraqi police force is one of those examples. In a similar vein, I-O psychologists are helping to revise the test given to individuals seeking U.S. naturalization (Ulewicz, 2005). I-O psychologists have become increasingly interested in building sustainable and environmentally conscious organizations (Huffman, Watrons-Rodriguez, Henning, & Berry, 2009). Several I-O psychologists have described efforts to lead the way in helping organizations to be more sustainable (e.g., DuBois & DuBois, 2010; Jackson & Seo, 2010). Some of these efforts Industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology The application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting. 7 Chapter 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? include organizational initiatives that were implemented for traditional business purposes (e.g., cost savings, process efficiency) but can in turn yield environmental benefits, which are also known as eco-benefits (Klein, Sanders, & Huffman, 2011). For example, organizational policies involving online testing and assessment (Chapter 3), telecommuting (Chapter 9), and compressed workweeks (Chapter 9) have all been linked with environmental sustainability. Klein and colleagues (2011) note that I-O psychologists can guide organizations in identifying and measuring their eco-benefits and in promoting these benefits as another important outcome that can be considered along with more traditional outcomes such as individual, team, and I-O psychologists have been instrumental in a micro-loan program to help women in Nicaragua organizational performance. The electronics start their own businesses. company Panasonic (2011) has announced major new eco-sustainability goals (e.g., double the number of drop-off locations in its electronics recycling program from 800 to 1,600 sites, reduce greenhouse gas emissions at its headquarters by half) that are likely to be adopted by other organizations. I-O psychologists can help lead the way in documenting both intended and unintended eco-benefits in organizations. In one of the broadest and most ambitious extensions of I-O psychology, Stuart Carr, a New Zealand I-O psychologist, has suggested ways in which I-O psychologists can bring their expertise to bear on humanitarian issues (Carr, 2007). Along with other I-O psychologists such as Lori Foster Thompson and Adrian Furnham, Carr has been working to promote prosocial applications of psychology called humanitarian work psychology: the application of I-O psychology to the humanitarian arena, especially poverty reduction and the promotion of decent work, aligned with local stakeholders’ needs, and in partnership with global aid/development groups. Carr suggests that our expertise in areas such as team building and training, stereotypes, organizational justice, and mental models is exactly the type of knowledge and skill necessary for bringing together the essential coalition of governments, aid organizations, and private industry. Carr and colleagues have formed a global network of fellow I-O psychologists interested in addressing the I-O contributions to reducing world poverty (http://www.humworkpsy.org/). Carr also writes a column (e.g., Carr, 2012) related to I-O psychology and poverty reduction in the quarterly publication of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology called TIP (The IndustrialOrganizational Psychologist) (see below). In a recent symposium, Carr and other I-O psychologists discussed projects as broad as a U.N. resolution addressing psychological issues in poverty and as narrow as a micro-credit project directed by an I-O psychologist for desperately poor women in rural Nicaragua (Schein, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2008). Interestingly, many in the audience for that symposium were psychology students (SIOP) An association to who expressed great appreciation for examples of how I-O psychologists could make a difwhich many I-O ference in some of the major global problems of the 21st century. Carr’s work, and the exampsychologists, both ples in the previous paragraphs, demonstrate how far-reaching I-O psychology can be. practitioners and A more formal definition of I-O psychology, approached from the perspective of the researchers, belong. Designated as Division 14 of I-O psychologist and what he or she does, has been adopted by the Society for Industrial the American Psychological and Organizational Psychology (an association to which many I-O psychologists, both Association (APA). practitioners and researchers, belong, and which we will refer to in this text by the acronym SIOP): © Panos Pictures 8 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology Industrial-Organizational (called I-O) Psychologists recognize the interdependence of individuals, organizations, and society, and they recognize the impact of factors such as increasing government influences, growing consumer awareness, skill shortages, and the changing nature of the workforce. I-O psychologists facilitate responses to issues and problems involving people at work by serving as advisors and catalysts for business, industry, labor, public, academic, community, and health organizations. They are: Scientists who derive principles of individual, group, and organizational behavior through research; Consultants and staff psychologists who develop scientific knowledge and apply it to the solution of problems at work; and Teachers who train in the research and application of Industrial-Organizational Psychology. (http://www.siop.org/history/crsppp. aspx. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reprinted by permission of SIOP, www.siop.org.) Refer to Tables 1.1 and 1.2 for lists of the common areas of concentration for I-O psychologists and the common job titles they hold. A new series on the SIOP website (http:// www.siop.org/psychatwork.aspx) called “Psychology at Work: What do I-O psychologists TABLE 1.1 Common Areas of Concentration for I-O Psychologists Selection and placement Developing tests Validating tests Analyzing job content Identifying management potential Defending tests against legal challenge Training and development Identifying training and development needs Forming and implementing technical and managerial training programs Evaluating training effectiveness Career planning Organizational development Analyzing organizational structure Maximizing satisfaction and effectiveness of employees Facilitating organizational change Performance measurement Developing measures of performance Measuring the economic benefit of performance Introducing performance evaluation systems Quality of work life Identifying factors associated with job satisfaction Reducing stress in the workplace Redesigning jobs to make them more meaningful Engineering psychology Designing work environments Optimizing person–machine effectiveness Making workplaces safer SOURCE: Adapted from http://www.siop.org/history/ crsppp.aspx. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reprinted by permission of SIOP, www.siop.org. 9 10 Chapter 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? TABLE 1.2 Common Job Titles for I-O Psychologists Staff member, manager, director, vice president of: Personnel Human resources Organizational planning Personnel development Organizational development Management development Personnel research Employee relations Training Affirmative action Assistant, associate, full professor of: Psychology Management Organizational behavior Industrial relations Human resources Corporate consultant Private consultant Research scientist: private sector Research scientist: government Research scientist: military Research scientist: test publisher Personnel psychology Field of psychology that addresses issues such as recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisal, promotion, transfer, and termination. Human resources management (HRM) Practices such as recruitment, selection, retention, training, and development of people (human resources) in order to achieve individual and organizational goals. Organizational psychology Field of psychology that combines research from social psychology and organizational behavior and addresses the emotional and motivational side of work. Human engineering or human factors psychology The study of the capacities and limitations of humans with respect to a particular environment. really do?” provides profiles of I-O psychologists that include how they became interested in I-O psychology, what a typical day is like, what aspects of the job are most challenging, why I-O psychology matters, and advice to future I-O psychologists. Traditionally, I-O psychology has been divided into three major concentrations: personnel psychology, organizational psychology, and human engineering. We will briefly consider each of these concentrations. Even though we will talk about them separately, they often overlap considerably, as we will see. Personnel psychology (often seen as part of human resources management, or HRM) addresses issues such as recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisal, promotion, transfer, and termination. The approach assumes that people are consistently different in their attributes and work behaviors and that information about these differences can be used to predict, maintain, and increase work performance and satisfaction. Organizational psychology combines research and ideas from social psychology and organizational behavior. It addresses the emotional and motivational side of work. It includes topics such as attitudes, fairness, motivation, stress, leadership, teams, and the broader aspects of organizational and work design. In some senses, it concentrates on the reactions of people to work and the action plans that develop as a result of those reactions. Both work and people are variables of interest, and the issue is the extent to which characteristics of the people match the characteristics or demands of the work. Of course, organizational psychology has implications for performance, but they may not be as direct as is the case with personnel psychology. Human engineering (also called human factors psychology) is the study of the capacities and limitations of humans with respect to a particular environment. The human 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology engineering approach is almost the opposite of the personnel approach. Remember, in the personnel approach the goal is to find or fit the best person to the job. In the human engineering approach the task of the human engineer is to develop an environment that is compatible with the characteristics of the worker. The “environmental” aspects this may include are quite diverse; among them are tools, work spaces, information display, shift work, work pace, machine controls, and even the extent to which safety is valued in the organization or work group. Human engineering, more than personnel or organizational psychology, integrates many different disciplines. These disciplines include cognitive science, ergonomics, exercise physiology, and even anatomy. For that reason, we will touch only lightly on topics that form the core of human engineering—work design and safety in the workplace. Nevertheless, if human engineering interests you, there are many excellent texts in the area (e.g., Salvendy, 2006; Wickens & Hollands, 2000; Wickens, Lee, Gordon, & Liu, 2004). In the past few pages, you have seen a number of examples of the capabilities of the I-O psychologist. The most striking characteristic of the profession is that research is actually used to address a concrete problem or issue. There is a clear connection between research conducted using the tools of science and the practice of I-O psychology. This emphasis on the application of scientific knowledge is known as the scientist-practitioner model. This does not mean that every practicing I-O psychologist must also be an active researcher or that every I-O psychologist who does research must be an active practitioner. It simply means that science and practice are both important parts of I-O psychology. As an example, real problems related to medical accidents and mistakes in operating rooms lead to research on safety culture in hospitals. Similarly, university-based research on team training is tested in hospital environments. An excellent popular version of the scientist-practitioner model can be seen in the TV show CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. A badly decomposed body is found and a team of forensic practitioners (i.e., the detectives) bring back samples of clothing, skin, teeth, and so forth to the laboratory for analysis (by the scientists). Sometimes they do their own analysis and sometimes they have more skilled colleagues do the analysis. But regardless of who actually does the analysis, it is done for one reason—to find the murderer. I-O psychology is a bit less exciting than detective work, but the underlying motivation is the same—to address a real issue or problem in the workplace. Evidence-Based I-O Psychology I-O psychologists have become increasingly focused on making evidence-based decisions in their work in organizations. Cascio and Aguinis (2011) have updated their well-known Applied Psychology in HRM textbook with “Evidence-Based Implications for Practice” in every chapter. Many of these evidence-based implications are based on empirical research conducted by I-O psychologists. This trend can also be seen in the human resources (HR) field with Rousseau and Barends’s (2011) discussion about how to become an evidence-based HR practitioner. They suggest that HR practitioners use a decision-making process that combines critical thinking with use of the best available scientific evidence. I-O psychologists are well positioned to develop and utilize evidence-based practices as they have adopted the scientist-practitioner model to guide the field as well as to guide the training of I-O Master’s and PhD students. In a focal article in the journal I-O Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, Briner and Rousseau (2011) point out that the medical field has done a better job of implementing evidence-based practice than has I-O psychology and that making I-O psychology research more accessible to HR practitioners will help with such implementation. In this direction, SIOP and the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) are taking steps to put evidence-based I-O psychology into the hands of HR practitioners by publishing collaborative articles. The first two articles in the series are on “Skill-Based Pay: HR’s Role” and “Driving Customer Satisfaction through HR: Creating and Maintaining a Service Climate,” and many Scientist-practitioner model A model that uses scientific tools and research in the practice of I-O psychology. 11 12 Chapter 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? more articles are planned for this series. This is a promising first step in the process of increasing evidence-based practice and decision making in I-O psychology and the related field of human resources management. Nevertheless, additional collaborative efforts will be needed to increase the use of evidence-based I-O psychology in organizations. SIOP as a Resource The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology is the single best resource for anyone interested in I-O psychology. The society accepts student members. SIOP’s website (www.siop.org) is regularly updated and includes the following types of information: ● ● TIP (The IndustrialOrganizational Psychologist) Quarterly newsletter published by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology; provides I-O psychologists and those interested in I-O psychology with the latest relevant information about the field. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● The history of I-O psychology and of SIOP Membership information An electronic version of the quarterly newsletter of SIOP, called TIP (The IndustrialOrganizational Psychologist) JobNet, a system that matches employers seeking I-O psychologists with applicants for I-O positions A listing of educational institutions that offer graduate training programs in I-O psychology A list of SIOP publications A list of upcoming conferences A social media page that includes information about SIOP’s Facebook, Twitter, Exchange Blog, and Wiki sites High-interest topics to I-O psychologists How This Course Can Help You Working is a part of almost everyone’s life. Outside of the classroom, you will likely do what most other people do: spend 50 percent or more of your waking weekday hours at work. This means that a course in I-O psychology should benefit you in several ways. First, it can help you understand what you are experiencing in the workplace. Most students have an exposure to work by the time they finish high school. Most continue to work in some capacity in college (during the summer and/or at part-time jobs during the school year). This textbook does not tell you what emotions to experience at work. Instead, we try to provide a broader context for you to understand various policies and practices that you are likely to experience in your work. For example, material in this text will provide a basis for knowing if the HR policies your organization follows are new or old, tested or untested, likely to be effective or ineffective. Second, chances are that you will eventually be placed in the position of managing the work of others and in that role either developing or at least implementing work-related policies. You may very well become a leader even without asking to be one. The material of this course and the text itself should provide you with a good foundation for developing and/or implementing effective policies. Third, in the course of your daily life you will almost certainly hear friends and family talk about their joys and frustrations with their organizations and work. Many of them will not have the understanding gained from a course like the one you are taking now. You will be able to act as a resource in helping them understand the policies that are affecting them. You might wonder why a course in I-O might be preferred over a course in human resources, or labor relations, or general management. The answer can be found in the earlier discussion of the scientist-practitioner model. That is how I-O is different. It applies 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology the results of scientific research to real-world problems. These other courses consider the same real-world problems, but they do not depend on research for drawing conclusions. Instead they depend on experience, or current practices, or suggested “best” practices. And this is a valuable approach as well, but an I-O course is built around the results of scientific research. Although most of the students who read this book for a course they are taking will be neither active researchers nor active practitioners of I-O psychology, there is a high probability that they will be consumers of I-O research in considering their own jobs or the jobs of subordinates. In addition, many will be exposed to concepts of I-O psychology through interactions with psychological consultants or other managers. This course will help those readers become knowledgeable consumers. You will see another benefit from this course that goes beyond the relationship of you or your friends and relatives to a particular organization or job. There are national debates that relate to work. As a result of having taken this course, you will be better informed about many of the issues that form these debates than your colleagues or relatives. As examples of the debates that are currently on the table, consider the following: 1. Is employment discrimination old news or is it still occurring? If it is occurring, who are its most common victims? To the extent that it is occurring, what can be done to reduce it? What are the various steps in an employment discrimination lawsuit? 2. How serious is the issue of stress in the workplace? How can workplace stress affect the rest of your life? Is stress a legitimate “disease”? Can it be considered as an occupational hazard? How can stress be reduced at work? 3. Are today’s workplaces adequately safe? How can work be made safer? What are the respective responsibilities of workers and employers for creating and maintaining safety at the workplace? 4. How can the jobless be brought back into the workforce? How effective are welfareto-work programs, which require work in return for government subsidies? What can be done to increase the probability of today’s welfare recipient becoming tomorrow’s full-time employee? If the government proposes to pay welfare recipients less than the minimum wage in return for their work requirement, will this help or hinder the passage from welfare to work? 5. To what extent should work and non-work lives be kept separate? Should working parents expect their employing organizations to provide family-friendly workplaces? In households with two wage earners, how can both partners lead productive and satisfying work lives yet still maintain a productive and satisfying relationship with each other? 6. Do foreign-based companies actually have better methods of production, or are they more profitable simply because they pay their workers less? Is there any value to U.S. employers in adopting the work practices of other countries, or should we stick with what has made America great? Should everyone working for an American company, either in the United States or in another country, be expected to accept American culture as part of the work environment? These are just some of the debates that you will see in any newspaper or on any television news program over the course of several months. When you have finished this course, you will have a knowledge base to discuss these and similar issues responsibly. That does not mean that you can solve these problems, but it does mean that you will have something sensible and unique to add to the discussion. You may also have discussions with others who have taken a course like this; perhaps your parents, co-workers, or managers. If they have not taken this course in the past 5 to Welfare-to-work program Program that requires individuals to work in return for government subsidies. 13 14 Chapter 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? 10 years, they may be working from an outdated experience and knowledge base. Just consider how the world has changed since, say, the 1980s: ● Telecommuting Accomplishing work tasks from a distant location using electronic communication media. Virtual team Team that has widely dispersed members working together toward a common goal and linked through computers and other technology. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personal computers now dominate the workplace. Many workers do their work from home (telecommute), and many work groups and work teams are located in many different offices and work as virtual teams, seldom if ever meeting physically as a group. Client meetings, organizational meetings, and training are conducted through videoconferencing. Work performance can be monitored electronically. Three out of every five jobs are now directly or indirectly providing a service rather than manufacturing “goods.” Increasingly more work is done by teams as opposed to individuals. There is little stability in many business sectors. Downsizing, rightsizing, mergers, and acquisitions have radically altered the psychological contract between an organization and its employees so that few workers can expect to spend their careers with one organization. Workers are expecting greater recognition and support from their organizations with respect to creating and maintaining family-friendly workplaces. Workforces are becoming increasingly diverse, and not only in terms of age, gender, sexual orientation, race, and disability. Managing diversity today means embracing an increasingly broad spectrum of interests, values, attitudes, and cultures. The nature of work has become more fluid, where jobs may not be well defined, tasks may not be routine, and the groups assigned to tasks may vary in their type and number of people. Work is now international or global. The information you derive from this course will be substantially different from what your parents’ generation learned in a similar course. The Importance of Understanding the Younger Worker A great deal of the published research in I-O psychology deals with managerial, professional, and other white-collar full-time employees who are older than a category that might be labeled “young adults.” In the 21st century, we need to question the appropriateness of this research focus. As Loughlin and Barling (2001) report, in Austria, Denmark, and Sweden combined, approximately 70 percent of young people between the ages of 15 and 24 are employed in some capacity. In the United States and Canada, 80 percent of high school students work for pay. By 12th grade, most of these students are employed for more than 20 hours per week. Loughlin and Barling (2001) argue that it is a mistake to ignore the population of young workers for several reasons: (1) They represent a large portion of a population of parttime workers, and as part-time work becomes more common, we need to know all we can about the experience of part-time work; (2) one’s first job is likely to have a substantial influence on the filters through which subsequent work experiences are viewed. As Loughlin and Barling (2001) suggest, “teenagers seem to be more influenced by their work environments than adults and . . . these attitudes and aspirations are stable once established during teenage years” (p. 548). Mainstream literature tends to characterize the “first job” as the first full-time job after a decision is made to forgo further education. But your first job might be more correctly 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology 15 1. For younger adults, jobs that provide an opportunity to use current skills or develop new skills are most satisfying (Green & Montgomery, 1998; Mortimer, Pimental, Ryu, Nash, & Lee, 1996). 2. For younger adults who do not have the opportunity to use current skills, or develop new skills, cynicism and lack of interest in the work can result (Stern, Stone, Hopkins, & McMillion, 1990). 3. Young workers represent a very valuable commodity or By age 20, most young people have held some sort of a job. resource since their education levels tend to be higher than their parents’, they are more sophisticated technologically, they tend to see the world globally rather than domestically, they have no problem being “connected” 24 hours a day, and multicultural school environments have given them an open-mindedness that was rare in earlier generations (Loughlin & Barling, 2001). The paradox of younger workers goes beyond issues of research focus, too. Younger adults represent a valuable resource in terms of skills and experiences they have independent of paid work. Yet at the entry level, paid work often consists of menial activities that neither tap current skills nor develop new ones. This, in turn, leads to demotivation, cynicism, and a negative view of work in general. Zemke, Raines, and Filipczak (2000) cite management and supervision as the real culprit in the negative experiences of younger parttime workers. Virtually everyone reading this text has had some experience as a paid worker, and we encourage you to consider this experience when reading the following chapters. Moreover, it will be useful for you to remember these experiences when you become a supervisor or leader, even in your part-time life. As a shift manager at Burger King, think twice on slow days before directing subordinates to wipe tables that are already clean. Instead, take the opportunity to ask them what they are good at that might contribute to the shift productivity or what they’d like to become good at that might contribute to future productivity. Recently, Butler (2007) has examined the issue of work–school conflict for college-age students. Many students work part-time (and some even full-time) to fund their education. Not surprisingly, Butler found that students struggled to keep a balance between work and school and that work often had a negative effect on schoolwork. This was particularly true when the work consisted of long hours and difficult schedules, provided little real control to the student-worker, and did not permit opportunities to complete schoolwork. The research showed that when the nature of the student work was related to the student’s major, © Jim West/Alamy Limited seen as your first paying job outside of the home environment, regardless of whether it occurs at age 14, age 19, or age 25. Surveys the authors of this text have done with college students suggest that jobs such as cashier, customer service rep, camp counselor, lifeguard/swim instructor, waitserver, and retail salesperson are the most common paid positions for younger adults. Experiences in these jobs are often memorable if for no other reason than motivating the job holder to aspire to work that will never repeat these experiences! Nevertheless, they help form early impressions of management and supervision, “good” work, and work/life balance. As such, these experiences are understudied. The little I-O research that has been done on younger workers suggests the following: Chapter 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? 16 both school satisfaction and school performance increased. In contrast, long hours and work that allowed no control on the part of the student actually decreased academic performance. As we will see in Chapter 10, these results are similar to what has been found when studying work–life balance outside of the school years. Butler justifiably argues that school should come first and work should simply facilitate the educational experience. He suggests that universities and colleges become more proactive in creating or facilitating work programs that foster, rather than impede, education and in counseling students with respect to what jobs might create conflict versus those that will promote the educational experience. The lesson may be that mindless jobs with long hours can do more harm than good for the student. MODULE 1.1 SUMMARY ● ● Work is important because it occupies much of our time, provides us with a livelihood, and defines how we feel about ourselves. “Good work” enables workers to develop and use skills to benefit others. I-O psychology applies psychological principles, theory, and research to the workplace and to all aspects of life that are touched by work. SIOP is the primary professional membership organization for I-O psychologists. ● In this course you will gain knowledge about the workplace, work-related issues, and the ways that work has changed over recent decades. KEY TERMS industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) personnel psychology human resources management (HRM) organizational psychology human engineering or human factors psychology scientist-practitioner model TIP (The IndustrialOrganizational Psychologist) welfare-to-work program telecommuting virtual team MODULE 1.2 The Past, Present, and Future of I-O Psychology The Past: A Brief History of I-O Psychology We will present the historical context of various I-O topics when we cover them in subsequent chapters; here we will sketch the evolution of I-O psychology in broad and simple terms. For the interested reader, Koppes (2007) has published a useful book tracing this development of I-O psychology in great detail. In particular, we will present a brief description of the development of American I-O psychology as it is valuable for you to see how the science evolved in the United States. Having said that, we also point out that there were parallel developments in other countries, such as Britain (Chmiel, 2000; Kwiatkowski, Duncan, & Shimmin, 2006), Australia, Germany, the Netherlands (van Drunen & van Strien, 1999), and eastern European countries such as Romania (Pitariu, 1992; Rosca & Voicu, 1982). For many foreign countries, unfortunately, there is no published English-language account of their development of I-O psychology. However, one of the first modern American I-O psychologists, Morris Viteles, did a wonderful job of describing the status of I-O psychology around the world during the period from 1922 to 1932 (Viteles, 1932). Arthur Kornhauser (1929) also provided a description of I-O psychology in England and Germany. One of the most comprehensive surveys of international applied psychology (particularly with respect to vocational counseling) as it was practiced in 1937 appears in a book by Keller and Viteles (1937). In addition, a more recent survey of early non-American I-O psychology, in particular the work of Otto Lipmann (German) and Charles Myers (British), has been provided by Vinchur (2005), and there is an entire chapter on the topic of non-American I-O by Warr (2006). As we present the various topics, note that we make use of a wide variety of contemporary research and theory produced by non-American scholars. Salgado (2001) has published a comprehensive review of the landmarks of scientific personnel selection internationally covering the period 1900–2001. For further reading on the development of I-O psychology as a science and a practice in America, we recommend several excellent and detailed reviews (Benjamin, 1997; Katzell & Austin, 1992; Landy, 1997). You may ask why we need any historical treatment. The answer is that to know where we are now and where we are going as a field, it helps to know how we got here. As an example, much of the current effort being devoted to research on emotional intelligence is wasted because the researchers ignored 60 years of earlier research on social intelligence— a similar concept—and wandered down the same dead ends as their earlier counterparts 18 Chapter 1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? (Landy, 2005b, 2006). As the philosopher Santayana suggested (1905), those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it (p. 284). When we look at history from a broad perspective, it is possible to make some good guesses about the future. And knowing the discipline’s history helps us understand the context in which research and application were conducted, which in turn helps us appreciate the value of that research today. Consider Table 1.3, which lists the titles of articles in the first year of publication of one of the major I-O journals, the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP). Now look at Table 1.4. This is a list of articles that appeared in 2008 in the same journal. Quite a contrast! There are two reasons for the difference between what was important in 1917 and what is important today. The first reason is the change in the world of work. The second reason is the accumulation of knowledge about work-related behavior in the past 90 years. Figure 1.1 presents a broad time line in the evolution of I-O psychology. Important dates and developments in I-O psychology that have occurred since 1982 are covered throughout the remainder of this book. 1876–1930 The roots of I-O psychology trace back nearly to the beginning of psychology as a science. Wilhelm Wundt founded one of the first psychological laboratories in 1876 in Leipzig, Germany. Within 10 years, he had established a thriving graduate training and research enterprise. He hoped to put scientific psychology on an even footing with the more established physical sciences of chemistry, physics, and biology. In the mid-1880s, he trained two psychologists who would have a major influence on the eventual emergence of I-O psychology: Hugo Munsterberg and James McKeen Cattell (Landy, 1997; Sokal, 1982). Munsterberg left Germany for America in 1892 and became the director of the psychological laboratories at TABLE 1.3 Titles of Research Articles in the Journal of Applied Psychology, 1917 Estimates of the military value of certain personal qualities The legibility of the telephone directory The psychology of a prodigious child A test for memory of names and faces Practical relations between psychology and the war The moron as a war problem Mental tests of unemployed men A trial of mental and pedagogical tests in a civil service examination for policemen and firemen The attitude and reaction of the businessman to psychology A note on the German recruiting system TABLE 1.4 Titles of Research Articles in the Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008 A new archival approach to the study of values and value–behavior relations: Validation of a value lexicon Early predictors of job burnout and engagement Event justice perceptions and employee’s reactions: Perceptions of social entity justice as a moderator Harmful help: The costs of backing up behavior in teams The productivity measurement and enhancement system: A meta-analysis Subjective cognitive effort: A model of states, traits, and time Safety in work vehicles: A multilevel study linking values and individual predictors to work-related driving crashes “Did you have a nice evening?” A day-level study on recovery experiences, sleep, and affect Ethnic and gender subgrouping differences in assessment center ratings: A meta-analysis Personality and organizational culture as determinants of influence 1.2 The Past, Present, and Future of I-O Psychology 1888 Cattell measures individual differences 1890 1890 Cattell develops first Mental Test 1892 Munsterberg arrives at Harvard; American Psychological Association founded 1900 1913 Munsterberg publishes first English text in I-O psychology 1910 1917 World War I: Scott and Bingham enlist in Army and develop group intelligence tests; Lillian Gilbreth awarded first I-O PhD 1930 Mayo publicizes the Hawthorne studies 1920 1923 Mayo arrives in United States 1941 World War II: Human engineering applied to solve aircraft accidents 1930 1932 Viteles publishes first modern text in I-O psychology 1940 1950 Explosion of commercial tests 1950 1945 I-O psychology becomes Division 14 of the American Psychological Association 1960 1982 SIOP founded 1970 1964 Civil Rights Act —Title VII FIGURE 1.1 Important Dates in the Evolution of I-O Psychology Harvard University. Initially, he was a devoted experimental psychologist who actually rejected any value for the application of psychology to the workplace (Benjamin, 2006). Soon, however, he saw the potential of psychology to address many practical problems of t...
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Training and Development
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What would you consider as the main requirements for training to be successful in an
Regarding chapter seven on training and development, the reasoning for this question is
for a candidate applying for a trainer position with the company. This open-ended query is utilized
with other interview approaches to examine the applicant's comprehensive comprehension of
training and development in the workforce and the procedures entailed as well as to look for
plausible reasons for correlations that have been identified (Weller et al., 2018). The applicant
would need to use real-world examples to provide the most reasonable and suitable response to
this query concerning successful training. Employee participation in training and acquiring new
information, skills, and perspectives are indicators of practical training. According to Urbancová
et al. (2021), organizations can use employee training to mold employees’ abilities and maximize
their capabilities. It is a systematic process of altering employee motivation and the degree of
competencies (expertise, talents, and capacities) at work. The applicant responding to this question
ought to be able to explain how employee training improves workers’ self-esteem and fosters drive
and conviction. Additionally, describe how trainees can appropriately apply what they have
acquired to the workplace. According to Whitehead (2022), excellent employee development
programs satisfy the demands of the individual employee as well as the aims and objectives of the
Response One
While the question is right, I disagree with you; it is open-ended since it does not allow the
responder to give a detailed answer. The question could be answered with a yes or no answer with
no further explanation. In this regard, I would have restructured the question as “Why general
organization training should be replaced with team training?” The goal of this inquiry is to get a


thorough understanding of the factors that make team training more successful than general
organizational training. According to Lacerenza et al. (2014), enhancing collaboration behaviors
and abilities is ...

Excellent resource! Really helped me get the gist of things.


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