Chapter 11 focuses on physical development during the middle years of childhood, from 7 to 11, and discusses various approaches to identifying and working with children with special needs. Video lesson 11, "The School Years: Biosocial Development," complements the text. Web Links includes sites on normal physical development during the school years, childhood obesity, and learning disabilities.
Describe normal patterns of physical development during middle childhood, and discuss the emerging problems of childhood obesity, asthma, and chronic illness.
Describe motor-skill development during the school years with a focus on variations due to gender, culture, and genetics.
Explain how achievement and aptitude tests are used in evaluating individual differences in cognitive growth, and discuss why use of such tests is controversial.
Identify different categories of children with special needs, discuss how they are evaluated, and some of the requirements for special programs.
Historically, children with special needs have been segregated into special classes or schools. Identify at least three problems with this approach. Describe three more recent approaches that have been tried in efforts to educate children with special needs, and explain how each approach attempted to overcome those problems. In what ways were each successful, and what were some of their shortcomings. Is there any one best solution?