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Help me study for my class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.
please reword this so it isnt plagerized
etics – Studies have indicated that there is a"substantial genetic contribution"to bipolar disorder risk. People with a blood relative who has bipolar disorder have a higher risk of developing it themselves. Biological traits - Patients with bipolar disorder often have physical changes that occurred in their brains. Nobody is sure why the changes can lead to the disorder. Brain-chemical imbalance - neurotransmitter imbalances play a key role in many mood disorders, including bipolar disorder, as well as depression and other mental illnesses. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that facilitate the communication between neurons (brain cells). Examples of neurotransmitters are serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Hormonal problems - hormonal imbalances are thought to possibly trigger or cause bipolar disorder. Environmental factors - abuse, mental stress, a"significant loss", or some other traumatic event may contribute towards bipolar disorder risk. Traumatic events may include the death of a loved one, losing your job, the birth of a child, or moving house. Experts say many things, if the variables are right, can trigger bipolar disorder in some people. They add that we all react differently to environmental factors. However, once bipolar disorder is triggered and starts to progress, it appears to take on a life and force of its own.In bipolar disorder, these factors are usually divided into biological and psychological causes. In plain English, the main reasons mental illness develops are physical (biological) and environmental. Genetic Factors When talking about biological causes, the first issue is whether bipolar disorder can be inherited. This question has been researched through multiple family, adoption and twin studies. In families of persons with bipolar disorder, first-degree relatives (parents, children, siblings) are more likely to have a mood disorder than the relatives of those who do not have bipolar disorder. Studies of twins indicate that if one twin has a mood disorder, an identical twin is about three times more likely than a fraternal twin to have a mood disorder as well. In bipolar disorder specifically, the concordance rate (when both twins have the disorder) is 80 percent for identical twins, as compared to only 16 percent for fraternal twins. (Identical twins occur when one fertilized egg splits in two, so they share the same genetic material; fraternal twins come from separate fertilized eggs, so the mixtures of genetic material are different.) There is overwhelming evidence that bipolar disorder can be inherited and that there is a genetic vulnerability to developing the illness. Neurotransmitters However, exactly what is inherited? Theneurotransmitter system has received a great deal of attention as a possible cause of bipolar disorder. Researchers have known for decades that a link exists between neurotransmittersand mood disorders, because drugs which alter these transmitters also relieve mood disorders. Some studies suggest that a low or high level of a specific neurotransmitter such asserotonin, norepinephrine or dopamine is the cause. Other studies indicate that an imbalance of these substances is the problem, i.e., that a specific level of a neurotransmitter is not as important as its amount in relation to the other neurotransmitters. Still other studies have found evidence that a change in the sensitivity of the receptors on nerve cells may be the issue. In short, researchers are quite certain that the neurotransmitter system is at least part of the cause of bipolar disorder, but further research is still needed to define its exact role. Stress Triggers For mental, emotional and environmental issues, stressful life events are thought to be the main element in the development of bipolar disorder. These can range from a death in the family to the loss of a job, from the birth of a child to a move. It can be pretty much anything, but it cannot be precisely defined, since one person's stress may be another person's piece of cake. With that in mind, research has found that stressful life events can lead to the onset of symptoms in bipolar disorder. However, once the disorder is triggered and progresses,"it seems to develop a life of its own."Once the cycle begins, psychological and/or biological processes take over and keep the illness active. Putting it all together When we look for the cause of bipolar disorder, the best explanation according to the research available at this time is what is termed the"Diathesis-Stress Model."The worddiathesis means, in simplified terms, a physical condition that make a person more than usually susceptible to certain diseases. Thus the Diathesis-Stress Model says that each person inherits certain physical vulnerabilities to problems that may or may not appear depending on what stresses occur in his or her life. Durand and Barlow define this model as a theory"that both an inherited tendency and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder."So the bottom line, according to today's thinking, is that if you are manic depressive, you were born with the possibility of developing this disorder, and something in your life set it off. But scientists could refine that theory tomorrow. The one sure thing is, they won't give up looking for answers.
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