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Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University

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Chapter 11 STAGE 3: MEASUREMENT QUESTIONS Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-1 Learning Objectives Understand…  The role of a preliminary analysis plan in developing measurement questions.  The critical decisions involved in selecting an appropriate measurement scale for a measurement question.  The characteristics and use of various questions based on the categories of scales: rating, ranking, sorting, and other scales.  The factors that influence a specific measurement question. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-2 11-2 Relationship of Questions to Scales Measurement Question Measurement Scale Data Level Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-3 Instrument Design in the Research Process Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-4 Instrument Design: Phase 1 Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-5 Instrument Design: Phase 1 Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-6 Instrument Design: Phase 1 Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-7 Communication Approach Computer Personal Interview Phone Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mail/ Fax/ Courier 11-8 Instrument Design: Phase 1 Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-9 Instrument Structure Issues Question Structure Unstructured Structured Objective of the Study Participant’s Level of Information Level of Thought on Topic Communication Ease Motivation to Share Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-10 Factors Affecting Concealment of Purpose & Sponsor Purpose Concealment Sponsor Concealment Disguised Questions Undisguised Questions Disguised Questions Undisguised Questions Types of information Willingly Shared, Conscious-level Reluctantly shared, conscious-level Knowable, limited-conscious-level Subconscious-level Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-11 Instrument Design: Phase 1 Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-12 Instrument Design: Phase 1 Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-13 Summary of Scales by Data Levels Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-14 Measurement Questions: Select the Scales Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-15 Factors Affecting Measurement Scale Selection Research objectives Response types Number of dimensions Balanced or unbalanced Forced or unforced choices Number of scale points Rater errors Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-16 11-16 Research Objectives Measure characteristics of participants Use participants as judges Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-17 Response Types Rating Questions Ranking Questions Categorization Questions Sorting Questions Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-18 11-18 Number of Dimensions Unidimensional Multidimensional Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-19 Balanced or Unbalanced How good an actress is Emma Stone?  Very bad  Bad  Neither good nor bad  Good  Very good Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.  Poor  Fair  Good  Very good  Excellent 12-20 11-20 Forced or Unforced Choices How good an actress is Emma Stone?  Very bad  Bad  Neither good nor bad  Good  Very good Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.  Very bad  Bad  Neither good nor bad  Good  Very good  No opinion  Don’t know 12-21 11-21 Number of Scale Points How good an actress is Emma Stone?  Very bad  Bad  Neither good nor bad  Good  Very good Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.  Very bad  Somewhat bad  A little bad  Neither good nor bad  A little good  Somewhat good  Very good 12-22 11-22 Reduce Rater Errors • Adjust strength of descriptive adjectives Error of central tendency • Space intermediate Error of leniency • Provide smaller Error of Strictness descriptive phrases farther apart differences in meaning between terms near the ends of the scale • Use more scale points Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-23 11-23 Reduce Rater Errors Primacy Effect Recency Effect Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Reverse order of alternatives periodically or randomly 12-24 11-24 Reduce Rater Errors • Rate one trait at a time Halo Effect • Reveal one trait per page • Reverse anchors periodically Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-25 11-25 Factors Affecting Participant Honesty Peacock Ignoramus Unconscious Decision Maker Pleaser Syndrome SelfDelutionist Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gamer Disengager 11-26 Factors Affecting Participant Honesty Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-27 Nature of Attitudes Cognitive I think oatmeal is healthier than corn flakes for breakfast. Affective I hate corn flakes. Behavioral I intend to eat more oatmeal for breakfast. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-28 11-28 Predicting Behavior from Attitudes Specific Multiple measures Strong Factors Reference groups Direct Basis Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-29 11-29 Response Types Rating questions Ranking Questions Categorization Questions Sorting Questions Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-30 11-30 Simple Category Question I plan to purchase a laptop computer in the next 12 months.  Yes  No Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-31 11-31 Multiple-Choice, Single-Response Question What newspaper do you read most often for financial news?  East City Gazette  West City Tribune  Regional newspaper  National newspaper  Other (specify:_________) Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-32 11-32 Multiple-Choice, Multiple-Response Question Check any of the sources you consulted when designing your new home.  Online planning services  Magazines  Independent contractor/builder  Designer  Architect  Other (specify:_______) Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-33 11-33 Likert Scale-based Question The Internet is superior to traditional libraries for comprehensive searches.  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Agree  Strongly Agree Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-34 11-34 How to perform a Likert Item Analysis Collect Statements Select Participant Stand-ins Test Statements with Stand-ins Add Participant Stand-in’s Total Score Array Scores from Highest to Lowest Calculate a mean score per statement Test mean scores for statistical significance Rank order statements by t value Select 20-25 statements with highest t value Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-35 How to perform a Likert Item Analysis Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-36 Evaluating a Scale Statement by Item Analysis Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-37 Semantic Differential-based Question Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-38 11-38 How to Construct an SD Question Select the variable Identify nouns, noun phrases, adjectives, visual stimuli that represent the variable Select bipolar pairs, phrase pairs, or visual pairs (3 for each dimension) Evaluation Potency Activity Create Scoring System Order the Bipolar Pairs Half: Positive left Half: Positive right No pairs for one dimension together Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-39 How to Construct an SD Scale Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-40 Adapting SD Scales Convenience of Reaching the Store from Your Location Nearby ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Distant Short time required to reach store ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Long time required to reach store Difficult drive ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Easy Drive Difficult to find parking place ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Easy to find parking place Convenient to other stores I shop ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Inconvenient to other stores I shop Products offered Wide selection of different kinds of products ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Limited selection of different kinds of products Fully stocked ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Understocked Undependable products ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Dependable products High quality ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Low quality Numerous brands ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Few brands Unknown brands ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: Well-known brands Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-41 11-41 SD Scale for Analyzing Industry Association Candidates Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-42 11-42 Graphic Representation of SD Analysis Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-43 11-43 Numerical Rating Question Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-44 11-44 Multiple Rating List Question “Please indicate the importance of each service characteristic:” IMPORTANT Fast, reliable repair 7 6 Service at my location 7 6 Maintenance by manufacturer 7 6 Knowledgeable technicians 7 6 Notification of upgrades 7 6 Service contract after warranty 7 6 Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 UNIMPORTANT 1 1 1 1 1 1 12-45 11-45 Stapel Scale-based Question Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-46 11-46 Constant-Sum Question Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-47 11-47 Verbal Graphic Rating Question Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-48 11-48 Visual Graphic Rating Question Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-49 11-49 Characteristics of Scale Types Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-50 Response Types Rating questions Ranking Questions Categorization Questions Sorting Questions Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-51 11-51 Ranking Questions Paired-comparison Forced ranking Comparative Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-52 11-52 Paired-Comparison Question Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-53 11-53 Paired Comparison Response Patterns Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11-54 Forced Ranking Question Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-55 11-55 Comparative Questions Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-56 11-56 Ideal Scalogram Pattern Item 2 4 1 3 X X X X __ X X X __ __ X X __ __ __ X __ __ __ __ Participant Score 4 3 2 1 0 * X = agree; __ = disagree. Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-57 11-57 Response Types Rating questions Ranking Questions Categorization Questions Sorting Questions Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-58 11-58 Response Types Rating questions Ranking Questions Categorization Questions Sorting Questions Copyright © 2019 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12-59 11-59 Sorting Questions Select descriptors >60
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Although Amazon's Kindle has been more successful than its primary competitor, SONY,
the original Kindle experienced several challenges, including poor button placement, pageturning speed, and a slow touch sensor. Kindl...


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