What are the findings results from the research article

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The article to be reviewed is the first attachment

comprehensive examples and instructions are in the second attachment please follow them all

From the second attachment:

Assignment: Article Summary One

In your completed literature review, you will describe the research and make connections (synthesize) among the research studies. Before you can do this, you need to
Under well-organized headings and sub-headings you should address the following questions:

  • What are the findings/results from the research article?
  • What major themes emerge from within the articles? Are there any key exposures that are interesting or meaningful in any way? What were some of the major discussion points of the article? Based on the article you reviewed, what are the most significant issues related to college students and your chosen health topic?

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Western University Scholarship@Western Undergraduate Honors Theses Psychology 2014 The Effects of Drinking on University Grades: Does Academic Motivation Play a Role? Jennifer Gilbert University of Western Ontario, jgilbe3@uwo.ca Follow this and additional works at: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/psychd_uht Recommended Citation Gilbert, Jennifer, "The Effects of Drinking on University Grades: Does Academic Motivation Play a Role?" (2014). Undergraduate Honors Theses. Paper 7. This Dissertation/Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Psychology at Scholarship@Western. It has been accepted for inclusion in Undergraduate Honors Theses by an authorized administrator of Scholarship@Western. For more information, please contact kmarsha1@uwo.ca. Drinking and Academic Motivation 1 The Effects of Drinking on University Grades: Does Academic Motivation Play a Role? Jennifer Gilbert Honours Psychology Thesis Department of Psychology University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, CANADA April, 2014 Thesis Advisor: Paul Tremblay, Ph.D. Drinking and Academic Motivation 2 Abstract Past research has shown that heavy episodic drinking by college students is associated with decreased academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to test academic motivation as a mediator for the relationship between drinking and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that heavy episodic drinking decreases academic motivation, which subsequently decreases academic achievement. Four hundred and fifteen first-year students (255 female, 160 male) completed 26 weekly online questionnaires about their drinking behaviours and academic motivation. Academic motivation was found to mediate the drinking - achievement relationship for mean number of drinks and heavy episodic drinking, but only for females. Also, students in different faculties differed in their levels of drinking and academic motivation. Drinking and Academic Motivation Acknowledgment and Dedication I would like to thank Dr. Tremblay for all of the patience, guidance, and time he dedicated to me during this project. It was a pleasure to work with him! 3 Drinking and Academic Motivation 4 The Effects of Drinking on University Grades: Does Academic Motivation Play a Role? Post-undergraduate success is becoming increasingly difficult for college students, as competition in the workforce is fierce (Miller & Slocombe, 2012). Now more than ever, academic achievement is important to a student's success in many facets of post-undergraduate life: acceptance to graduate and professional programs, career opportunities, and future earning potential. Academic achievement can be influenced by a number of factors, and the effect of alcohol consumption on achievement has been of particular interest to researchers. Researchers have found an association between heavy episodic student drinking and decreased academic achievement (Pascarella et al., 2007; Singleton, 2007; DeBerard, Spielmans, & Julka, 2004; Porter & Pryor, 2007), with current research focused on empirically determining variables that mediate this relationship. A high frequency of college and university students drink regularly. In Canada, over 6000 full-time students were surveyed in 2005 using the World Health Organization’s Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test screener, and 32% of respondents (37.6% males, 27.5% females) reported harmful or hazardous drinking (Adlaf, Demers, & Gliksman, 2005). In addition, almost one-third of respondents reported heavy drinking, which, in this study, consisted of weekly drinking, and/or consumption of six or more drinks on each occasion of drinking (Adlaf et al., 2005). Negative consequences were reported by the students who drank: 31.6% reported being unable to perform daily activities, 18.8% reported missing class, and 32.9% reported study interruptions (Adlaf et al., 2005). Empirical evidence has shown a link between heavy episodic drinking (HED) and academic achievement. In particular, students who engage in HED tend to have decreased grades. Drinking and Academic Motivation 5 Singleton and Wolfson (2009) tested whether sleeping patterns and daytime sleepiness are mediating factors in the high drinking - low achievement relationship. They wanted to test unhealthy behaviours, like unhealthy sleep patterns, because they may be linked to behavioural consequences (Buboltz et al., 2006). They found that students who regularly drink have interrupted sleep cycles: they go to bed late, wake up late, and experience increased daytime sleepiness, all factors of which were found to be associated with decreased academic performance. Other researchers have found associations between HED in students and decreased class attendance (Wechsler, Dowdall, Maenner, Gledhill-Hoyt, & Lee, 1998), falling behind on readings and assignments (Wechsler et al., 1998), decreased time spent studying (Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, & Castillo, 1995), and decreased interest in school (Bryant, Schulenberg, O’Malley, Bachman, & Johnston, 2003). These variables may also contribute as mediators in the drinking - achievement relationship because they may explain why drinking is associated with decreased achievement. Drinking Patterns in College Students Throughout the Academic Year When measuring student drinking patterns, researchers generally survey students on the volume of drinks consumed over a certain time period (e.g., one week). However, other drinking patterns can also be assessed by the following measures: looking at the largest number of drinks consumed at one time point in the past 30 days, or looking at HED. HED is defined as consuming five or more drinks in a row for men, and four or more drinks in a row for women in one time period. Researchers can also measure problem drinking by asking participants about negative consequences experienced as a function of drinking. The present study will analyze the mean number of drinks consumed and the prevalence of HED each week. Drinking and Academic Motivation 6 Most research has measured student drinking patterns at one time only in the academic year. Data collected only once may not represent the average, or normal, drinking behaviours of students. Perhaps during the data collection period students had a celebratory event, or were sick, and their levels of drinking were higher or lower than their typical levels on a week-toweek basis. Tremblay et al. (2010) conducted a longitudinal study and measured student drinking patterns throughout the academic year to obtain a more precise measure of student drinking behaviours. Additionally, this longitudinal study offered insight into gender differences and similarities, HED, and patterns of daily and weekly drinking behaviour throughout the year. A weekly online survey was administered to first-year students and 26 weeks of data were obtained regarding their drinking behaviours. In general, males and females had similar drinking behaviours, but males always drank more than females. Similar patterns were found for HED behaviours. During a typical week, drinking was minimal on Monday, and increased from Tuesday through Saturday, peaking on Saturday, and declining back to Monday’s levels on Sunday. So, when examining weekly drinking habits, a spike in drinking occurred each weekend. Tremblay et al. (2010) also found specific times throughout the year in which drinking was high or low. High instances of drinking occurred at the beginning of each semester (early September and January), Halloween weekend, Halloween Day, New Year’s Eve, and St. Patrick’s Day. Low instances of drinking occurred during December exams, but not during April exams (perhaps because of end-of-year parties during the April exam period). This study, conducted in Canada, found similar results to the American longitudinal student drinking patterns study by Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, and Goldman (2004). To summarize, Tremblay et al. (2010) expanded current knowledge of college Drinking and Academic Motivation 7 student drinking behaviours by determining that the amount of student drinking differs throughout the academic year. Knowing that drinking behaviours increase or decrease at specific times during the academic year is beneficial when implementing prevention programs to decrease overall drinking in college students. Thus, longitudinal studies that test weekly behaviours are valuable to determine the best time to implement a prevention program. These programs can be especially helpful for students to maximize their academic potential because of the established relationship between drinking and academic achievement. Drinking and Academic Achievement Researchers have consistently found that college students engaged in HED likely have decreased grades. Pascarella et al. (2007) administered a survey to college students, measuring engagement in HED over a period of two weeks and cumulative GPA scores. They found that students who engaged in HED two or more times had lower GPA scores compared to those who did not engage in HED. The magnitude of the effect increased with each additional occasion of heavy drinking during the two weeks. This negative relation between HED and grades was similar for males and females. Singleton (2007) interviewed college students and measured their HED over a two-week period and their academic achievement (average grades during the semester of testing and cumulative GPA scores). He found an association between HED and decreased academic achievement in both the short and long-term and also reported that academic achievement decreased even more when students participated in partying activities. DeBerard, Spielmans, and Julka (2004) questioned college students about their drinking behaviours (whether they had five or more drinks in one day during the past month) and Drinking and Academic Motivation 8 academic achievement (cumulative GPA scores) and found HED to be associated with poor academic achievement. Porter and Pryor (2007) found undergraduate students who engaged in HED to have lower GPA scores. They found that the greater number of occasions of HED during the measurement period, the higher the likelihood of lower academic achievement. One reason Porter et al. (2007) provided to explain the occurrence of this association considers the relationship between students and university faculty. They explained how engagement with faculty could predict student achievement, but it is unclear whether high engagement protects students from HED, or whether HED prevents students from engaging with faculty members. Porter et al. (2007) also wrote that heavy episodic drinkers spend less time studying and more time taking part in recreational activities and sports. Drinking and Academic Motivation Given the evidence for an existing relationship between engagement in HED and decreased academic achievement, an important next step in current research would be to investigate the mechanisms and identify variables that explain the high drinking – low achievement relation. It is possible that academic motivation, as defined by the effort students apply to their studies, may serve as a mediator between drinking and academic achievement. Research has clearly shown that academic motivation is related to academic achievement (Svanum & Bigatti, 2006; Rau & Durand, 2000). As will be reviewed below, drinking is also related to academic motivation, and therefore it seems reasonable to hypothesize that HED leads to decreased academic motivation, subsequently leading to decreased grades. Multiple researchers have found an association between drinking and academic motivation. Rhoades and Maggs (2006) administered a questionnaire to incoming first-year Drinking and Academic Motivation 9 college students asking about their planned drinking behaviours and academic goals in their first year of college. Results showed that students who were academically motivated planned to drink less alcohol. Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, and Castillo (1995) surveyed students from 140 colleges and found that college students were more likely to engage in HED when they rated their schoolwork as not important and when they spent less than four hours studying each day. Simons, Christopher, and Mclaury (2004) administered two questionnaires 30 days apart, and asked students about their drinking in the past 30 days, as well as their achievement goals. In their study, having achievement goals meant that participants would be concerned with their accomplishment, effort, and success related to achieving those goals. College students who had achievement goals engaged in HED less than students with no achievement goals. Wolaver (2002) surveyed college students and found that, regardless of their frequency of drinking, students who drink study less and are likely to have lower GPA scores than non-drinkers. Gender as a moderator of the drinking - motivation relationship. As previously discussed, men and women have similar drinking behaviours, but men consistently drink more than women. When assessing drinking and academic motivation between each gender, differences have been found. Vaughan, Corbin, and Fromme (2009) conducted a longitudinal study, surveying college students at the end of each semester for two years, and found women who were academically motivated drank less. For these women, academic motivation served as a protective factor against drinking. This did not occur for men: academically motivated men still drank. So, the possibility exists that drinking may affect academic motivation for men only. Webb, Moore, Rhatigan, Stewart, and Getz (2007) asked high-school students about their drinking behaviours in the past month and also found a gender difference. Drinking and academic motivation were associated for men, but not women. Li, Frieze, Nokes-Malach, and Drinking and Academic Motivation 10 Cheong (2013) surveyed college students about their drinking behaviours within the past week and the past 30 days, and also assessed academic motivation by measuring the effort students put into their studies. A gender difference was found between drinking and academic motivation for men and women. For men, drinking was associated with decreased academic motivation, but for women, the level of drinking did not correlate with academic motivation. Academic Motivation as a Mediator of the Drinking - Achievement Relationship Further research is necessary to understand the nature of the high drinking - low achievement relationship and to find an explanation for its occurrence. The goal of this study will be to examine whether academic motivation serves as a mediator for this existing relationship. In other words, this study will test the following question: Do students who engage in HED put less effort into their studies, resulting in decreased academic achievement? Using the data from the Tremblay et al. (2010) study of 415 first-year university students at Western, the present study will examine three main variables over a period of 26 consecutive weeks: drinking, academic motivation, and academic achievement as well as variables for secondary analyses including gender and faculty program. Two types of drinking variables will be included: mean number of drinks and HED (engaging in at least one occasion/day with 4+ drinks for women and 5+ drinks for men in the previous week). Also, to measure academic motivation, each week, students were asked to report how hard they worked on their studies during the previous week. Academic achievement will be measured by final average grades at the end of the academic year. HED is expected to decrease academic achievement, and academic motivation is expected to mediate that relationship. Also, it is expected that academic motivation will more strongly affect this relationship in men. Previous research has shown that HED in men has been Drinking and Academic Motivation 11 associated with decreased academic motivation (Vaughan et al., 2009; Webb et al., 2007; Li et al., 2013). In women, HED and academic motivation do not seem to have as strong a relationship (Webb et al, 2007; Li et al, 2013). Furthermore, Pascarella et al. (2007) indicated that no gender differences exist between drinking and decreased academic achievement. Previous studies that measured drinking behaviours at one time-point only may not be an accurate measure of a student’s drinking habits. Surveying students’ drinking behaviours over a 26-week period provides researchers with a more accurate and precise measure of overall drinking behaviour. The same logic can apply to students’ academic motivation. The large dataset that will be used for analysis in this study allows for multiple ways of investigating academic motivation as a mediator to the drinking - achievement relationship. The relationship can be studied on a week-to-week basis, measures of drinking and academic motivation can also be aggregated to get overall drinking and motivation scores across the academic year, or analyses can be conducted to determine whether drinking in a given week affects motivation in the following week. Drinking and Faculty Program Whether drinking behaviours are associated with students’ faculty program is an area of research that has not received much attention. Some college faculties explicitly promote a “work hard play hard” mentality, while others do not appear to facilitate any relation between schoolwork and drinking. Wolaver (2002), the pioneer in this area of research, found heavy episodic drinkers to be more likely to study social sciences and business, over natural sciences, education, or engineering. The test between drinking and faculty program is exploratory, as only this one study has been conducted on the relationship between those variables. If an association does exist between faculty program and drinking behaviours throughout the academic year, Drinking and Academic Motivation 12 prevention programs can be tailored to faculty-specific events, rather than the general student population. Method The data used to analyze the present study’s research question will be obtained from a larger study conducted by Tremblay et al. (2010). In that study, three phases of data were collected. In Phase 1, students completed an online baseline questionnaire. In Phase 2, students completed 26 weekly online questionnaires. In Phase 3, students completed up to 24 monthly online questionnaires. Phases 1 and 2 will be described in greater detail below, but most attention will be focused on Phase 2, as data analysis for the present study will use data from this phase only. Participants Phase 1. A total of 848 first-year university students at the University of Western Ontario (UWO) completed the baseline questionnaire at the beginning of the academic year (September 2006). There were 304 males (35.9%) and 543 females (64.1%), and one participant did not indicate his or her gender, and was excluded. Phase 2. A total of 415 students, all of who completed the baseline questionnaire, participated in Phase 2 (beginning in October 2006). There were 266 females (64.1%) and 149 males (35.9%) in the following age groups: 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21 or older. The mean age was 18.42 (SD = 2.40). Students of White ethnicity comprised the majority of participants (72.6%), followed by Chinese (10.3%), South Asian (3.2%), Arab-West Indian (1.7%), and Korean (1%) students. The remainder of the participants (11.2%) were Multiracial or did not specify their ethnicity. Materials Drinking and Academic Motivation 13 Alcohol Consumption Measures. In Phase 2, participants were asked to list the number of alcoholic drinks (i.e., one 341 ml [12 ounce] bottle or glass of beer [regular strength 5% alc], one 150 ml [5 ounce] glass of wine, one mixed drink with 45 ml [1.5 ounces] of spirits [e.g., vodka, rum, rye, scotch, gin], or one 341 ml [12 ounce] alcohol coole ...
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School: Cornell University

Attached.

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

1

Literature review
Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date

LITERATURE REVIEW

2
Finding/results

A study conducted on the effect of drinking on university grades found that academic
motivation played a role in drinking choices as well as impacting on the grades. It was
hypothesized that drinking contributed to reduced academic motivation, which led to
decreased grades (Gilbert, 2014).
Time of academic year and gender
Academic motivation impacted time of year as well as gender. The period from the
end of Christmas exam up to charismas was accompanied by a decrease in academic
motivation. The motivation then increased from Christmas break until the first week of
school in January. This was then followed by a decline in academic motivation from the week
before reading week to the reading week. The study found that there was no gender
difference in the academic motivation levels.
Drinking on academic year and gender
The article showed gender similarities in drinking behaviors, but males had more
drinks than their female counterparts. During Christmas break, drinking was at the highest
level but lowest during December exams.
Weekly correlation between academic motivations with drinking
A negative correlation was found in the majority of weeks between drinking and
academic motivation. During the last two weeks to Christmas break, an increased drinking
resulted in decreased academic motivation. There was no major correlation noticed between
drinking and academic motivation during December exams.
Major themes
Drinking and faculty program
The study did not find any interacti...

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