1.A hospital can be owned and operated either publicly (by a government) or privately (by either a for-profit entity or a not-for-profit entity). Administering the hospital may be quite different depending on whether it is publicly owned or privately owned. Please explain ways in which the hospital may respond differently to "The Market" (that is, market forces) if it is publicly held as compared to privately held.
2. Legislatures, whether the Congress of the United States or at a state level, often pass legislation that is vague. Hence, the policy mandates given to public administrators via the legislation are vague. Explain first why our elected representatives might create vague statutes and resulting policy directives. Then explain how this may shift policy making to public administrators.
3.Explain why it is critical for the effectiveness of a public policy or program initiative to be measured. Please also define, or otherwise explain, the terms "policy outputs" and "policy outcomes."