Can you please help me with writing a reply to each question below? Write your personal thoughts for each statement:
I personally do not know of a way to “hack” a firewall but I do know that via port scanning you can determine what ports the FW has open and or what its clients respond on. Then you may use these ports as a method of entry.
With regard to IP/DS bypass, that’s easy. An IP/DS can stop what it can’t “see” so if you encrypt the data (SSH, secure VPN, SFTP) then you can bypass an IP/DS easily. There are several free tools you can also use to encrypt files and send via email for example (like 7zip or WinRar) as these will bypass an IP/DS but may be blocked by email policy.
Obfuscation of files (mixing up the code to make it not easy to be read by a human) can also be used to bypass devices as some IP/DSs may be tooled to only look for certain values inside of a file and obfuscation may be used to make these values seem not present.
A search for FW scanners will reveal several tools like nmap and others. A search for SSH and encrypted sessions should show that as long as the malware is programed to “talk” over 443 or 8443 then it has a high chance of IP/DS bypass. When searching for obfuscation, pay close attention to “Java obfuscation” and malware “kits” like “Zeus”, “blackhole” or “SweetOrange” though BE WARNED: click at your own risk as some of these will return live (infected) sites.
Zeus (live sublinks)
My home router, the Belkin N600, doesn't appear to have any security vulnerabilities specific to it, by my research. Other Belkin routers had an issue where a buffer overflow could be caused to get into the router. This vulnerability, however, has been fixed in a later firmware update, which my router is up to date on. In addition, the router shipped without any admin password at all. It takes only a password, no username, to log in to the router, so the first thing I did was change the password. Other steps that can be taken to secure a device are turning off the 'guest network' that some come with, setting the router to not broadcast itself, and setting the network security to WPA2 with a sufficiently long and complex password.